Amizade, Diferença e Educação: reflexões a partir de Zygmunt Bauman Tendo como ponto de partida que vivemos em um tempo no qual as relações humanas são regidas Amor líquido: Acerca de la fragilidad de los vínculos humanos. Friendship, Difference and Education: reflections from Zygmunt Bauman. Rafael Bianchi Silva. IUniversidade .. [ Links ]. BAUMAN, Zygmunt. Tempos Líquidos. ISSN tvnovellas.info This review intends to identify the main ideas of Zygmunt Bauman's Liquid Times.
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Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. READ PAPER. Download pdf. ×Close. Terrorismo, desemprego, solidão - fenômenos típicos de uma era na qual, para PDF File: Tempos líquidos. Baixar Livro Tempos Líquidos - Zygmunt. Bauman. Zygmunt Bauman ( marraskuuta Poznań – 9. tammikuuta Leeds, Britannia) oli Zygmunt Bauman: Vivemos tempos líquidos. zygmunt bauman liquid modernity pdf · zygmunt bauman written works · zygmunt bauman liquid.
Contemporary Art Collection, Barcelona. A highly digitized and continually changing contemporary world where nothing remains and everything is permanently changed by a never-ending flux of information. A landscape dominated by globalization, by temporality, in which inequality has replaced our welfare society. The exhibition comprises fourteen videos that reflect different decades of our changing society, tracing a journey through the turn of the century we have experienced in our lives. The s were characterized by a rise in the tensions of the Cold War under the growing shade of the nuclear threat, and by the laying out of the foundations for a neoliberal economy. The s were marked by the fall of communism and by the influence of technology, culture, and music in our society. In our present decade, still carrying the brunt of the economic crisis, we witness the political and social transformations rocking the Arab countries, we see the European Union plunge deeper into its crisis, all this while new technologies keep introducing dramatic changes into our society, culture, and labor relations.
Since the turn of the millennium, his books have tried to avoid the confusion surrounding the term "postmodernity" by using the metaphors of "liquid" and "solid" modernity. In his books on modern consumerism, Bauman still writes of the same uncertainties that he portrayed in his writings on "solid" modernity; but in these books he writes of fears becoming more diffuse and harder to pin down.
Indeed, they are, to use the title of one of his books, "liquid fears" — fears about paedophilia , for instance, which are amorphous and have no easily identifiable reference. Adorno Award of the city of Frankfurt in In this book Bauman is said to have copied verbatim paragraphs from Wikipedia articles on Slow Food and steady-state economy , along with their bibliography, without attributing sources, authors or the fact that they were copied from Wikipedia.
He did use a paragraph from the article on the golden handshake , but this citation was properly attributed to Wikipedia.
Giroux concluded: "This charge against Bauman is truly despicable. It's a reactionary ideological critique dressed up as the celebration of method and a back-door defence of a sterile empiricism and culture of positivism.
This is a discourse that enshrines data, correlations, and performance, while eschewing matters of substance, social problems, and power.
Warszawa: Iskry. Questions and Concepts]. Preliminaria [Culture and Society, Preliminaries]. ISBN Comunidad. En busca de seguridad en un mundo hostil.
Siglo XXI. ISBN La sociedad sitiada. Confianza y temor en la ciudad.
ISBN Identidad. ISBN Vida de consumo. Madrid, Katz Barpal.
ISBN El arte de la vida. De la vida como obra de arte. Arcadia, Paidos Estado y Sociedad. Ceguera moral. Noiz kontsultatua: Thus, constructing a society that can appease such elements becomes important. The study begins with the mapping of the values present in the consumer society to understand how these values also start including human relations.
In a second moment, we investigate how friendship can be debated having the work of Bauman as a starting point and how it would configure itself, through love, as a resistance to the lifestyle disseminated by the consumer society. Finally, under this perspective, the link between friendship and school education will be questioned to think about the possible impacts derived from the previous discussion and alternatives to the problems presented will be drawn.
By analyzing the loss of parameters for life, bonds that Bauman states that, as an operative form, the current society appears as a consumer society, in which different practices are geared towards the acquisition of new and different products that appear as means of solution to daily problems and additionally, as the promise of happiness b; a.
More than that, the acquisition of objects becomes related to the way the individual defines itself. Balestrin, Strey and Argemi , p.
Seen as an expression of freedom and lightness, individuals voluntarily adhere to the values transmitted by the consumer market, which gives human relations a new ethical status. In this new version,. In this context, the difficulties of existence can be resolved by the act of download and, moreover, the bonds start being located and mediated by the consumption and through temporary encounters in shopping malls.
Hence, having different school spaces as one of the operators, the human education put into practice in contemporary society needs to direct the individuals very early to two basic processes: In addition to the impossibility of putting into practice such promise of complete happiness, the consumer society generates new grounds for the relational forms on individuals, which are based on the principle of cost effectiveness.
As an effect, relations become progressively frailer, in addition to the difficulty in maintaining bonds. As Bauman points out a , p.
In the world of liquid modernity, the solidity of things and the solidity of the human bonds is a threat: From the aforementioned quotation it is possible to reflect on the issues that derive from the bonding forms. The stronger the intensity of the bond and the longer it lasts, the greater the possibility of restricting the conduct, which evidences the absence of unconditional freedom - this panorama points to the need for the management of dissatisfaction and ambivalence.
Thus, the intensity of pleasure and the pleasure of being with another is inversely proportional to the density of the exchanges. Considering the otherness, understood here as the existence of two subjects with unique features and impossible to be completely previewed in advance to the relation.
Even a small problem can break the bond; trivial disagreements become bitter disputes, small frictions are taken as signs of essential mismatch and irreparable damage […] Bauman, c , p. Emotional relations become liquid because they are fast; but this same process liquidates what is most real in a relation, the ability to be durable, increasing the generation of meaningful experiences for the individual.
In this sense, the development of new technologies is a response to the demands of this relational impoverishment. At the same time, they favor the maintenance of the bonds and it also pushes individuals away from face-to-face relations. Bauman a mentions that the world of liquid-modernity has a dual form of relating to the reality that can be described using the binomial online-offline.
The presence in the online universe allows individuals a protection in relation to another while increasing the possibility of avoiding displeasure, considered by the author as something within relations characterized by intensity and proximity.
Although such uncomfortable sensations may occur, everything can be ended by disconnecting from the network. As Xavier and Neves , p. Digital connections might offer the illusion of company without the demands and obligations of friendship. Bauman claims that to strengthen the bonds, the universe of online relations needs to go through the sieve of offline relations, in other words, although there is some kind of virtual bond, it is necessary to test it in the world of practical life, full of contradictions, ambivalence and discomfort, in which people cannot be deleted or disconnected at the slightest sign of dissatisfaction.
This experience is critical to the process, because the existence of the other persists in its bodily materialization, in the vision and in the expression on the face, which refreshes the moral dimension in human relations.
The author exposes this problem regarding life in large cities and states that they turned into a meeting point for the difference. Human relations, in their lone version are mediated by the strangeness and by the need to maintain a reliable distance in relation to others.
This is taken as sign of danger, which makes the definition of criteria fundamental for the differences. In other words, although staying away from the differences is impossible, the different is established, where they can circulate and which measures should be taken if the rules are broken.
In this sense, it is noteworthy what Bauman c , p. The other is a danger and therefore impossible to remain completely away; the issue of safety and risk management becomes important for life policies.
The tendency to a homogeneous environment, isolated in its territory, can be started by mixophobia. But practicing territorial separation is the life preserver and the fuel of mixophobia; it gradually becomes their main reinforcement Bauman, , p. Thus, hiding on the islands of similarity ensures some possibility of getting away from the ambivalence of being with the other.
According to the author, staying among equals in this situation becomes a protection in the immediate living, pushing groups with different identities away. This question is discussed by Bauman d , p.
By definition, the foreigner is someone whose action is guided by intentions that, at most, one can guess, but that no one ever will know for sure. The foreigner is the unknown variable in the calculation of the equations when the time to make decisions on what to do comes. Thus, even when foreigners are not openly attacked and offended, their presence in our field of action always causes discomfort and transforms the prediction of the effects of an action, their odds of success or failure into an arduous effort.
Therefore, the strange becomes an important concept for our discussion, considering that we are strangers to others in the same way that others are strangers to us. Furthermore, we are strangers to ourselves. Our forms of conduct in relation to the other end up surprising us, the reverse is also true. Thus, the investigation of friendship relations necessarily goes through an ethical debate that, in turn, points to new forms of acting in the public space and its impacts on the settings of the everyday life of the school institution.
Regarding the ethical problem, Bauman reflects on the forms in which the modern society has set parameters for human relations. He points that an outpouring of a series of codes of conduct has been observed, instead of uniting people, these codes evidence the differences between them. Following laws and rules and having the conduct guided by conventions is not enough for human formation, according to the author.
It is necessary to share spaces, ideas, take responsibility for what is common and dare to live with each other in the condition of difference. This new perspective points to the moral dimension, which is defined by the unrestricted responsibility that an individual has in relation to another Bauman, ; b. The denser the relations, the greater the potential to experience the emotional intensity of the existence of the other.
Influenced by Levinas, Bauman states that the face of the other shows the frailty of both of those involved in the relation - this justifies the necessary moral commitment, which has love as its greatest expression. Differentiating from romantic love, dense bonds are configured as a condition for the establishment of bonds that give the other the condition of existence and uniqueness.
At the same time, love offers the necessary trust for the maintenance of the negotiated bonds. To use is to annihilate the other for the sake of the own person. Love, on the other hand, means to value the other by its otherness, wishing to strengthen it, protecting this otherness, making it flourish and thrive, being ready to sacrifice his own comfort, including his own mortal existence, if this is necessary to meet this intention […] Bauman, c, p.
This type of bonding is characterized by Bauman b as meta integration, which creates a type of coexistence that promotes the creation of new bonds. The meta integration serves as a backdrop for meetings that ultimately produce contexts of living territories not yet explored in the relation with the other.
In another moment, the author claims that:. Therefore, we observe that by raising and considering your condition of uniqueness, human relations provide the experiences of difference and otherness. Ortega , p. The ethic will act as a project-to-subjectiveness. This is because:. I am responsible for the effects of my love […] My love has consequences, and I accept them along the new and increasing responsibilities arising […] Bauman, , p. In this context, the other cannot be dissolved in the many, a widely spread process in contemporary times.