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A Bridging Document may be utilized to manage operations. This may avoid confusion as to operational control and work practices. This recommended practice addresses the identification and management of safety hazards and environmental impacts in design, construction, start-up, operation, inspection, and maintenance, of new, existing, or modified drilling and production facilities. By developing a SEMP based on this Recommended Practice, owners and operators will formulate policy and objectives concerning significant safety hazards and environmental impacts over which they can control and can be expected to have an influence. The SEMP is based on the following hierarchy of program development: 1.
Facilities in proximity to areas the operator considers to be environmentally sensitive areas. Management should determine, dependent on risk, whether additional analysis techniques are warranted. API RP 14J should be consulted for guidance in selecting analysis techniques appropriate to the risk of each facility, if applicable. Locations with clusters of structurally interconnected platforms should be analyzed together. For nearly identical well jackets and single well caissons, a single hazard analysis may be applied to all such facilities within a field, after verifying that site specific deviations are addressed.
Previous experience with a similar facility. Design circumstances, such as changes in the design team or the design itself, after the project is underway. Unusual facility location, design or configuration, equipment arrangement, or emergency response considerations. Any findings that need to be brought to resolution before startup or that require immediate attention should be clearly identified. Operating procedures and practices, including simultaneous operations guidelines. For most mobile offshore units a marine hazards analysis is implicit in the flag State and classification society certification process, but may be supplemented by specific instructions regarding conditions of operation, e.
It may be necessary to perform site-specific hazard analyses for certain operations to assure that the mobile offshore unit is not exposed to conditions beyond its designed limits. Such analyses will often require an exchange of information between the operator and the owner of the mobile offshore unit.
Examples of information that might be required include results of surveys for seafloor and seabed obstructions or interferences, anticipated reservoir pressure and temperature, drilling plans, casing plans, and any information necessary to coordinate and integrate emergency response and control.
Hazards analyses should be reviewed periodically and updated as appropriate, with typical review intervals ranging between 5 years for high-priority facilities and 10 years for low-priority facilities.
The priority factors listed in 3.
At least one person should be proficient in the hazards analysis methodologies being employed. If only one person performs 3. This report should describe the hazards that have been identified and recommended steps to be taken to mitigate them.
Qualitative assessments of the severity of the findings may be made as appropriate. The management program should require the communication of all identified hazards and follow-up actions to the appropriate personnel. When resolution before startup is stipulated, or when immediate action is required, the management program should mandate that such action is taken or that the hazardous conditions are otherwise remedied.
A complete hazards analysis report, including any updates, should be kept on file for the life of the facility.
Bypass connections around equipment that is normally in service. Operations outside the scope of current written operating procedures, including procedures for start-up, normal shutdown, and emergency shutdown.
Replacement equipment or machinery that differs in specifications from the original equipment or previously approved modification. Temporary piping, connections, pipe repairs, or hoses. An alternate supply of process materials, catalysts, or reactants, such as temporary tanks or drums located within the facility. Temporary electrical equipment or utility connections, other than for emergency situations.
Modifications to drilling diverter system that have not been previously approved. Modifications to blowout preventers BOPs that have not been previously approved. Modifications to drilling top drives that have not been previously approved. The management program should establish procedures to identify and control hazards associated with change and maintain the accuracy of safety information.
A facility is subject to continual change to increase efficiency, improve operability and safety, accommodate technical innovation, and implement mechanical improvements. On occasion, temporary repairs, connections, bypasses, or other modifications may be made out of operating necessity.
Any of these changes can introduce new hazards or compromise the safeguards built into the original design. Care must be taken to understand the process, facility, and personnel safety and environmental implications of any changes. Although some changes may be minor with little likelihood of compromising safety or environmental protection, all changes may have the potential for disruption, injury, or business loss.
Change in facilities may also occur as a result of changes in produced fluids, process additives, product specifications, byproducts or waste products, design inventories, instrumentation and control systems, or materials of construction. Typical instances in which change in facilities would likely occur include the following: a. Construction of new production or process facilities. Modification of existing facilities that result in changes to facility or equipment design, structural support, layout, or configuration.
Projects to increase facility throughput or accommodate different produced fluids. Significant changes in operating conditions, including pressures, temperatures, flow rates, or process conditions different from those in the original process or mechanical design. Equipment changes, including the addition of new equipment or modifications of existing equipment. These can include changes in alarms, instrumentation, and control schemes. These can include increased process throughput, operation at higher temperatures or pressures, increased size of equipment, or the addition of equipment that might contribute to greater pressure relief requirements.
Routine personnel vacancies and replacements, rotation, and shift or tour changes are addressed in operating procedures, safe work practices, and training established in accordance with Sections 5, 6, 7, and 10 and should not require additional management of change action.
It is appropriate to consider the factors listed in 3. These procedures should be flexible enough to accommodate both major and minor changes. These procedures should cover the following: a.
The process and mechanical design basis for the proposed change. An analysis of the safety, health, and environmental considerations involved in the proposed change, including, as appropriate, a hazards analysis. The effects of the proposed change on separate but unrelated upstream or downstream facilities i. The necessary revisions of the operating procedures, safe work practices, and training program. Communication of the proposed change and the consequences of that change to appropriate personnel.
For significant changes, training consistent with the guidance in Section 7 may be appropriate. The necessary revisions of the safety and environmental information. The duration of the change, if temporary. Required authorizations to effect the change. The safety and environmental consequences of deviation outside the operating limit envelop. The steps required to correct or avoid a deviation from the operating limits. Environmental and occupational safety and health considerations, including the following: 1.
The special precautions required to prevent environmental damage and personnel exposure, including engineering controls and personal protective equipment. The control measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne exposure occurs. Any special or unique hazards. Continuous and periodic discharge of hydrocarbon materials, contaminants, or undesired by-products into the environment is restricted by governmental limitations.
These discharge limitations represent the degree of effluent reduction attainable by application of the best practicable control technology. Written guidance should be provided for facility operating personnel and contractors governing the disposal of materials within terms of the applicable permits. Any lease or concession stipulations established by the recognized governmental authority. The management program should include requirements for written facility operating procedures designed to enhance efficient, safe, and environmentally sound operations.
Consequently, standard operating procedures may apply to multiple facilities. By their very nature, operating procedures directly address human factors issues associated with the interaction between facilities and personnel.
The human factors associated with format, content, and intended use should be considered to minimize the likelihood of procedural error. Instructions for the sound operation of each facility that are consistent with the safety and environmental information including, as appropriate: startup, normal operations, temporary operations, simultaneous operations, emergency shutdown and isolation, and normal shutdown.
The operating limits resulting from the information specified in Section 2 and, where safety and environmental considerations are present, a description of the following: 5. In addition, operating procedures should be reviewed periodically to verify that they reflect current and actual operating practices. The frequency of the review should correspond to the degree of hazard presented.
Review of and changes to the procedures should be documented and communicated to appropriate personnel. Opening of pressurized or energized equipment or piping. Lockout and tagout of electrical and mechanical energy sources. Hot work and other work involving ignition sources. Confined space entry. Crane operations. The management program should establish and implement safe work practices.
These practices should be designed to minimize the risks associated with operating, maintenance, and modification activities and the handling of materials and substances that could affect safety or the environment.
Human factors should be considered in the development of safe work practices. These safe work practices will normally apply to multiple locations and will normally be in written form safety manual, safety standards, work rules, etc. For some locations, site-specific work practices may be appropriate.
The program should provide guidelines for selection and performance evaluation of contractors. Contractors should have their own written safe work practices. A work authorization or permit to work system should be implemented for tasks involving items a, b, c, or d. This system should include provisions for adequate communication of work activities to shift change and replacement personnel. Contractors should be included in these communications if they will perform the work or may affect or be affected by it.
Safe work practices should meet the most current provisions of any applicable federal, state, or local regulations or flag state requirements. Certain safe work practices that should be addressed can be found in Appendix B. API RP 76 is a useful reference for selecting contractors. The operator should communicate their safety and environmental management system expectations to contractors and identify any specific safety or environmental management requirements they have for contractors.
If hydrogen sulfide is present at levels that require training, appropriate training is required for all personnel, including visitors.
All regularly assigned personnel, as applicable, should be trained in environmental protection and pollution control. The management program should establish and implement training programs so that all personnel are trained to work safely and are aware of environmental considerations offshore, in accordance with their duties and responsibilities.
Training should address the operating procedures described in Section 5, the safe work practices recommended in Section 6, and the emergency response and control measures recommended in Section Any change in facilities that requires new or modification of existing operating procedures per Section 5 may require training for the safe implementation of those procedures. Training should be provided by qualified instructors and documented. Certain examples of appropriate training are: a.
Appropriate personnel, regularly or occasionally assigned as required by the circumstances, should be trained for safe work practices e. All regularly assigned offshore personnel should be trained as appropriate per applicable governmental regulations.
Procedures should be established, such as periodic drills, to verify adequate retention of the required knowledge and skills. Procedures should be developed to ensure that persons assigned to operate and maintain the facility possess the required knowledge and skills to carry out their duties and responsibilities, including startup and shutdown. Some examples of appropriate training are: The management program should require that whenever a change is made in the procedures recommended in Sections 5, 6, or 10, personnel will be trained in or otherwise informed of the change before they are expected to operate the facility.
The training provided to contract personnel should include applicable site-specific safety and a. This paragraph applies to contractors performing operating duties, maintenance or repair, turnaround, major renovation, or specialty work at the facility. Contractors providing incidental services that do not influence operation of the facility, such as, janitorial work, food and drink services, laundry, delivery, other supply services, etc should be trained to perform their jobs in a safe and envi- ronmentally sound manner.
They should also receive training in transportation safety, emergency evacuation and other applicable safety and environmental procedures. Refer to Appendix A. Contractors should have programs in place to address their own critical equipment.
Human factors should be considered, particularly regarding equipment accessibility for operation, maintenance and testing. The quality assurance strategy should carry over into the operating and maintenance procedures and management of change. Procedures and work practices to maintain the mechanical integrity of equipment. Training of maintenance personnel in the application of the procedures, relevant hazards, and safe work practices.
Quality control procedures to verify that maintenance materials and spare equipment and parts meet design specifications. Procedures to review all changes in facilities in accordance with Section 4.
Programs may be required for environmental protection compliance monitoring. The management plan should document the technologies utilized and measurement systems used for compliance. Such programs should include the following items: 8. A list of critical equipment and systems that are subject to inspection and testing. The list should specify the method and interval of testing and inspection, acceptable limits, and criteria for passing the test or inspection.
Documentation of completed testing and inspection. Pressure vessel testing and inspection documentation should be retained for the life of the equipment. All other documentation should be retained for a minimum of 2 years or as needed to determine any changes that may be needed in frequency of testing, inspection, and preventive maintenance, or as required by regulatory agencies or for the preparation or revision of hazards analyses.
Procedures to document and correct critical equipment deficiencies or operations that are outside acceptable limits. A system for reviewing and authorizing changes in tests and inspections. The testing, inspection and monitoring programs should include appropriate auditing procedures to ensure compliance with the program.
Maintenance activities focused on this equipment should be structured to enhance safety and protect the environment. Hazards analysis recommendations have been consideredaddressed, and implemented as appropriate. Training of operating personnel has been completed. Programs to address management of change and other elements of this publication are in place. Safe work practices are in place. Construction and equipment are in accordance with specifications.
Safety, environmental, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures are in place and are adequate.
Safety and environmental information is current. Refer to applicable standards in Appendix B for mobile offshore units and other relevant references. These plans should be validated by drills carried out to a schedule defined by the management program.
The drills should address the readiness of personnel and their interaction with equipment. An emergency control center s should be designated for each facility and have access to the following: a.
Emergency action plans refer to Spills of hazardous substances 2. Collisions 3. Oil spill contingency plan. Safety and environmental information refer to Section 2. These plans should also address emergency reporting and response requirements and comply with all applicable governmental regulations. Drills based on realistic scenarios should also be conducted periodically to exercise elements contained in the facility or area emergency action plan.
Modulating control valves and pressure relief valves are outside the scope of this RP.
API RP - pdfstool. API Ed. Standard Number Format unit price price in USD Once a PDF file has been bound to a computer, it can be opened only from that computer. American Petroleum Institute Handbook Revision Written by Richard Von Brecht. Section 5. API Standards ; Since , the American Petroleum Institute has been a cornerstone in establishing and maintaining standards for the worldwide oil and natural gas industry.
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