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Appunti di un venditore di donne, il nuovo spiazzante romanzo di Otto anni fa, Faletti era un cabarettista sulla via del declino dopo In otto anni ha pubblicato diversi libri: Io uccido, Niente di vero Classifica eBook.
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Io uccido 12 giu. Formato Kindle. EUR 6, Copertina rigida. Gratis con il tuo abbonamento Audible. La piuma 15 mag. Altri formati: Copertina rigida. I thriller di Giorgio Faletti: Io uccido-Niente di vero tranne gli occhi-Fuori da un evidente destino 4 dic. Altri formati audio. Libro Io uccido di G. Software Gratis Soddisfatti o Rimborsati. Ebooks kunnen worden gelezen op uw computer en op daarvoor geschikte e-readers. Auteur: Giorgio Faletti.
Liefhebbers van Giorgio Faletti bekeken ook. Joel C. Puoi comunque aggiungerli alla wishlist. Faletti ama le conclusioni buoniste, e come in "Io uccido" assolve tutti i protagonisti. Colla trasparente. A transparent glue. I am who I am is a simplification, very useful for keeping ourselves in order, but — like every possible identity in which we cage ourselves, or are caged sexual, religious, national, political, social — it is restrictive, we are im- poverished by it.
Or maybe they intended to be provocative, or they might have decided to entrust the task of defining identity to a real expert. Whatever their motives, the publishers requested a definition of identity from an author who uses a pen name. And her definition refers to the multiplicity of personalities that can hide behind a name and surname. This looks like a clue, one of many breadcrumbs left along a trail, suggesting without saying, arousing our curiosity, throwing us off track, and more or less deliberately nourishing the fuss around the famous name of Elena Ferrante.
Her fame stems largely from the success of her literary works, however. Episode after episode, this saga definitively crowned the author as an international star.
The author became very popular in the United States, where it could be said that she was appreciated more and sooner than in her home country. According to many, this was also thanks to the quality of her translator, Ann Goldstein. In the US, and abroad generally, she is much loved and often quoted, even by exceptional people like the American ex-First Lady, Hillary Clinton.
With time, her publishers have established a real legend, giving rise to what some have called Ferrante fever. In , this Ferrante fever was even converted from a brand into the title of a docufilm directed by Giacomo Durzi. Elena Ferrante deserves to be studied using scientific criteria to fully understand the specificities of her work and the reasons for her success.
For some time now, the case of Elena Ferrante has attracted the attention of readers, fans, critics, journalists, and academics, and various hypotheses have been advanced in the Italian and foreign press as to her real 12 Arjuna Tuzzi and Michele A.
Cortelazzo identity. Both attitudes are based on well-founded arguments. On the other, many critics are of the idea that a literary work should not be separated from its author: although the text can undoubtedly have its intrinsic value, it is difficult for the literary critic to consider it as something wholly separate from its writer. Some of the suggestions, documentation, data, and comparisons announced and discussed in newspaper articles and blogs have been based on accurate analyses and methods, that make them worthy of a scientific debate.
A first, amply-documented study was published in an article in the Italian newspaper La Stampa Galella, Since marked thematic and lexical similarities emerged from this comparison Galella concluded that this latter author had written the novels under the pen name of Elena Ferrante. The outcome was a strong similarity between the writings of Ferrante and Starnone, which were clearly distinguishable from those of the other authors, and resem- bled each other enough to appear like the work of the same author.
Similar con- clusions were reached in in another, more limited study conducted by the Swiss company OrphAnalytics , which published a report on the topic on its website. A different hypothesis has been proposed by Marco Santagata, professor of Italian Literature, in an article that appeared in La Lettura literary magazine of Il Corriere della Sera.
Santagata retrieved from the second volume of the saga My brilliant friend some relevant details about Elena's experience in Pisa as a student of the Scuola Normale Superiore.
Santagata concluded that the author was probably Neapolitan, woman and had attended the Scuola Normale in Pisa during the s, but before So the much-discussed mystery surrounding the persona behind Elena Fer- rante has been the object of numerous investigations. Almost all of the debate regarding her identity has been conducted in the world of journalism, while the question has not been the object of extensive scientifically-designed research, including an open discussion among peers at conferences and their publication in scientific journals.
Drawing on the interdisciplinary nature of the research team, we were able to work with both quantitative and qualitative methods Cortelazzo and Tuzzi, ; Tuzzi and Cortelazzo, ; Cortelazzo, Mikros and Tuzzi, Why study Elena Ferrante?
The case of Elena Ferrante is interesting from both the stylistic and the sty- lometric standpoints. It has to be said that, as an unavoidable side effect of seeking such affinities with other texts, elements will emerge that may help to identify the mysterious author behind this nom de plume.
Research, by its very nature, is always at- tracted to mysteries, and constantly engaging in formulating new problems as well as seeking new solutions for old problems. But researchers take a special interest in situations in which they can put the tools at their disposal to the test, and contribute to their improvement.
The enigma thus obliges scholars to extend the analysis to fields hitherto scarcely visited by anyone involved in authorship attribution. It would be remarkable if it were to emerge that the au- thor or even co-author of the books by Elena Ferrante is actually male. It is well worth further investigating whether her environment places Elena Ferrante, without particular distinction, among other Neapolitan authors, or writers who set their stories in Naples, whether it associates her with one other such author in particular, or whether it is an attribute all her own.
In short, we felt duty bound to apply a scientific method to studying such a remarkable literary phenomenon because, in the 26 years since the publication of her first volume, the scientific output on the works of Elena Ferrante is sur- prisingly limited; though it has been on the rise in recent years see Bullaro and Love, The use of a mixed method It seemed to us that the best way to approach our task would be to conduct quantitative analyses.
The world of the digital humanities and digital methods is constantly expanding and has contributed a great deal to the diffusion of new research methods. In the sphere of the humanities, however, the treatment of texts and literary texts, in particular using quantitative methods still raises doubts and objections. The promoters of quantitative approaches are accused of reducing the complexity and beauty of literary texts with their arid mathemat- ical formulas. The process is often considered pointless too, because analyzing a literary text in depth simply demands the sensitivity and the intuition of an expert reader, and preferably of a literary critic with years of training on great variety of texts.
In our opinion, the best way to proceed is to combine quantitative with qualitative observation. If we are expert readers we can identify the style, and pinpoint the idiosyncrasies and habits of our favorite authors, but the quantita- tive analysis of textual data enables us to test these intuitions systematically and on a vast scale useful for the purposes of a confirmatory analysis.
Those who use quantitative methods need a dose of intuition too because we cannot com- pare texts chosen at will, or at random: we need a priori hypotheses to guide the construction of the corpus, and these hypotheses are necessarily of qualitative type. Quan- titative analysis can also offer a reliability that qualitative analysis could never match. For instance, it is thanks to the use of quantitative text analysis methods that a researcher can say that a phenomenon such as a particularly significant word is present or absent in a text on the grounds of a systematic observation uninfluenced by any degree of discretionality or subjectivity, or failings of hu- man memory.
Briefly, given the opportunity to treat texts as data, we can: 1 extend the corpus forming the object of the study well beyond the dimen- sional boundaries manageable using conventional qualitative analytical meth- ods; and 2 focus on problems that can only be studied on large corpora. This large corpus was therefore based on accurately-chosen criteria and has characteristics that should be adequate for the purpose of placing Elena Ferrante in the context of the best-known Italian contemporary authors, and containing elements for comparing Elena Ferrante with twelve other female authors, and with ten other Neapolitan authors.
It is a large corpus in size, including nearly 10 million word-tokens 9,, , so the novels in the collection contain an average of 65, words each. The longest novel consists of nearly thousand word-tokens Io uccido by Giorgio Faletti and, with one exception Behave by Valeria Parrella , all the novels contain more than 10, word-tokens.
The corpus expresses an overall vocabulary of , dif- ferent word-types obtained using the tokenizing, and uppercase letter reducing system in the Taltac software package Bolasco, The type-token ratio of the corpus as a whole amounts to 1.
This is plausible, but by no means the only possible hypothesis. Results of the research conducted by the group at the University of Pa- dova Our study was conducted on the above-described corpus using mainly quantitative methods, with which we associated some qualitative considera- tions. At a first stage it had two aims: 1. It was only at a second stage that, in the light of the results obtained, the study turned to with the question of authorship attribution.
Our results are briefly outlined, listing the methods adopted, and the results obtained in each case Tuzzi and Cortelaz- zo, Content mapping based on correspondence analysis As in other, previous works of ours, we first used an exploratory data analy- sis EDA to compare authors and novels. This involves content mapping based on correspondence analysis CA , a well-known multivariate statistical tech- 18 Arjuna Tuzzi and Michele A.
Cortelazzo nique that uses the occurrences of words in the texts and displays a two-way contingency table by means of coordinates on Cartesian axes that locate the rows words , and columns authors or novels on a plane The results of the CA applied to the whole corpus reveal three authors who appear to be the most original: Paolo Nori, Giorgio Faletti, and Elena Ferrante.
In particular, Ferrante shows the greatest individuality in her themes and writing.
Among the significant authors who are not southern Italians, we find Clara Sereni. The novelist coming closest to Elena Ferrante, and consequently the most similar in terms of their lexical profiles, is Domenico Starnone. When our analysis was applied to the sub-corpus of 13 female writers, the position occupied by Elena Ferrante emerges very clearly: she stands in splendid isolation, very obviously unlike any of the other female writers, apart from a very slight resemblance with Rossella Milone a young author who may have taken Elena Ferrante as a model.
Most of her works are again very close to one another. We can also mention a resemblance with the novels published by Domenico Starnone after We worked with repeated measures on numerous samples of equal-sized chunks. This procedure involves extracting a sample of text-chunks one for each novel of the same size for each repli- cation and calculating a distance for each pair of text-chunks.
At the end of this iterative procedure we obtain a square matrix that includes x cells and reports distances between each pair of novels. This matrix can be used to classify the texts au- tomatically, by means of an agglomerative hierarchical cluster algorithm with complete linkage. In our case, the algorithm identified a cluster that includes all the novels written by Ferrante and many of those written by Starnone, except for his first three works, which form a small separate cluster.
The results of the CA were therefore confirmed. It is useful to try reading the matrix of the distances from another perspec- tive, i. The rankings relating to Domenico Starnone novels from Eccesso di zelo onwards Starnone, showed at least one work by Elena Ferrante in first place, as if to suggest that Elena Ferrante resembles Domenico Starnone even more than Starnone himself.
The picture becomes even clearer if we measure the inter-textual distance based on the grammatical words only, after excluding all the words that convey con- tent names, adjectives, verbs, adverbs. This goes to show that the similarities between the novels written by Ferrante and Starnone are independent of any resemblances in their setting or how the story develops.
Tests on non-literary texts Our recent research is now continuing in new directions. Cortelazzo meta-literary fragments in La frantumaglia Ferrante, with a set of essays, newspaper articles, and interviews by other writers.
Looking again at the main authors suspected of being Elena Ferrante, results point to Domenico Starnone and Anita Raja, while it seems that we can rule out Marcel- la Marmo. The availability of a large corpus enabled us to confirm the lexical affinities identified by Luigi Galella ; , and Simone Gatto ; , but also to see whether these words were exclusive to Ferrante and Starnone, or shared with other authors too.
While it is true that, where these two authors come from, this piece of furniture was once commonplace and generally known by the name of argentiera, as Starnone declared in an interview Baudino, , p.
There were also numerous other words or expressions in our corpus shared exclusively by the two authors in question, however or with only sporadic occurrences elsewhere. It is worth adding a comment on some of these terms. First of all, risatella [little laugh, noun] is a a characteristic word of southern Italy, and the Naples area particularly as confirmed by its inclusion in vocabularies of Neapolitan dialect, e. Andreoli, It occurs in the corpus, in both the singular and the plural, but only in Ferrante 20 times and Starnone 10 times.
To find other occurrences in the literature, we need to move away from the novels selected for our corpus e.
A similar line of reasoning can be adopted for malodore [stink], which is contained in our corpus — with this spelling — but only in Ferrante 12 times and Starnone 5 times ; elsewhere and not included in our corpus, we can find 22 Arjuna Tuzzi and Michele A. This is an even more distinctive lexical Neapolitanism, occurring in the variant maleodore in just one other Neapolitan author in our corpus, Francesco Piccolo 13 times.
The spelling is of interest in the case of santodio [good God! We find it again in Storia di chi fugge e di chi resta, the third volume of her saga, and also in two novels by Starnone, Eccesso di zelo and Spavento not included in our corpus. In the rest of our corpus there was no sign of sbruffoneggiare. Generally speaking, we could say that this word is not only relatively new, but also rarely used.
If we google sbruffoneggiare we find just 1, results, and if we look for the third person singular of the present tense, sbruffoneggia, we arrive at 3, results, which include the previous ones search conducted on 9 March There are some particular sequences that become significant too. This is such an unusual way of indicating this part of the body that if we Google it we will only find 10 results including those of the two authors in our corpus.
Open questions Analyzing these novels collected in our corpus generated some interest- ing results. In all of our analyses, Elena Ferrante shows traits of originality in both style and content. We lack the elements needed to say for sure, but this is plausibly one of the main reasons for her success. Our analyses also confirmed the remarkable affinities between the works of Elena Ferrante and those of Domenico Starnone. All the measures we used to test the similarities between their novels indicated that they are almost inextri- cably entwined.