it to self-extinguish when the source of ignition is removed. The most commonly used test method is ASTM D*. Standard Test Method for Flame Resistance. (nylon 6,6/cotton fiber fabric) and self-extinguish (flame retardant rayon/nylon 6 ,6/para-aramid fiber fabric) in the standard vertical flame test (ASTM D). Available at tvnovellas.info Available at tvnovellas.info 0xc1aae_0xepdf. ISO/TS ASTM D/DM ().
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astm f 11 epub comparability suggestions and reviews of accessories you . d pass char length md astm d in. char length xd astm d . astm f 11 consumer guide Astm f 11 ePub comparability .. garments using the ASTM F test method and the ASTM D test method. Using the . ASTM D/DM: Standard Test Method for Flame Resistance of Textiles ( Vertical Test).
Proposals not conforming to the terms of this Solicitation will not be considered. The Army reserves the right to limit awards under any topic, and only those proposals of superior scientific and technical quality will be funded. This firm is expressly prohibited from competing for SBIR awards and from scoring or ranking of proposals or recommending the selection of a source. In accomplishing their duties related to the source selection process, the aforementioned firm may require access to proprietary information contained in the offerors' proposals. Therefore, pursuant to FAR 9. These agreements will remain on file with the Army SBIR program management office at the address above.
Hover: Both manned and unmanned rotorcraft need sensors to detect obstacles during hover. However, the areas behind the rotorcraft may be displayed from the persistent database scanned previously during the approach-to-hover. Low level and contour flight: On a synthetic vision display, an artificial image of the terrain is rendered from either a stored terrain database, or else sensor data.
The pilot uses the perspective view image of the terrain to make decisions on the route to take over the terrain. In a combat environment, the desired route is below hill-top level, using valleys to mask the aircraft against radar detection.
Distant terrain is rendered from a stored terrain elevation database since accuracy is not critical for distant terrain , while close terrain is rendered from sensor or sensor-checked data. This system corrects errors in the persistent, stored terrain elevation database, while keeping sensor power low because only the close terrain is checked.
However the resolution requirements are less than that required for landing and hover. A single type sensor may not meet all the requirements. A hybrid system seems like a logical solution. However, single sensor solutions will be acceptable if the proposal addresses the requirements. Very wide fields-of-regard will be required both in the horizontal axis, and the vertical axis, possibly requiring sensor arrays. In the vertical direction, the sensor system needs to see obstacles below the aircraft, as well as in front of the aircraft.
The goal is to be able to see at least 20 seconds in front of the aircraft, for any speed up to knots. This topic requires data processing electronics to covert raw elevation, azimuth, and range data from the sensors into a form that off-the-shelf terrain rendering software can import. Data processing should also remove noise false signals from the final output.
An industry and academia survey is appropriate for this phase of this SBIR. Deliver a phase I report on the feasibility of the system, with supporting evidence if possible that the system can be successfully build in phase II.
Deliver a prototype system ready for flight test. Provide documentation necessary to integrate and operate the sensor system on a UH aircraft.
Deliver a phase II report on the design and test results of the sensor system. This sensor system should reduce the number of helicopter accidents in marginal visibility conditions, and inadvertent IMC conditions, as well as enabling poor weather operations.
When the report includes all flight phases, in-flight collision with objects is the lead first event, followed by collision with terrain. Branigan R. TC , This technology should be equally applicable to marine applications in the Navy and commercial fleets.
Ideally such a system would be small and compact enough to mount on a variety of manned and unmanned systems likely to be developed under FCS as well as be able to be retrofitted on trucks and other vehicles. Moreover such a system would support automated refueling and rearming.
Although many people are developing launch and recovery capabilities from a variety of vehicles, the major technical challenge comes from doing it on the move at a significant speed.
Much like in naval automated take-off and landing systems for helicopters, the difficulty in landing on a platform that can be moving in 3D is extreme and when combined with the obstacles associated with operating in urban environments and other complex terrains becomes a technology challenge in search of an innovative solution. This effort will focus on addressing the key technical challenges associated with doing the launch and recovery on the move and not the packaging and support capabilities refueling, maintenance of the entire module.
The key technologies to be addressed in this effort include: 1. Terminal guidance system capable of synchronizing movements of the vehicle and the UAV. A means for assessing obstructions in the vicinity and its projected path of the platform.
The ability to secure and release the UAV on the move reliably without damaging it. To be applicable for UAVLR-OTM, the technologies must also have the potential to fit in a small mountable package on the ground vehicle, minimal impact on UAV payload and functionality, have realistic power requirements, and must be able to be engaged remotely and be fully autonomous relative to the launch and recovery operation.
Prime concern in this effort needs to be the safety of the manned vehicle and the potential impact on bystanders. Besides being used on ground vehicles, this type of system would have direct application to naval vessels and would pave the way for ultimately developing a airborne launch and recovery.
Although this effort will focus on the key launch and recovery sub components, a complete concept or a mobile UAV platform would also include capabilities for refueling and rearming, act as a maintenance platform for the UAV in the field to include automated diagnostics, and provide the opportunity to shield the UAV while mounted on the platform.
For this effort, the offerer is free to consider concepts applicable to either fixed-wing or rotary-wing UAVs and air vehicle up lbs gross weight.
Flight characteristic speeds and physical dimensions of the UAV need to be consistent with landing on a moving vehicle. Concepts applicable to smaller UAV as low as a few tens of pounds would also be of interest. The trade study will consider a range of application ranging from: 1 speed up to 25 miles per hour on uneven and winding terrain to 2 improved roads in urban and residential community with speeds up to 45 miles per hour.
Design and develop a complete UAVLR-OTM system, install it on a small military vehicle or surrogate, and conduct testing to characterize system performance. This technology could enable a vast assortment of new and unanticipated applications of UAV technology in both the commercial and military domains. Mitchell, A. Bayen, C. Tomlin, and A. Horn; Lyle N. Boschitsch, T. Quackenbush, J. Keller, and D. Future missions will require these systems to spend a significant amount of time at cruise part power conditions with the objective of increased range and time-on-station.
Therefore, the advanced turboshaft engines of the future will be required to provide significantly improved performance at part power in order to support these missions. A reheat cycle in which heat is added between the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine power turbine of a turboshaft engine has shown great potential for improved part power performance. Table 5: LOI test results of the samples. The flame retardant treatment of fabrics caused a reduction in pHRR. Important flammability parameters obtained by the cone calorimeter are presented in Table 6.
TTI values of fabrics treated with ZnB were reduced possibly due to the lower thermal stability of stabilizing agent used for milling and binder used to enhance washing-fastness.
The early degradation of the binder and stabilizing agent could lead to the increase of combustible volatiles TTI values as the concentration of ZnB increased.
Zinc borate acts as an insulation barrier for the transfer of heat and oxygen to the fabric besides cooling the substrate by endothermic reactions [ 34 ]. However, the incorporation of ZnB reduced the mean CO yield and total smoke produced.
As the amount of ZnB particles deposited on fabric surface increases, the value of TTI increases due to the formation of a protective layer which delays ignition. Table 6: Cone calorimeter test results of all samples. Figure 9: HRR curves of all samples. From the cone calorimeter results, it is obvious that ZnB reduced mean CO yield, total smoke release, and smoke production values.
These results confirm that ZnB particles slow down the production of volatile species and promote char formation.
Vertical Flame Test Results Flammability of treated fabrics was evaluated in terms of vertical flame test. Figure 10 shows images of reference sample and all flame retardant treated fabric samples. Test results are given in Table 7.
In terms of flammability, favourable results were obtained for polyester fabrics treated with commercial flame retardants. Samples treated only with ZnB, namely, Z50 and Z, completely burned but Z did not completely burn due to higher amount of ZnB used. Increasing the amount of ZnB applied improves the flammability of polyester fabrics. The replacement of ZnB partially with the commercial flame retardants did not further improve the flammability. After flame time and char length were increased, zinc borate was concluded to be more compatible with PEK.
The incorporation in ZnB reduced the dripping behaviour and increased char formation. Table 7: Vertical flame test results of all fabric samples. Figure Fabrics after vertical flammability test. When sodium sulfate was added to the milling media, the measured particle size of ZnB was reduced to nm as a result of the increase in overall ionic strength.
When zinc borate solutions were applied to the polyester woven fabrics, the final residue increased in thermogravimetric analysis Table 4. The less amount of flame retardant agent used may be the primary cause of the reduction in final mass.
Zinc borate protected the substrate from the transfer of oxygen and heat by forming a vitreous char layer. However, these values could not be further improved by the substitution of zinc borate. The substitution of either PEK or PSY by zinc borate did not enhance the flammability properties of polyester fabrics as also shown by LOI and vertical flammability tests.
Combination of zinc borate by organophosphorus based FR slightly reduced the LOI value and vertical flammability of the fabric but the mean CO and total smoke release values were also decreased. However, such add-on may impair the physical properties of polyester fabrics.
Data Availability All the data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. References A. Horrocks and D. Price, Eds. View at Google Scholar A. Horrocks and S. Anand, Eds. Weil and S. Alongi, M. Ciobanu, J. Tata, F. Carosio, and G. Alongi and G. Guido, J. Alongi, C. Colleoni et al. Younis, K. El-Nagar, and M.
Younis, M. Nour, and K.
Alongi, J. Carosio, G. Rosace, A. Frache, and G. Ding, J. Zhang, X. Liu, X. Feng, H. Zhang, and K. Matzen, B. Kandola, C. Huth, and B. Salmeia, J. Fage, S. Liang, and S. Bourbigot, M. Le Bras, R. Leeuwendal, K. Shen, and D. Kilinc, G.
Cakal, G. Method Dimensional Changes on Drycleaning in Per- 3. Terminology new or modified textile material, that is, fabric, is used to 3. A modification in the fabric could be, but performance specification, refer to Terminology D The afterflame ceases when flaming is no longer visible. Fabric perfor- 3. Garment performance information includes, but is dyeing, or finishing procedure. Requirements results for the performance specification requirements noted within this standard for single or multilayer garment systems.
Fasteners or closures that are used in this absence of such an employer or entity, the individual purchas- manner shall be covered with a layer of material between the ing and utilizing the protective equipment. The material used for this purpose shall meet the requirements of this performance 4. Significance and Use specification. NOTE 2—Characteristics for example, clothing ensembles, design, and 4.
These may include, but are not limited to, Appendix X1. Therefore, except 6. This safe use of such equipment. Materials and Manufacture is distinct to the Fabric Producer and the fabric.
If any fabric layer of a bonded or quilted unit is 5.