FOR BETTER. PHOTOGRAPHY. • PHOTOGRAPHY IS A SCIENCE, BECAUSE. THERE ARE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF. PHYSICS THAT GOVERN SUCCESS. Photographer Julie Adair King is the author of several popular books about digital Unless otherwise noted, photographs throughout the book appear courtesy. It's perfect for beginner photographers with their first camera. If you enjoyed reading this tutorial we've put together a series of other similar articles that you.
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This complete guide to photography for beginners will walk you though everything you need to It's a really worthy read and one of my favorite tutorials to date. Digital cameras employ an electronic sensor consisting of a large number of square cells or “pixels”. Photons hitting a cell create an electrical charge. Photography as both a profession and a hobby is an incredibly expansive topic that covers a remarkably vast range of subjects from science.
Learn from professional photographers in the field During our day trip VIP tour, we are allowing a select 4 guests to join us per vehicle. Together we will capture African wildlife in all its glory and experience the incredible wildebeest migration and so much more. Animal highlights include… Witness thousands of wildebeest and zebra in a frenzied stampede across the celebrated Mara river! There is a quiet drama besides the spectacular glaciers, mountain, and seashore. The soft green cliffs and fields that stretch to the water are speckled with sheep and the multitude of waterfalls adds to the visual delight.
Further Reading: Read more about the Exposure Triangle. Master Metering Through out all of the above discussion, I have said that the camera calculates the exposure depending on the amount of available light, but what is it actually doing?
When taking a photograph, using any form of automatic exposure calculation e. This is known as metering, and it is the reason that if you point your camera at a bright white scene, such as after it has snowed, and take a photograph the resulting image will always appear darker than you or I see it. Similarly, if you point your camera at a really dark scene, such as a low-lit room, and take a photograph the resulting image will always be brighter than you or I see it.
The scene is always being averaged by the camera and most of the time that results in the image appearing to be correctly exposed. However, you can control what areas of the scene are being assessed by the camera in order to influence the way in which the exposure is metered. Practically speaking: when starting out with your camera, either average or centre weighted metering are a good starting point.
They will both provide a fairly consistent measure of the exposure required and, if you select one mode and stick with it, you will soon begin to understand when a scene will be under exposed i. That is where exposure compensation comes in.
It allows you to either increase or decrease the cameras default meter reading to account for the actual brightness of a scene. A spring lamb leaping in front of a snowy hillside. Left: Straight out of camera, with the snow caught as grey. The bright snowy background caused my camera to underexpose this scene by nearly two stops, which could have been corrected by exposure compensation in camera. Learn About Focussing Regardless of what shooting mode you are using, or what ISO you define, the chances are there will be a subject of your image that you want to have in focus.
If that focus is not achieved, the image will not be what you wanted. This is best used when taking photos of stationary subjects such as portraits of people, landscapes, buildings etc. When you half-press the shutter, the focus will be acquired and locked on that point for as long as you hold the button down.
If you want to change to focus, you need to release the button, recompose and then re-half-press. AF-C — autofocus-continuous. This is best used when taking photos of action or moving subjects such as sports and wildlife. When you half-press the shutter, focus will be acquired and locked on to a given subject.
When that subject moves, the focus will adjust with it, refocusing all of the time until the photograph is taken.
That switch is an override for if you want to manually focus your lens. If you want to make use of the autofocus modes discussed above, ensure the lens is set to AF.
When you half-press the shutter, you should see one of these squares be highlighted in red. That is the active focus point, and it is that position within the frame that the camera is focussing on. A viewfinder with 9 focus points is shown below: New DSLRs can come with over 50 focus points and the temptation is to leave it on fully automatic focus point selection, with the thinking that the camera will be able to select the correct focus point.
However, only you know what you want to focus on, and there is no better way than ensuring the correct subject is in focus than by using one focus point, and placing that focus point over the subject. If you select a single focus point, you should be able to change which point is active fairly easily either by using directional buttons one of the dials. If you select a focus point that is on your desired subject, you will ensure that the camera focuses where you want it to.
After a small amount of practice, you will soon get into the habit of being able to change the focus point without taking the camera away form your eye. This way, you will be able to choose what you are focussing on, ensuring that the subject you want to capture is in focus.
Once you are familiar with the basic focussing modes and focus point selection, you can then explore the more advanced modes that your camera may offer.
Understand File Size and Types You will have the option to be able to change the size of the images that your camera records, and in which file type. A raw file is uncompressed, and so contains a lot of image data that allows for a lot of flexibility during post-processing i. A jpeg is a compressed file type, that is automatically processed by the camera. Practically speaking: When starting out with your camera, using jpeg is the most straight forward.
It will enable you to get the best results whilst you learn the basics or your camera before complicating matters with post-processing of raw files. Learn about White balance If shooting in jpeg, as recommended above, you will need to make sure you set your white balance before taking a picture. The white balance can significantly impact colour tone of your photographs.
You may have noticed that sometimes your images have a blueish tone to them or, in others, everything looks very orange. This is to do with the white balance and, whilst you can make some adjustments to the image on your computer, it is much simpler if you get it right up-front.
Different light sources such as the sun, light bulbs, fluorescent strips etc emit light of different wavelengths, and therefore colours, which can be described by what is known as colour temperature. This coloured light is reflected off of surfaces, but our brain in clever enough to recognise this and automatically counter the effect, meaning that we still see a white surface as a white surface.
However, your camera is not that intelligent, and unless told otherwise, will record the orange or blue tones giving the colour cast to your images. Left: The image captured using auto white balance has a heavy yellow tone from the artificial street lighting. We are only calculating exposure time here… nothing more, nothing less!
ISO and Aperture do not effect the Rule calculated exposure time or vice versa. The Rule is a rule of thumb, not an exact science.
I will cover the aperture and ISO settings below, but first we need to calculate exposure time. The Rule ensures these trails are small and unnoticeable when printing, viewing online, or in any other format. Using the crop factor calculated above and the focal length you will be shooting with, calculate the maximum exposure time your camera can capture, prior to exhibiting star trails.
You can reference the Rule Chart provided above, and the Rule Equation provided below to perform your calculation. This is the correct mathematical order of operations. If you exceed the calculated maximum exposure time provided by the Rule your picture will exhibit star trails. Always remember, this is just a rule of thumb. Use the Rule when you are starting out.
After experimenting with different exposure times and ISO Settings per the section below you will no longer need to reference the Rule every time you shoot. Although this is what the Rule recommends, I tend to prefer shooting in the range of seconds for much sharper images.
I found these to be the best results from comparing images of different exposure times and ISO values to see which turned out the best. Try this experiment yourself and see what works. The more expensive your wide angle lens, the less distortion and sharp image it produces. The following images were captured using a Nikon D and Nikkor mm lens 14mm.
This is why we selected exposure time and aperture prior to selecting an ISO setting for our Milky Way photos.
There is no reason to degrade picture quality by increasing ISO to obtain a brighter image when you can keep the same picture quality and increase the brightness using a longer exposure or a wider aperture, given your photo is not exhibiting star trails. Follow the next steps to select an acceptable ISO setting for your photo. All of your other settings should still be the same, as calculated above: Step 1: Adjust your camera to ISO and take a practice shot.
This practice shot will most likely be dark. If it is, move on to step 2. Take another practice shot. Most likely this shot will still be very dark.
If it is, move to step 3. TIP: There is no need to over-expose your star photos. They can be fairly dark just like the night sky that surrounds you. The camera picks up much more data than is actually displayed on the preview screen. This data can be brought out in post processing. Step 4: Once the Milky Way is clearly visible in your photos, you have found an ISO setting that works well for the given composition and situation.
Depending on the camera make and model, you may notice a lot of noise in your photo. You may also notice that you have increased your ISO to the maximum setting and the photo is still not bright enough. Other than adjustments in post processing, there is nothing else that can be done about maxing out your ISO prior to having a bright enough photo.
This is where it truly helps to have a full frame camera. There are many methods to combat this noise using Photoshop. You can apply the same skill sets taught in this course to night sky photography.
When you master the basics, everything else becomes easy.