Vitamins. 3. Vitamin A. 4. Vitamin B. 8. Vitamin C. Vitamin D. Vitamin E. 22 . Folate. Minerals. Calcium. Iron. Magnesium. Vitamins and minerals: * NIH (National Institutes of Health) State-of-the-Science Conference on Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements and Chronic Disease. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements .. To this end, background papers on the major vitamins, minerals and trace elements WHO_TRS__(chp7–chp13).pdf, accessed 26 June ). 7.
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Each of the vitamins and minerals known today has specific functions in the body, which No single food contains the full range of vitamins and minerals, and. Vitamins. * The Daily Values are the amounts of nutrients recommended per day for Americans 4 years of age or older. VITAMIN. WHAT IT DOES. WHERE IS IT. Can Megavitamins Help Against Cancer? Can Megavitamins Help Reduce Cholesterol and. Protect Against Heart Disease? MINERALS CAN.
In this section only those vitamins thought to have some connection with chronic disease are discussed. Vitamin A The body gets vitamin A from two different sets of chemicals—retinoids and carotenoids. Vitamin A itself is the compound retinol. It and the similar compounds belonging to the retinoid family occur only in foods of animal origin, such as liver, butter, milk, and egg yolks. The body can also make vitamin A from select members of the carotenoid family of compounds, which are present in dark-green, leafy vegetables and in yellow and orange vegetables and fruits. The most common carotenoid is beta-carotene. Enzymes in the small intestine split beta-carotene and certain closely related carotenoids to produce vitamin A.
However, there is evidence that the contribution of fortified foods to folic acid intake has decreased recently, associated with discontinuation of fortification of some fat spreads and breads [ 45 ].
This indicates that, with prevailing dietary patterns in these population subgroups, and at prevailing levels of these nutrients in fortified foods and supplements, there is little risk of adverse health effects associated with excess intakes.
It should be noted that this assessment does not take into account possible future changes in composition of foods and supplements and in dietary patterns which policy makers need to consider when setting safe maximum amounts in fortified foods and supplements.
Estimates of SML per daily amount in supplements were lower for children than for adults for those nutrients with lower UL for children but not for calcium and iron, where the UL is similar for both age groups. For some nutrients e. This indicates that, with prevailing food composition and dietary patterns, nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients may be added safely to supplements for these age groups in Ireland, in agreement with other estimates [ 12 , 13 ].
Thus, with prevailing food composition and dietary patterns, nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to foods and beverages for these population subgroups in Ireland. There are few data available for energy intake from fortified foods [ 6 , 14 , 17 , 18 ] and approaches to the estimation of the SML in fortified foods to date have generally assumed the same value for all nutrients, for example, based on an assumed fraction of food that is potentially fortifiable [ 6 , 9 , 10 ].
This has been done when data on fortified food consumption were not available from dietary surveys and also to anticipate possible future increased consumption of fortified foods in countries where fortification practice has been limited in the past. Furthermore, values were higher for children than for adults for some nutrients vitamin B6, calcium and iron and lower for others retinol, vitamins D and E. These variations in energy intake from fortified foods reflect differences in patterns of intake of foods fortified with different nutrients [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ] prevailing during the respective dietary surveys as described earlier.
Since these may change over time with changing practices of food fortification [ 18 ], policy makers need to consider possible future changes when setting safe maximum amounts in fortified foods.
Estimation of SML in fortified foods by the approach proposed here may be limited by the availability of data on energy and nutrient intakes from fortified foods, as is often the case [ 46 , 47 ].
The estimates of daily energy intakes from fortified foods for adults and children in Ireland, a country with a long-standing, liberal policy on food fortification, may be a useful starting point for such estimations in other EU countries. Since fortification of foods often differs between product brands, it has been recommended that national dietary surveys should include data on both the consumption and composition of foods at brand level in order to facilitate adequate monitoring of fortified foods [ 47 ].
A strength of this study is its use of detailed data on consumption and composition of foods, including fortified foods, and supplements in nationally representative surveys.
This facilitates estimation of intakes of energy and nutrients from fortified foods separately from non-fortified foods and supplements. This study also used a statistical method for estimating the distribution of usual intakes of nutrients and energy [ 34 ] which corrects the within-person variation arising from short-term dietary measurements over a limited number of days.
This provides a more robust estimate of 95th percentile intakes of energy and nutrients and helps to avoid underestimating the SML. Limitations of the study include reliance on nutrient composition obtained from food labels for fortified foods and supplements and possible under-reporting of food intake which occurs in dietary surveys.
The SML for population subgroups may be used in setting safe maximum amounts of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements in the whole population of consumers. For this, there is a need to take account of younger children who have lower UL for some nutrients [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 ], as well as potential changes in the SML with changing food composition and patterns of dietary intake over time.
Regular national dietary surveys are needed to monitor changes in the composition and consumption of fortified foods and supplements in order to assess the safety of micronutrient intakes in the population. For nutrients with no reported adverse effects at high intakes and with no UL e. This also applies to folic acid in children where UL are derived from adult UL based on an adverse effect in older adults that is not considered to occur in children [ 26 , 27 ], i.
Although it has been proposed that folic acid may have other adverse effects, e. For nutrients with established adverse effects but with insufficient data to establish UL, other approaches are needed for setting safe maximum amounts, e.
Conclusions This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.
Such SML, together with appropriate allowances for possible future changes in food composition and dietary patterns, may be used by policy makers for setting maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements that are safe for the whole population of consumers.
The study also emphasises the importance of collecting adequate data on composition and consumption of fortified foods and supplements in national dietary surveys on a regular basis in order to monitor the safety of micronutrient intakes. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
References 1. Accessed 11 Jan 2. Vitamins and minerals A—Z.
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