analysis which can bo applied to P&RT/CPH networks. mant, Operations Research (OR)$ and Inuustrial Engineoring texts and .. 'Ihis triangular pdf is then. INTRODUCTION AND BASIC DEFINITIONS IN NETWORK ANALYSIS. Introduction. A Project such as setting up of a new milk plant, research and. Network Analysis. •. Network Scheduling: •. Main purpose of CPM is to determine the “critical path”. •. Critical path determines the minimum completion time for a.
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In book: Essentials of Operations Research, Chapter: Network Techniques critical path analysis is an important aspect of project planning. There is multitude of operations research situations that can models. Network analysis is known by many names _PERT (Programme Evaluation and. the techniques of operational research to plan the optimum use of resources. PERT and CPM are the two most popular network analysis technique used to.
Sc Management , B. Sc Business Administration Department of Management, FCM Eastern University, Sri Lanka Abstract The main objective of this paper is to provide an introduction about the Network, particularly in relation to the basic aspects of drawing a network diagram. This paper provides insights about drawing a network diagram. In addition, it is also useful to know and understand the birth and meaning of a network analysis, its importance, applications, limitations, rules and traditions in drawing a network diagram, and the terminologies used in relation to network. Further extension of this paper depends on the support from readers who are expected to provide me your valuable comments and suggestions to continue this task.
Importantly, this technique helps managing risks and waste, and determining in advance possible implementation of events and activities in a project.
It is also difficult to complete massive scaled projects without having network analysis, since such projects employ large amount of financial, human, physical and other resources at an optimum level. Further, as they have alternative utilizations, network analysis becomes essential for determining and managing their mobilization within projects.
Hence, the application of network analysis is useful to facilitate planning and implementing management activities, allocating resources for their optimum utilizations, and defining, designing and completing activities within stipulated time frames.
A basic design of network analysis was introduced in the USA and the UK in the middle of in view of reducing durations of projects. In , a team formed under the US Special Navy Project Office devised a technique for planning and controlling complex and complicated projects. Lucey indicates that this technique was useful to plan and control a missile project, called Polaris in the USA and had helped to save two years in implementing the missile project.
Since , this technique has been in use in various fields and its developments and improvements are still in progress. In general, different terminologies are used to indicate this technique. Further, he indicates that network analysis is a basic terminology consisting of a set of techniques that has been developed for planning and controlling of projects in view of facilitating the management of an organization. He also indicates that while these techniques show the relationships among functions and activities, they are useful to identify critically and clearly each section and to provide information in terms of activities, and their respective individual time, cost and resource requirement in a project.
According to Lucey , a network analysis for a project plays a critically important role, when the project consists of following identical features. Complexity of the project: this is possible, when the project consists of many activities, which are much dependent on other activities.
Large scale projects: it refers to the project that requires many facilities, large amount of capital and labour density. A large number of restrictions: this happens when the project needs to be completed within a time frame and cost limit that are related to utilizing the resources of raw material and labour, partially or as a whole. In these sectors, in relation to a project, network analysis significantly contributes to manage effectively and efficiently the project s completing duration, resource utilization and resource-related cost control; and further, it critically facilitates devising and implementing appropriate controlling process in accordance with the project duration.
In Sri Lanka, in practical application, it is notable that the use of network analysis is significantly very less. Particularly, this technique is rarely used in the government sector.
If the government sector utilizes the network analysis, at least in building projects, it is possible to reduce the delay in completing duration, to allocate right resources with right quantity, to avoid unnecessary wastage of the resources and to estimate the relevant cost, effectively and efficiently in relation to the building projects.
Compared to other countries, the application of network analysis in government sector of Sri Lanka is very less and she needs a critical attention on the application of this networking technique in the building projects of government sector. It is notable that there is a considerable improvement in the private sector in the application of the network analysis. However, the importance of applying this technique in projects can be realized meaningfully in near future through current rapid development in Sri Lanka.
Other terms in the network are relatively and appropriately introduced and illustrated in the following chapters. Generally, it is custom to represent an activity by an arrow and hence, there are two 2 events for each and every activity and an event is normally shown by a circle in the network diagram. When placing an event in a network diagram, the event at the beginning of an activity is called Tail Event; and the event at the end of the activity is called Head Event.
It is notable that the action of representing an activity by an arrow places itself both tail and head events for the activity, because the activity itself consists of tail event at its commencement starting point and head event at its completion ending point.
An activity represents its importance in a project to be completed in a particular time span and requires sufficient amount of resources for its completion, for an example: building a wall or digging for putting up a foundation for a building. The time required to complete a particular activity is known as its completion duration.
Generally, there are many identical activities in a project. These activities should be arranged in a sequential order of completion, based on their individual dependency on preceding activity ies. There are two general approaches to draw a network diagram of a project that consists of different and identical activities. Activity-on-arrow diagram 2. Activity-on-node diagram In the activity-on-arrow network diagram, it is customary to show an activity with an arrow.
The head of the arrow indicates where the activity ends completes and the tail of the arrow indicates the beginning of the activity. In a project, an activity can depend on other activity for its commencement. When drawing such dependent activities in a network diagram of the project, the events are used to connect and differentiate those activities. Figure 1.
It is shown in the network diagram in Figure 1. In this diagram, every rectangle represents an activity.
Further, no event takes place in a network diagram of activity-on-node. When a network diagram is of activity-on-node, two additional nodes for Start and Finish must be placed, apart from the nodes representing the activities. It is notable that the project activities-on-nodes have to be placed between these two Start and Finish nodes.
This can be observed by comparing both diagrams Figures 1. Table 1. These activities should be individually independent of their completions from start to finish.
Considering the above aspects, one can organise basic initial steps to draw a network diagram for a project. However, this dummy activity is used to maintain logical relationship of other activities in a project and avoid violation in drawing its network diagram of activity-on-arrow with rules and procedures. It is a usual practice to show a dummy activity with a dot-arrow in a network of activity-on-arrow diagram.
This can be shown with the following example. According to network drawing customs and procedures given below , these two activities cannot end at the same head event as they begin at the same tail event namely 0. Therefore, they end at two different events 1 and 2, respectively, though they begin from event 0.
It is also indicated in Table 1. As given in Table 1. Note that drawing a dummy activity from event 2 to event 1 cannot satisfy the requirement of activity D i. Accordingly, given below are the procedures to be followed in drawing a network in relation to a project. A complete network diagram must have a starting event and a finishing event. Referring to Figure 1. Every activity must have a tail event and a head event, where many activities can have a tail event or a head event.
Similarly, the different activities from different tail events may end up with a head event. These are shown in Figures 1.
The activities that have a tail event must not end at the same head event and Figure 1. When required, a dummy activity is used to facilitate this limitation. In this context, compare the Figures 1. Business Skills. Digital Marketing Skills.
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