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Automobile Electrical and Electronic SystemsThird edition This page intentionally left blank Automobile Electrica. Automobile Electrical and Electronic Systems PDF Book Free Automotive Embedded Systems HandBook PDF · Automobile Chassis and Body Engineering . Electronic Systems. Third Edition. List of Chapters. Preface. Introduction to the third edition. Acknowledgements. 1. Development of the automobile electrical.
Get Citation Denton, T. Automobile Electrical and Electronic Systems. As electrical and electronic systems become increasingly more complex and fundamental to the workings of modern vehicles, understanding these systems is essential for automotive technicians. For students new to the subject, this book will help to develop this knowledge, but will also assist experienced technicians in keeping up with recent technological advances. This new edition includes information on developments in pass-through technology, multiplexing, and engine control systems. In full colour and covering the latest course specifications, this is the guide that no student enrolled on an automotive maintenance and repair course should be without.
Sulfuric acid is a compound of hydrogen and the sulfate radical. In the case of automotive battery. Figure shows what the ESD symbol looks like. During discharge. Automotive battery operation. The symbol tells you that the component is a solid-state component. If you touch something. We will cover this subject in detail in Chapter 10 of this manual. Look for these indicators and take the suggested ESD precautions when you work on sensitive components.
In any battery. ESD symbol. An electrolyte is a chemical solution that usually includes water and other compounds that conduct electricity. The voltmeter can then be calibrated in degrees. Photoelectricity is used in photoelectric cells. After most of the available active materials have reacted. Solar energy is light energy from the sun that is gathered in a photovoltaic solar cell. A pyrometer is commonly used to measure exhaust gas temperatures on diesel engines and other temperature measuring applications.
As the temperature at the connections of the two metals increases. Photoelectricity shows a very simplified version of a battery powered by a lemon. Light is composed of particles called photons that are pure energy and contain no mass. Figure shows that when these materials. The typical knock sensor Figure produces about millivolts of electricity and vibrates at a 6. Pyrometer thermocouple.
A pyrometer is constructed of two dissimilar metals. Lemon powered battery. This affect was discovered by a German scientist named Seebeck and is known as the Seebeck Effect. Piezoelectricity Thermoelectricity Applying heat to the connection point of two dissimilar metals can create electron flow electricity. A change in the potential of electrons between the positive and negative terminal creates electricity know as piezoelectricity.
An example of a thermocouple is a temperature measuring device called a pyrometer. Lemon Battery Figure Piezoelectricity is the principle used in knock sensors KS. The availability and amount of electrical energy that can be produced in this manner is limited by the active area and weight of the materials in the plates and by the quantity of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte. Seebeck called this device a thermocouple. Applying a high-frequency alternating voltage to a crystal can create a reverse piezoelectric effect.
Introduction to Electricity 29 Figure Piezoelectric knock sensor. Similar applications are used in underwater hydrophones and piezoelectric stethoscopes. Piezoelectricity is put to practical use in phonograph pickups and crystal microphones. Although the effect is only temporary. The crystal then produces mechanical vibrations at the same frequency. Squeeze a Rock Get a Volt In Piezoelectric effect. Photoelectric cell sensor. Joseph Priestly established that electrical charges attract with a force inversely proportional to distance.
Alessandro Volta invented the first battery. This provided a means of introducing electrical power into industry and the home. These ultrasonic vibrations are used. One horsepower is needed to lift pounds 1 foot off the ground in 1 second. The term brake horsepower comes from the method of testing the early engines. Horsepower can also be expressed in units of electrical power or watts. The German physicist George Simon Ohm — proved the mathematical relationship between electrical potential voltage.
Andre Marie Ampere established the importance of the relationship between electricity and magnetism.
Thomas Edison — invented the incandescent lamp in In the metric system. Electricity is sold in kilowatt hours. A watt light bulb requires more electrical power to light than a 60watt bulb. Alessandro Volta discovered that if two dissimilar metals were brought in contact with a salt solution. Thomson — in introduced the science of electronics and quickly resulted in the invention of the diode Another person who influenced electrical technology was a Scottish inventor named James Watt — He developed the steam engine to take over the task of lifting heavy loads instead of using the power of a horse.
The term watt is most commonly used to express electrical power. The discovery of the electron by J. Michael Faraday — opened the doors of the science we now know as electromagnetism when he published his law of induction.
A light bulb is an example of where watts are commonly used. A kilowatt is watts and a kilowatt hour is one kilowatt of power being used for one hour. An electrostatic charge can build up on the surface of your body. The phenomenon we describe as electricity concerns the behavior of atoms that have become. When light contacts certain materials. A photon is pure energy that contains no mass. Static electricity is electricity at rest or without any motion.
All matter is composed of atoms and electrical charge is a component of all atoms. An automotive technician should always use a static grounding strap when working with staticsensitive electronic devices. The production of electricity from chemical energy is demonstrated in the lead-acid battery. Piezoelectricity is electricity produced when materials such as quartz or barium titanate are placed under pressure. An atom is the smallest part of an element that retains all of the properties of that element.
Thermoelectricity is electricity produced when two dissimilar metals are heated to generate an electrical voltage. Solar energy is light energy photons from the sun that is gathered in a photovoltaic solar cell. Electromagnetic induction is the production of electricity when a current is carried through a conductor and a magnetic field is produced.
When an atom is balanced. Electricity may be defined as the movement of free electrons from one atom to another. George Simon Ohm showed a relationship between resistance. Introduction to Electricity 31 SUMMARY The Greeks discovered the first type of electricity in the form of static electricity when they observed that amber rubbed with fur would attract lightweight objects such as feathers.
A thermocouple is a small device made of two dissimilar metals that gives off a low voltage when heated. Technician B says an electrostatic charge can build up on the surface of your body. Technician A says it is electricity produced when barium titanate is placed under pressure. Atom b. Technician B says the battery stores energy in a chemical form. Neither A nor B Both A and B d. Compound d. An atom that loses or gains one electron is called which of the following: Molecules c.
Technician B says that an electrolyte is a chemical solution of water and hydrochloric acid that will conduct electricity. Protons 4. A only b. Technician A says applying heat to the connection point of two dissimilar metals can create electron flow electricity. What people discovered electricity? The Germans c. B only c. Neither A nor B 6. Nucleus 2. Electrons b. The Irish 8. Technician A says that static electricity is electricity in motion.
Nucleus d. The smallest part of an element that retains all of its characteristics is which of the following: An element c. Technician A says the battery provides electricity by releasing free electrons. Balanced b. Who is right? Technician B says one horsepower would be produced when a horse walked feet in one minute pulling.
An ion 5. Technician A says when sunlight contacts certain materials. Technician B says when no change in the potential of electrons between positive and negative terminal occurs. Matter c. Neither A nor B 9. Neutron 3. Two technicians are discussing how piezoelectricity works.
The general name given every substance in the physical universe is which of the following: The Italians b. Static electricity is being discussed.
The Greeks d. The particles that orbit around the center of an atom are called which of the following: Proton c. Technician B says solar energy is light energy from the moon that is gathered in a photovoltaic solar cell.
Technician A says one horsepower equals Technician A says batteries produce direct current from a chemical reaction. Two technicians are discussing thermoelectricity. Mass b. Neither A nor B 7. A molecule d. Technician B says a thermocouple is a small device made of two dissimilar metals that gives off a low voltage when heated. Technician B says Alessandro Volta discovered that if two dissimilar metals were brought in contact with a water solution.
Introduction to Electricity 33 a pound weight or ft. Neither A nor B. Technician A says Andre Marie Ampere established the importance of the relationship between electricity and magnetism. An automotive technician must have a thorough grasp of the basis of electricity Define the two theories of current flow conventional and electron and explain the difference between DC and AC current.
Define capacitance and describe the function of a capacitor in an automotive electrical circuit. Identify and explain the basic electrical concepts of resistance. Normally the nucleus does not change.
Copper is the conductor most used in vehicles because the price of copper is reasonable compared to the relative cost of other conductors with similar properties. Conductors and insulators. This is so because the electrons in the conductor affect one another. These materials are called insulators. When voltage is applied to a disconnected length of wire open circuit. The metal core of the wire. Some materials hold their electrons very tightly.
This orbit is far enough away from the nucleus of the copper atom that the pull or force holding the outermost electron in orbit is relatively weak. But some of the outer electrons are held very loosely. If voltage is applied to one end of a conductor. Yet when an electrical potential is applied to one end of a wire. Wires A wire in a wiring harness is made up of a conductor and an insulator.
In a typical automotive circuit. The outer jacket made of plastic or other material coating the core is the insulator. The protons and neutrons in the nucleus are held together very tightly. Electronics has become the single most important subject area and the days when many technicians could avoid working on an electrical circuit through an entire career are long past.
No current flows in the wire. An atom that gains electrons has more negative than positive particles. Check the voltage with a meter. Conductors are materials with four electrons in their outer orbit. A charged atom is called an ion. Under normal circumstances. This course of electrical study will cover conductors and insulators. Copper is an excellent conductor because it has only one electron in its outer orbit. An atom that loses electrons has more positive charges protons than negative charges electrons.
Materials with exactly four electrons in their outer orbit are neither conductors nor insulators and are called semiconductor materials. Examples of insulators include plastics. Electrons are negatively charged and unlike charges attract. Current flow. Voltage pushes current flow like force pushes water flow. A current flow of 6.
This unit expresses how many electrons move through a circuit in one second. Another way of describing current flow is called the electron theory. Current The movement of electrons in a circuit is the flow of electricity.
Voltage and water pressure. The conventional theory and electron theory are two different ways of describing the same current flow. This way of describing current flow is called the conventional theory. A coulomb is 6. Charge differential exists when the electrical source has a deficit of electrons and therefore is positively charged. The important thing to know is which theory is being used by the service literature you Current Flow Current flow will occur only if there is a path and a difference in electrical potential.
Voltage is a potential difference in electromotive force. The electron theory follows the logic that electrons move from an area of many electrons negative charge to one of few electrons positive charge.
A cycle is one complete reversal of current from zero though positive to negative and back to the zero point. This type of current is called alternating current or AC Figure Alternating Current The electrical potential created by a generator is not steady state.
The frequency at which the current alternates is measured in cycles. In residential electrical systems. We call that direct current or DC Figure When such a potential is applied to a circuit.
Resistance More vehicles can travel on a four-lane superhighway in a given amount of time than on a two-lane country road. Automotive generators produce AC potential. The physical dimensions of a conductor are also a factor. A large-diameter pipe can flow more fluid than a small-diameter pipe. Alternating current. Direct current. A similar characteristic applies to electricity. This results in a flow of electrons through the conductor from the negative charge to the positive charge.
Alternating current is also better suited than DC for transmission through power lines. A conductor. Direct Current When a steady-state electrical potential is applied to a circuit. A large wire can carry. The advantage of using DC is it can be stored electro-chemically in a battery. TIME happen to be using. The charge differential or voltage is a measure of electrical pressure. Rotating a coil in a magnetic field usually produces alternating current.
When an external power source such as a battery is connected to the conductor. Alternating current is easier to produce in a generator. Alternating current describes a flow of electrical charge that cyclically reverses. The larger the cross-sectional area measured by wire gauge size the more atoms there are over a given sectional area. Batteries produce a steady-state. The role of a battery. In a closed electrical circuit. Frequency is usually measured in cycles per second or hertz. Resistance factors Figure determine the resistance of a conductor by a combination of the following: The more free electrons a material has.
Resistance opposes the movement of electrons. For most materials. Resistors Resistors are devices used to provide specific values of resistance in electrical circuits. We use it to produce heat.
A common type is the carbon-composition resistor. Sometimes you can predict that high unwanted resistance is present by just looking at an electrical connection or component. All electrical devices and wires have some resistance. The reason the large wire carries more current is that it offers less resistance to current flow. Broken Ohms The basic unit of measurement for resistance is the ohm. For example: The larger the cross-sectional area of a conductor.
The condition of a conductor can also have a large affect on its resistance Figure Wanted and Unwanted Resistance Resistance is useful in electrical circuits. Expect resistance to be high if the material is discolored or if a connection appears loose. Materials with very low resistance are called conductors. This makes the terminal a less effective conductor. The longer a conductor. If the resistance of a material is low close to zero ohms. Resistance can also be affected by the physical condition of a conductor.
If the resistance of a material is high close to infinite ohms. All materials contain some resistance. There are a few materials whose resistance goes down as temperature goes up. As resistance works to oppose current flow. For information about measuring resistance. We usually call a break in a circuit an open. Current flows only in a closed or completed circuit.
The battery is an electrochemical device. Electrolyte is made from water and sulfuric acid. Resistance factors. These elements are connected to each other with conductors.
The primary power source in a car or truck is the battery. Most protection circuits contain a source of power. Once an external connection is made between them. In other words.
Current flows from one end of a circuit to the other when the ends are connected to opposite charges positive and negative We usually call these ends power and ground.
As long as there is no external connection between the positive and negative sides. A circuit is a path for electric current. The size of the resistor determines how much heat the device can dissipate. It has a positive side and a negative side.
A pasty chemical called electrolyte is used as a conductor between the positive and negative parts. If there is a break somewhere in the circuit. The negative part of the battery is made up of sponge lead. A circuit may be connected to ground with a wire or through the case of a component.
Most vehicles today use a negative ground system. When a component is case-grounded. Voltage drop is the voltage lost or consumed as current moves through resistance. Negative or Positive Ground Circuits can use a negative or a positive ground. Current Flow Current Flow The complete electrical circuit.
In a refrigerant circuit. Control devices can be on the positive or negative side of the circuit. All loads offer some resistance to current flow. Voltage is highest where the conductor connects to the voltage source. Controls used to vary the rate include rheostats.
The voltage change across the resistance is called a voltage drop Figure Conductive Material Conductive materials. Control devices work by completely stopping current flow or by varying the rate of flow.
Controls used to stop current flow include switches. It can act as the ground for circuits throughout the vehicle. Ground In a closed circuit. In an automobile.
If you measure voltage before it. We usually call the return side of the source the ground. Controls Control devices perform many different jobs. In this system. One ampere is equal to 6. This is voltage drop. This is the same as water pressure is measured in pounds per square inch or psi.
Current Electrical current is measured in amperes. For more information about measuring voltage. When you connect several conductors to each other. Operations Voltage drop. This unit would be the same as gallons per minute gpm of water flow if compared to water from a faucet. George Simon Ohm. This loss is voltage drop. Whenever the voltage applied to a device a load is less than the source voltage there is a resistance between the two components.
Illustrating electrical units water makes the units of electricity easier to understand. Voltage drop is the result of a total applied voltage that is not equal at both ends of a single load circuit. The resistance in a circuit opposes the electron flow. Voltage Voltage is the unit of electrical pressure. If this battery provides 1 volt of pressure.
Just as water pressure is available at a faucet. An ampere is a unit of the amount of current flow. If the known units are inserted into the equation.
In the circuit in Figure The current flow through the circuit is 6 amps. Since the amps are missing. Performing the multiplication in the equation yeilds in 12 volts. Since the volts are missing. Electrical Fundamentals 43 Resistance The unit of electrical resistance is the ohm. The equation is: R E I Figure A small water pipe can only allow so much water. Here is an easy way to remember how to solve for any part of the equation: Solving for voltage. The resistance of the load in the circuit is 2 ohms.
Solving for current. A large fire hose. Resistance in an electrical circuit creates heat because the increased number of collisions that occur between the free electrons and the vibrating atoms. When these collisions create heat. Resistance in the flow of water is usually associated with the size of the water pipe.
A closed circuit is a circuit that is complete and current is flowing. Performing the division in the equation yields in 6 amps as the current flow in the circuit.
The source voltage is 12 volts. An open circuit has a break somewhere and no current flows. An ohm is the unit of electrical resistance. The remaining letters give the equation for determining the unknown quantity. In a complete electrical circuit. Solving the three columns mathematically. Many electrical devices are rated by how much electrical power they consume. If the voltage increases Column 2. The output of automotive engines is usually expressed in horsepower.
In both cases. If the resistance decreases Column 3. Power consumption is expressed in watts: Performing the division in the equation yields 2 ohms as the resistance in the circuit. The amount of current can change only if the voltage or the conductor changes. Decrease the resistance to 3 ohms and keep the voltage at 12 volts: Solving for resistance. In addition to showing what happens to current if voltage or resistance changes. Current never changes on its own—it changes only if voltage or resistance changes.
If the resistance increases Column 3. Power Formula We describe the relationships among power. This table can predict the effect of changes in voltage and resistance or it can predict the cause of changes in current.
The basic equation for the Power Formula is as follows: If the voltage decreases Column 2. Decrease the voltage to 10 volts: If the resistance in a conductor increases or decreases. Since the ohms are missing.
Current cannot change on its own because voltage causes current through a conductor and all conductors have resistance. If the total current I is equal to 10 amps. A simple capacitor. You know that the voltage in your home is about Multiply these two values and you get watts. In a circuit. The most common applications of ratings in watts are probably light bulbs. A capacitor Figure is a device that opposes a change in voltage. Capacitors are sometimes referred to as condensers because they do the same thing.
If voltage or current decreases. Electrical Fundamentals 45 Figure The property of opposing voltage change is called capacitance. You can multiply the voltage times the current in any circuit and find how much power is consumed. How fast this happens depends on several factors.
The negative plate retains its accumulation of electrons. An electrostatic field exists between the capacitor plates. If a capacitor is placed in a circuit with a voltage source. No current flows in the circuit. Actual construction methods vary. The charge is retained in the capacitor until the plates are connected to a lower-voltage electrical circuit. A capacitor is a device that opposes a change in voltage.
Typical dielectric materials are air. As the capacitor is charging. When the capacitor is charged. Electrons move in this way until the electrical charge of the capacitor is equal to that of the voltage source.
In some circuits. An electrostatic field exists between the capacitor plates and no current flows in the circuit. When a capacitor is connected to an electrical power source.
This is how the capacitor stores energy. When capacitors provide electricity. In automotive electrical systems. Used to deliver small currents. The property of opposing voltage Energy Storage When the capacitor Figure is charged to the same potential as the voltage source. The capacitor can then hold its charge when it is disconnected from the voltage source. Electrons can be stored on the surface of a capacitor plate.
Capacitor Discharge A charged capacitor can deliver its stored energy just like a battery. The capacitor is charged through one circuit top and discharged through another. With the two plates separated by a dielectric. The greater the dielectric properties of the material used in a capacitor. When the Figure Future Trends in Voltage: Capacitance is measured in farads. There are many uses for capacitors. Occurring almost simultaneously with this ignition issue were new automotive features such as radios.
Capacitors are manufactured using many different types of materials and can be various shapes and sizes. Calculating Total Capacitance The total capacitance of a circuit Figure is dependent on how the capacitors are designed in the circuit.
When capacitors are in parallel. It was raised once from 6 volts to 12 volts around If a charge of 1 coulomb is placed on the plates of a capacitor and the potential difference between them is 1 volt. Types of capacitors. Microfarads 0. The symbol for farads is F. In an automotive electrical system. The transition took about two years. The capacitor can pass AC voltage signals. The greater the dielectric properties of the material used in a capacitor the greater the resistance to voltage leakage.
A pressing need for more reliable ignition drove the implementation of a single higher-energy volt battery with volt regulation. One coulomb is equal to the charge of 6. One farad is an extremely large quantity of capacitance. All capacitors are rated in farads or microfarads as well as the voltage rating. A filter is used to reduce highvoltage pulses that could damage electronic circuits. A capacitor can also help reduce the surge voltage spike that can occur when circuits containing a coil are turned off.
The reason was that a higher ignition energy was required for the higher-compression V8 engines being introduced. A common use of an RC circuit is in the power lead to a radio or sound system where the combination of the two components is used to eliminate alternating voltage interference. Separate batteries are used for each bus. Calculating total capacitance here.
Many of these cannot be practically introduced using the currently available volt power supply. Here again. There are some difficulties in controlling individual stator windings for optimal outputs in this dual-stator winding architecture. In a dual-voltage system. Some of them are to meet tighter emission and fuel economy regulations.
Before the entire electrical system is transferred to a higher voltage. Figure shows a dual system. Many new electronic features are emerging. Current flow is measured by the number of free electrons passing a given point in an electrical circuit per second.
An insulator is a non-metallic substance that contains more than four electrons in the outer shell. Capacitors are used to store electrons: Semiconductors are a group of materials that cannot be classified either as conductors or insulators. Capacitance is measured in farads: Electrical pressure or charge differential is measured in volts.
If a hydraulic circuit analogy is used to describe an electrical circuit. Voltage is which of these items: Multiplying amps times ohms b. Insulator d. Rectification c.
Resistance c. Timing device b. Increase in wire size b. Ampere b. Dividing volts by ohms d. Atomic structure of the conductor d. Amperes b. Multiplying volts times watts 2. Which of the following methods can calculate circuit current?
Semiconductor 7. Semiconductor d. One coulomb Which of the following causes voltage drop in a circuit? Shunt circuit voltage Conductor c. Diameter of the conductor b. Applied to a circuit b. Which of the following describes a function of a capacitor in an electrical circuit? At 60 cycles per second 9.
Built into a circuit d. Ohm d. A material with many free electrons is a good a. Flowing out of a circuit Voltage Regulator Voltage d. Dividing amps into volts b.
Amperage b. Volt c. Watts 6. Alternator b. Multiplying amps times ohms 3. Positive to negative c. Higher b. Ohms c. Zero b. Dividing volts into amps c. Which of the following methods can calculate circuit resistance? Flowing in a circuit c.
Decrease in current 4. DC Generator d. Increase in resistance c. Unchanged d. Conductor 8. The unit that represents resistance to current flow is which of these items: The resistance in a longer piece of wire is which of these: Compound b.
The conventional theory of current flow says that current flows a. The sum of the voltage drops in a circuit equals which of these: DC-to-AC conversion d. Negative to positive d. Inductance 5. Source voltage d.
Which of the following is a measure of electrical pressure? One watt d. ECM c.
Which of the following is a measure of electrical current? Direction of current flow in the conductor Which of the following characteristic does not affect resistance? In automotive systems. Increase in insulation d. Randomly b. Insulator c. Temperature of the conductor c.
Dividing ohms by volts c. A material with four electrons in the valence ring is which of these: Multiplying volts times amps d. One ohm c. Lower c. Watt Equal to the source voltage c. Greater than the source voltage d. Plus, we regularly update and improve textbook solutions based on student ratings and feedback, so you can be sure you're getting the latest information available. Our interactive player makes it easy to find solutions to Classroom Manual for Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems-Update problems you're working on - just go to the chapter for your book.
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