Arduino to build robots. That's exactly what explore programming the robot to do interesting things, and extending signals; these are useful for such things as controlling the. SERVO .. Arduino. See their site for datasheets (in PDF format). Abstract. The aim of the thesis was to create a Bluetooth controlled robot for JAMK University of by an Arduino microcontroller, which in turn is controlled by the mobile tvnovellas.info Arduino. Make: Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot - Building robots that sense and interact with their environment used to be tricky. Now, Arduino makes it easy.
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Michael Margolis. Make an Arduino-. Controlled Robot. D o w n lo a d fro m. W o w! e. B o o k. Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot by Michael Introduction to Robot Building. . Mounting Arduino and Connecting Wires to the Shield. Arduino Robotics. Copyright © by John-David Warren, Josh Adams, and Harald Molle. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or.
Twitter Advertisement Remote controlled cars are fun, sure, but self-driving robotic cars are even more fun. I downloadd this complete 4WD kit from AliExpress , but you could easily download most of these components from an electronics store and put it together yourself. I recommend reading through all of the instructions before you start, as that will make some things clear that might be confusing on the first time through. No need to be intimidated — this is a beginner level project that you can get some satisfying results with, then build upon as you learn more. For quite cheap, too!
The assembled four wheeled robot chassis Here is a preview of the projects you can build: Controlling speed and direction by adding high level movement capability. Enabling the robot to see the ground using IR sensors for line and edge detection see Figure and Figure Enabling the robot to look around scanning using a servo so the robot can choose the best direction to move, as shown in Figure Adding remote control using a TV remote control or a wired or wireless serial connection.
Robot moves around but remains within the white area Figure Robot follows black line Chapter 1 3 22 Why Build a Robot?
Two wheeled and four wheeled robots with distance scanners Why Build a Robot? Building a robot is different from any other project you can make with a microcontroller. A robot can move and respond to its environment and exhibit behaviors that mimic living creatures.
Even though these behaviors may be simple, they convey a sense that your creation has a will and intent of its own. Building a machine that appears to have some spark of life has fascinated people throughout the ages. The robots built over 60 years ago by neurophysiologist W. Grey Walter see explored ways that the rich connections between a small number of brain cells give rise to complex behaviors. The robots described in this book are the easiest and most popular; they use two or four wheels driven by motors.
Choosing Your Robot The projects in this book can use either a two or four wheeled platform, but if you are still deciding which is right for you, here are some factors that will help you choose: Two Wheeled Robot Light and very maneuverable, this is a good choice if you want to experiment with tasks such as line-following that require dexterous movement.
However, the caster that balances the robot requires a relatively smooth surface.
Four Wheeled Robot This robot s four wheel drive makes this a good choice if you want it to roam over rougher surfaces. This platform has a large top plate that can be used to carry small objects. The robot is heavier and draws more current than the 2WD robot, so battery life is shorter. How Robots Move The robots covered in this book move forward, back, left and right much like a conventional car.
Figure shows the wheel motion to move the robot forward. Left and Right wheels turn forward, Robot moves Forward If the wheels on one side are not driven or are driven more slowly than the other side the robot will turn, as in Figure Only Left wheels turn, Robot Turns Right Chapter 1 5 24 Tools Figure shows that reversing the wheel rotation drives the robot backward. Left and Right wheels turn backward, Robot moves Backward Figure Left wheels turn forward, Right wheels reverse, Robot rotates Clockwise Unlike a car but a little like a tank , these robots can also rotate in place by driving the wheels on each side in different directions.
If the wheels on each side are spinning in opposite directions, the robot will rotate. Figure shows clockwise rotation.
Tools These are the tools you need to assemble the robot chassis. Phillips Screwdriver A small Phillips screwdriver from your local hardware store.
Small long-nose or needle-nose pliers For example, Radio Shack 4. But if you are serious about electronics, a good temperature controlled iron is worth the investment, such as Radio Shack or Jameco Solder 22 AWG. Both the two wheeled and four wheeled platforms use the same modules, a pre-built Arduino board Arduino Uno or Leonardo , and a motor controller kit. Although other motor controllers can be used see Appendix B the AFMotor shield provides convenient connections for the signals and power to all the sensors and devices covered in this book.
It is also capable of driving four motors, which is required for the four wheel drive chassis. Although the attachment of the boards to the robot differs somewhat depending on the chassis, the building of the AFMotor circuit board kit is the same for both. If you don t have much experience with soldering, you should practice soldering on some wires before tackling the circuit board you can find soldering tutorials here: thm.
Hardware Required See for a detailed parts list. Soldering Soldering is easy to do if you understand the basic principles and have a little practice. The trick for making a good solder joint is to provide the right amount of heat to the parts to be soldered and use the right solder. A watt to watt iron, ideally with temperature control, is best.
The components to be joined should be mechanically secure so they don t move while the solder is cooling wires should be crimped around terminals see Figure and Figure To make the joint, the tip of the iron should have good contact with all the components to be soldered. Feed a small amount of solder where the iron is touching the parts to be joined.
When the solder flows around the joint, remove the solder first and then the iron. The connection should be mechanically secure and the joint shiny.
Building the Motor Controller The motor controller shield is the heart of this robot. As well as controlling the motors, all the sensors are connected to Arduino through this board. The shield is provided as a kit and is the same for use with either the 2WD and 4WD robots, differing only in the method of connecting the motors and mounting to the chassis both are detailed in later chapters. The following is an overview of the construction with some tips that you should read through before starting to build the circuit board.
Parts required to build the Motor Shield The parts to the right of as well as below the board are packed with the shield, but the three 6-pin headers on the left are not supplied with the standard shield. These headers are used to connect the sensors.
These headers are included with the Maker Shed companion kits that go along with this book. You can also download female headers from Adafruit and other suppliers.
Solder the smallest components first Figure The three small capacitors and two resistors are not polarized so you can insert them either way around. Chapter 2 11 30 Construction Techniques Figure Solder the Small Components The resistor network the long thin component with ten pins is polarized the end with the white dot goes to the left of the PCB nearest to C1 as shown in Figure Solder the resistor network the marker circled indicates correct orientation The large capacitors, ICs, and LED are all polarized.
The color of the components shown in the step-by-step assembly pictures on the Adafruit site you can find the link at the beginning of these build notes may not match the components or layout for the parts you received particularly the capacitors so carefully 12 Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot 31 Construction Techniques check that you have placed the correct value component in the correct orientation.
Figure shows the layout for version 1. The kit includes two IC sockets for the LD chips. As mentioned in the assembly instructions on the Adafruit site, these are optional but if you like to play safe and want to use the sockets, solder them so the indent indicating pin 1 matches the outline printed on the PCB. Solder the rest of the polarized components Figure shows the board with all of the standard shield components pushbutton, headers, screw terminals soldered.
The final assembly step is to solder the three 6-pin female headers near the analog input pins. These headers are not included in the shield package or mentioned in Adafruit s step-by-step build instructions, but are included with the Maker Shed kits. Chapter 2 13 32 Construction Techniques Figure Everything soldered except the sensor headers Figure shows all components including the sensor headers soldered. Trim the component pins except the header pins that connect the shield to the Arduino on the underside of the board so they are clear of the Arduino when the shield is plugged onto the board.
Locate one of the jumpers supplied with the shield and plug this onto the pins marked power jumper this connects the motor power input and the Arduino VIN power input together so both are fed from the batteries that you will be wiring after you have built the robot chassis.
Shield with sensor headers Figure shows where all of the sensors and other external devices will be connected. The three pin female headers are not needed for some of the projects but you will find it convenient to solder these to the shield at this time. Figure shows two styles of connections. On the left, you ll find the stripboard-based wiring scheme as described in Making a Line Sensor Mount page As you ll see in later chapters, you can experiment with a variety of mounting methods, including the stripboard-based one.
The right side of Figure shows the wiring for separately connected sensors.
As you read through the later chapters and experiment with various mounting techniques, you ll use one or the other wiring schemes. Because you ll be using sockets and ribbon connectors to hook up the sensors, you won t be locked into any particular connection scheme; you can mix and match. Chapter 2 15 34 Construction Techniques The left and right designation in the diagram refers to left and right from the robot s perspective, and the later chapters will explain where to connect these.
Connection detail stripboard wiring is shown on the left, individual jumpers shown on the right Soldering the Reflectance Sensors Each sensor package contains a small PCB and a 3-pin header.
Insert the header so the shorter length pins emerge on the side of the board with components already soldered, see Figure After ensuring you have the header the right way around, solder the three pins. Header sockets soldered to the stripboard enable the sensor to be easily unplugged so you can change configuration if you want to swap back and forth between line and edge detection.
Figure shows the layout of the stripboard note the five holes you ll need to drill out with a hand drill. Figure shows the wires soldered directly to the stripboard pads.
If you d like to add some strain relief, you can drill out a few extra holes in an unused area of the stripboard. Next, divide the wire into two groups one for positive and negative, and three for the analog pins , and feed the wires through large holes in the board before you solder them.
That way, if you tug on the wires, they ll pull against the holes before they pull against your solder joints. Figure Stripboard layout for mounting QTR 1A reflectance sensors for line following To ensure that the mounting bolts don t short the tracks, you can either cut the tracks as shown in Figure you will be cutting along the third column from the left, or the C column or use insulated washers between the bolts heads and the tracks.
Figure shows how the header sockets are connected, and Figure shows the completed stripboard, with the ribbon cable connected. A ten inch length of cable is more than ample.
Figure shows the other end of the ribbon connected to shield pins. The three holes shown will suit either chassis but you may prefer to wait until you have built the chassis and only drill the holes you need.
Next Steps The next stage in building the robot is to assemble the chassis. Chapter 3 covers the two-wheeled robot and Chapter 4 is for the four-wheeled version. Construction is straightforward; you can follow the detailed steps or improvise if you want to customize your robot. The chapter also shows how you attach and connect sensors used in the projects covered in later chapters.
If you prefer to build a two wheeled robot of your own design, you should read the sections on attaching control electronics and sensors; this will prepare you to use the code for the projects in the chapters to come. Information in this chapter my also provide some ideas to help with the design of your own robot.
The three black brackets to the left of the figure are not needed for any of the projects in this book. Locate the two bolts with the flat heads and put them aside for mounting the battery case.
Also identify the two thicker M4 bolts that will be used to attach the caster. The remaining short bolts in this pack are identical. Chapter 3 23 42 Mechanical Assembly Figure WD hardware pack contents Motor Assembly Use two long bolts with lock washers and nuts, as shown in Figure , to attach each motor to the chassis lower plate.
Tighten the nuts snugly but take care not to stress the plastic motor housing. Lock washers are used to prevent a nut from accidentally coming lose due to vibration. This is particularly important for attaching the motor and switch. These washers have a split ring or serrations that apply extra friction when tightened.
If you find that things still come lose, don t overtighten the nuts; an effective solution is retighten the nut and apply a dab of nail polish to the point where the threads emerge from the nut. Figure shows the motors in place with the nut seen on the upper right ready to be tightened.
Motors mounted on the chassis lower plate Chapter 3 25 44 Mechanical Assembly Figure Motor Assembly Assemble the Chassis Components Push the wheels onto the motor assembly shafts, aligning the slots in the wheels with the flat section of the motor shaft. Attach the caster with two M4 bolts and nuts.
Figure and Figure show this. Motor Assembly Figure Wheels and caster mounted Chapter 3 27 46 Mechanical Assembly Attach the sensor bracket to the underside of the lower chassis plate, as seen in Figure and Figure This robot is sometimes built with the sensor plate mounted at the opposite end of the chassis furthest from the caster.
You can build yours however you like, but the orientation shown here enables the servo mounted distance scanner to be attached in the front of the robot. Also, the sensor bracket in this location maximizes the distance between the wheels and the line sensors and this improves line following sensitivity.
Figure shows the underside of the chassis after mounting the sensor bracket. Note that the sensor bracket is attached to the bottom of the chassis plate. Sensor bracket viewed with the robot right side up Figure Sensor bracket viewed with the robot upside down The battery pack is bolted to the bottom base plate with two countersunk flat headed Phillips bolts as shown in Figure and Figure You may want to delay this step until after the battery leads have been soldered to make it easier to position all the wires.
Connect a 0.
The switch is mounted using two M6 nuts and a lock washer. Then place the lock washer on the thread and push this through the opening in the rear plate and secure with the second M6 nut.
Orient the switch so the toggle moves towards the jack, as shown in Figure and Figure Figure shows the view from beneath.
Figure Switch and Jack Assembly 30 Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot 49 Mechanical Assembly Figure Top panel showing location of switch and DC jack Figure Top panel underside showing orientation of switch and jack The battery can be wired as shown in Figure and Figure The power switch will disconnect the battery when the robot is not in use.
The DC jack is not used in this configuration other than as a junction point for the black ground wires. The switch is off when the toggle is closer to the DC jack as shown the toggle is a lever; when the exposed end is up as seen in the figure, the contact at the bottom is connected and the contact wired to the shield is open.
Figure Basic Switch Wiring no trickle charger Chapter 3 31 50 Mechanical Assembly Figure Solder the battery wires to the switch You can build a simple trickle charger into the robot if you will be using rechargeable NiMH batteries. The charger can be built using the circuit shown in Figure and Figure See Trickle Charging page for information about using the charger.
To prevent the Arduino pins from accidentally shorting to the chassis, apply insulating tape to the underside of the Arduino board. Gaffer tape works well but you can use non-conductive duct tape or heavy duty electrical tape. Attach the hairy side of the Velcro to the taped Arduino board, the hook side is fastened as shown in Figure Chapter 3 33 52 Mechanical Assembly Figure Velcro pad in position on the 2WD chassis.
Inset shows Velcro attached to the Arduino board. Figure shows the mounted boards. The Velcro will hold the boards in position when the robot is moving about, but use one hand to steady the Arduino when you unplug the shield and take care not to use too much downward pressure that could push the Arduino pins through the tape when plugging in the shield.
Use a 10mm spacer and M2. The hole near the DC jack at the lower left is not used. The spacer is required for a Leonardo board because there is insufficient space for an M3 bolt in the munting hole near the switch. The Uno board has more room so you can use a another of the 10mm spacers and M3 hardware for mounting that board. Figure shows the location of the mounting points viewed from the underside of the panel. Left and right are from the robot s perspective the right wheel is the one closest to the switch.
Figure shows the main electronics in place. Figure Motor and battery connections Chapter 3 37 56 Mounting the IR sensors Figure WD built and ready to mount sensors Mounting the IR sensors This section covers mounting of the infrared IR reflectance sensors for use in edge detecting or line following.
This section explains how to mount these to the 2WD platform and connect them to Arduino. The first projects in this book should have the sensors mounted as shown in the section on edge detection. When you are ready to implement the line following application in Chapter 9, refer back to the section here on positioning the sensors 38 Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot 57 Mounting the IR sensors for line following.
The stripboard mount described in Making a Line Sensor Mount page 17 simplifies the attachment and wiring of the sensors for line detection and this can also be used for edge detection, but bear in mind that the robot will perform the edge detection task best with the sensors further apart.
If the sensors are close together, the robot can have difficulty determining the best angle to turn when an edge is encountered. Download from Wow!
These should be spaced as widely as possible. The ideal location is with each sensor positioned in front of a wheel so an edge can be detected before a wheel would otherwise fall off a cliff.
However, if your priority is simplicity of construction rather than accuracy of edge detection, you can use the same mount described in the next section covering line detection. The side with the sensor faces the ground and the header pins face upwards.
Figure , Figure , Figure , and Figure show suggested mounting. Making a Line Sensor Mount page 17 describes how to build a stripboard mount for line sensing. However, you can also mount and attach each sensors as described in this section if you want to experiment with how varying the spacing of the sensors affects line following.
The sensors can be attached using or M2 hardware. The component side faces down and the header pins face upwards. Attach the ultrasonic sensor to the servo holder using two zip ties.
Luckily, if you have Read More. Grab the upper part of the chassis and set it on top of the copper shafts connected to the lower part, and pull the wires attached to the H bridge through the hole in the center of the chassis. Set the six-AA battery holder on top of the chassis screw it down if you can , attach the 9V cell holder to the Arduino, and this bot is ready to rock!
Well, almost ready to rock. There we go. Now to give it a brain. Big thanks to Billwaa for his blog post on using the H-bridge for defining these functions.
You should see a rapidly updating sequence of numbers. Hold your hand in front of the sensor and see if that number changes. Move your hand in and out, and you should get a measurement of how far away your hand is from the sensor.
Here's a guide to exactly what you'll find in your kit. Read More to add more functionality. Let us know if you decide to build this robot or another one, and tell us how you decide to customize its behavior or looks.