I was introduced to Bengali literature early in life because although I was born reading Bengali literature on my own, especially when it converged with my. Bengali literature denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language. The earliest extant work .. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July Retrieved. View Bengali Language & Literature Research Papers on tvnovellas.info for Chilekothar Sepai by Akhtaruzzaman Elias_Translated by Matthew D tvnovellas.info
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PDF | Indian literature is full of various genres of literature in different languages. Bengali is one of the prominent languages in which literature. LITERATURE OF BENGAL. A BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL HISTORY FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES. CLOSING WITH A REVIEW OF INTELLECTUAL. Subject: Indian literature; Bengali literature; Bengali literature, History and criticism. Source URL: tvnovellas.info
During this period, the Bengali Pandits of Fort William College did the tedious work of translating the text books in Bengali to help teach the British some Indian languages including Bengali. This work played a role in the background in the evolution of Bengali prose. Translating from Sanskrit to Bengali, writing essays on religious topics and publishing magazines were some the areas he focussed on. He established a cultural group in the name of ' Atmiya Sabha ' Club of Kins in Another significant contributor of Bengali literature in its early stage was Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyaya. In , the famous ' Sipahi Bidroha ' Sepoy Mutiny took place.
He established a number of mosques and madrasas there Karim, , pp. After all, the Muslim rulers had adapted the language, customs, conventions and mannerisms of the Iranians, and had modelled their court ceremonials and administration of justice on the Iranian style.
These adventurers were racially, indeed, Turko-Afghan but culturally Iranian.
The Muslim rule in Bengal, however, changed the entire course of history. Where, once the Hindu and Buddhist culture were most influential, gradually evolved the Islamic culture.
The importance of the Brahmins along with their Sanskrit language gradually obscured, and Persian as the Muslim court language, appeared to be the most influential language.
The Muslim victory and its sway over Bengal created a permanent Muslim community here. The conquerors and the nobles who followed them evolved an aristocratic class. Unlike the Hindu Brahmins they were liberal in their outlook.
The absence of class-priority based on caste system and the strict adherence to the doctrine of equality practised by the Muslim progressively brought a social revolution. The Muslim rulers patronised education and encouraged the masses to it, whereas, earlier it was reserved only for the Brahmins and upper classes.
Finally, the Islamic system of education was introduced in places where the followers of Islam settled. The proliferation of the traditional centres of instruction and learning, i. These institutions were directly responsible for local efforts at original composition in Persian both in the religious and secular fields of learning.
Apart from extending their munificent patronage and encouragement to writers and poets, the reigning Sultans of the day themselves took part in the intellectual pursuits.
Even the number of madrasas in Bengal when the British rule commenced stood nearly at 80, History of Bangladesh, , pp. During this vast period thousands of books had written in Persian and hundreds of poets had been composed their poems in Persian.
The excellent copies of these unique contributions have been preserved in different libraries of Bengal as well as in the sub- continent either in books or in manuscript forms. It proved that Persian still existed as a language of the educated mass, in this locality. This process of development, however, took many centuries with the obvious result that life in this part of the sub-continent in particular and in India in general was profoundly influenced by Persian or Iranian culture.
In this regard Tara Chand observes: Thus after the first shock of conquest was over, the Hindu and Muslims prepared to find a via-media whereby to live as neighbours.
The effort to seek a new life led to the development of a new culture which was neither exclusively Hindu nor purely Muslims, It was indeed a Muslim-Hindu culture. Not only did Hindu religion, Hindu art, Hindu literature and Hindu science absorb Muslim elements, but the very spirit of Hindu culture and the very stuff of Hindu mind were also altered Ahmad, , p.
It may however be mentioned that what came to be known as the Muslim culture was predominantly a Persian culture. Development of Bengali language: we know that sometime after B. In the course of time, their language developed into Vedic7 Sanskrit, which becomes the language of the upper classes of the then society. By B. Vedic Sanskrit declined to a spoken language and was gradually replaced by regional dialects. Following this decline, Panini, a celebrated Indian Grammarian created a standard form of Sanskrit.
However, from B. Later, this very Sanskrit language spread rapidly by the Aryans in many parts of the Sub-continent as well as in Bengal.
The Aryans were gradually spread all over the Sub-continent, which caused the Sanskrit language to become influential on the non- Aryan local languages for a long period. In consequence, originated a new language called Pali, and later, Prakrit, another new form of language. That is why Pali called ancient Prakrit.
Zana, Ibid. On the basis of an excavated inscription in Goudi or Purbi Prakrit, which related to the period of the reign of the Mowrya emperor Aoshoka, at Mahasthan Garh, Bogra, historians assumed that Goudi Prakrit was in vogue in this locality Anissuzzaman, , p. Later, Prakrit at the edge of its final development evolved as Apabhramsha.
Philologists called, the phase of origin and development of Pali, Prakrit and Apabhramsha, as the phase of Middle Indian Aryan Language. The sample of these languages is apparent in the ordinances of the Emperor Aoshoka and in many other inscriptions. The period of this phase was from B. Shahidullah, , p. By this process of evolution classical Bengali passed the Middle phase and reached the Modern stage, which is extended from A.
Indeed, the classical Bengali language is derived from Apabhramsha. Nevertheless, from which Prakrit and which Apabhramsha Bengali language developed on this issue scholars have different opinions.
According to Mr. Grierson, Bengali language has developed from - Magadhi Prakrit Apabhramsha. Suniti Kumar Chatterji also supports this idea.
The most ancient specimen of Bengali language and literature is the verses of Charyyagitika, which was written in Apabhramsha, the initial stage of the formulation of Bengali language. Before this stage people were used to compose in Sanskrit, Prakrit languages. Actually, the verses of Charyyagitika are religion-based compilations, composed by a liberal group of the Buddhist priests under the patronisation of the Kings of the Pala Courts.
At the beginning of the second half of the eleventh century, the Senas invaded Bengal and successfully overthrown the Pal dynasty and established the Sen dynasty in Bengal Ibid.
The Senas were in believed of Brahmin culture as well as of Hinduism. Sanskrit was a sacred language to them. So the Brahmins contravened the usage of local vernaculars. Even they pronounced a judgement against the mass usage of native Bengali language. This Brahminic propaganda, especially after the translation of Ramayana by Krittibas under the patronage of a Muslim ruler became more obvious.
In this connection Shaikh A. They gave their verdict to Krittibas and Kashidas blaming them as sarbbneshe, one who causes complete or total destruction, for their translation of Ramayana into Bengali. After the downfall of the Pala dynasty and rise of the Senas as well as the destruction of numerous Buddhist monuments and massacre of many Buddhist priests the flow of the evolutionary process of the Bengali language disrupted seriously and lost its rising path.
Many Buddhist priests fled to the neighbouring countries. Scholars assume that, at that time the Charyyagitika was brought to Nepal by some of the monks who took shelter there ; and that is why the copy of Charyyagitika found at the Royal court of Nepal.
Some scholars including Sukumar Sen say that the development of Bengali literature was impeded by the Muslim invasion in the region Sen, , pp. A further question can be raised — if the whole of Bengali literature was destroyed by the invaders or, as he says, the intellectual activities of Bengal were extinguished for about a couple of centuries then how does the Sanskrit Gita-Govindam still exist?
The existence of the Sanskrit Gita-Govindam, as well as Caryyagitika, suggests that there was no Bengali literary activity during the period of Laksmansena. B Translations of the Mahabharata, C Translations of Bhagavata, D Translations of Chandi by Markandeya, The conception of Civa in the Renaissance and songs in honour of him, — The Cakta cult and its development ,—God as mother—The gradual adoption of the mother-cult by the Aryans Sixty works on Manasa Devi—their importance.
Poems in honour of Daksina Roy, Poems in honour of the Sun, Supplementary notes to Chapter IV. The Literature of the Vaisnavas. Vaisnavism in Bengal. The life and teachings of Chaitanya Deva, — Vaisnava biographies, The Padas or songs of the Vaisnavas, Supplementary notes to Chapter V. Chaitanya and his companions villified The Kathakathas—Set passages committed to memory by them—Examples—A short history of the Kathakathas—Their extraordinary influence, The story of Dhara and Drona, — The post-Chaitanya Literature.
Poetry of Rural Bengal Antony, The Yatras or Popular Theatres, Supplementary notes to Chapter VI. Miscellaneous poems,