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History[ edit ] The history of textbooks dates back to ancient civilizations. For example, Ancient Greeks wrote educational texts. The modern textbook has its roots in the mass production made possible by the printing press. Early textbooks were used by tutors and teachers e. The Greek philosopher Plato lamented the loss of knowledge because the media of transmission were changing. The new technology of writing meant stories no longer needed to be memorized, a development Socrates feared would weaken the Greeks' mental capacities for memorizing and retelling. Ironically, we know about Socrates' concerns only because they were written down by his student Plato in his famous Dialogues.
You will understand that oil does not mix with water. Oil is insoluble in water. Solubility of gases How do aquatic living things breathe? Oxygen present in the air is soluble in water. So they breathe the oxygen dissolved in water. The marine plants take the carbon-di-oxide dissolved in sea-water for the photosynthesis. The soda water, we drink, is containing dissolved carbondi-oxide gas. Generally gases are soluble in water but certain gases like hydrogen and nitrogen are insoluble in water. The substances which are insoluble in water may be soluble in some other solvents.
Paints are insoluble in water. But they are soluble in kerosene. Pour some water in each. Add a small quantity of sand in the first test tube, salt in the second test tube and starch powder in the third one and shake them. Sand does not dissolve in water. Salt completely dissolves. Starch powder is partially soluble. Do you observe any change in volume? The volume of iron piece does not change. When pressure is applied over liquids their volume does not decrease. Place that end on a table and press the piston of the syringe downwards.
The volume of the water does not decrease. When pressure is applied over gases, their volume decrease considerably. Since the distance between the particles of a gas is more, they come closer when pressure is applied. Air is sucked in. Close the open end with a cork. Keep the closed end on a table and press the piston downwards.
The piston moves easily as the air in the syringe gets compressed. Change of state due to heat i Solid liquid Take out some ice cubes from a refrigerator. Place them in a cup and heat it. Solid ice melts into liquid water. The transformation of a solid matter into liquid when heated is called melting. The ice-deposits in the Himalayas melt due to heat of the Sun and flow as Ganga and Brhamaputra rivers.
Water boils and vapours of water steam come out. The transformation of a liquid into vapour by heating is called evaporation.
The sea water evaporates due to Sun light and forms clouds in the sky. Steam gas heat Ice solid heat Water Liquid. Certain solids when heated, are converted to vapour state without passing through the liquid state. This is called sublimation. Substances like naphthalene, benzoic acid, iodine and ammonium chloride have the property of sublimation.
Heat it. Stop heating and observe the change. Change of state due to cooling i Gas Liquid We enjoy when it rains. How do we get the rain from the sky? The water vapour in the cloud gets cooled and forms tiny particles of water. These water particles unite and form water drops which fall as rain. It does not melt into a liquid. But it evaporates into vapour. Observe the outer surface of the tumbler after sometime. What do you see? What do you understand? Water drops get collected on the outer surface of the tumbler.
This is due to the condensation of water vapour present in the atmospheric air. Or you must have seen such deposits of ice in the television pictures.
How does the ice get deposited on the mountains? Water gets cooled due to severe cold climate at high altitude and converted to ice. These ice particles deposit over the mountains and trees during winter Fig. The transformation of a liquid into solid due to cooling is called freezing. The following representation gives you a clear understanding of change of states of matter.
Diffusion of a gas in a gas When you return from school in the evening, you must have smelt the nice odour of your mother's spicy tiffin. How are you able to get the smell of the food being prepared in the kitchen while you are at the entrance of your house? Visit an ice factory and see how ice creams are made. The vapours of the cooked food come out. The forces of attraction between the particles in a gas or vapour is very weak. So the particles separate and mix with the particles of.
When you breathe that air mixed with vapours of cooked food you feel the smell of the food. You will feel the pleasant odour of the agarbathi all over that room.
This happens due to the diffusion of the vapours of agarbathi in air. Diffusion of a liquid in a liquid Pour a drop of blue ink into a beaker of water. The particles of ink diffuse through the particles of water and the whole water in the beaker turns blue. Liquids diffuse slower than gases.
Diffusion of solids in liquid Drop a small piece of potassium permanganate carefully into a beaker of water.
You can see the pink colour of the crystal slowly diffusing through the water as the crystal dissolves. The attractive force between the particles of potassium permanganate is removed by the particles of water. So the potassium permanganate particles get diffused in water. Since the particles of a solid have strong forces of attraction, diffusion of a solid in another solid does not take place naturally.
This material, capable of leading in the proper direction is called as loadstone. A magnet has two poles namely North pole and South pole.
Poles are at the end of the magnet where the power of attraction is more. Like poles N-N and S-S repel each other. Unlike poles attract each other N-S and S-N. A magnet attracts iron, nickel and cobalt. Magnets have no effect on wood, glass, aluminium, water, paper and plastic. These are known as non-magnetic substances.
We are using the magnets in cranes to lift a heavy load See Fig. To remove any iron particle from the eyes, magnets are used. Impurities of iron could be removed from other metals using magnets. Magnets are available in electric bell, electric fan, telephone and electric motors. We are using the magnets in doors, window catchers, door closers of almirahs and in beds.
In the materials like wood and plastic, heat flows from one end to another very slowly. Wood, paper, cloth and plastic are bad conductors of heat. The metal mercury, which is a liquid, is a good conductor of heat. So, we are using the mercury in thermometers. Gases are poor conductors of heat.
When we switch on the light or fan or motor, electric current flows through the filament of the bulb or through the coil. Wires or cables carry the electric current. Have you seen the electric cable? Take a piece of unused cable or wire. Cut and open the outer coloured layer insulating material.
Inside, you find a number of thin metal wires copper aluminium. These metal wires carry the current. Metals are good conductors of electricity. The outer coloured layer will not carry the current. This insulating material, paper, dry cloth and rubber are bad conductors of electricity and are called insulators. Pure water is a bad conductor of electricity. However, water what we are using containing dissolved salts conducts electricity.
It is not advisable to touch the water in which electric These vessels are made of metals and also provided with handles made up of wood or some other non-metallic material like plastic. Why are the vessels provided with wooden or plastic handles? Take a vessel. Fill it with hot water.
Put the two spoons in it. One is made of metal like aluminium or stainless steel and the other is made of wood or plastic. After some time, touch the two spoons by your left and right hand. Which one is hotter? The metal spoon is hotter than wooden spoon. Metals quickly conduct heat. So, metals are good conductors of heat. In metals, heat flows from one end to another quickly. Wooden spoon Hot water Metal spoon. It is advisible to always wear rubber chappals insulators and to keep the hands dry while operating electrical appliances.
Thus, we conclude that matter can be classified as conductors of electricity and insulators. Switch it on. Take a paper, a dry cloth, a rubber sheet and an aluminium foil. Place them one by one in between the bulb and cell and check whether the torch lights up in each case. The torch does not light up with paper, dry cloth and rubber.
But it lights up with the aluminium foil. So aluminium conducts electric current. That is why electric wires are made. All these are opaque materials. Light cannot pass through them. We can see through a glass.
So glass is a transparent material. We can see the fish in clean water. So clean water is also a transparent material. We are surrounded by air, and objects are always seen. So air is also transparent material. We may conclude that the materials which allow the light to pass through them are called as transparent and those which do not allow the light are called as opaque. Which of the following does not change its shape at the room temperature?
It has definite volume and mass. During which process the volume of matter increases largely? You can feel the bad smell of the garbage at a distance. In thermometers, the liquid mercury is used. If you take equal volumes of water and sand, which will have more weight?
How are you able to detect the leakage from a gas cylinder? Does the force of attraction between the particles increase or decrease when a liquid substance is converted into a solid?
Mention two solids that are insoluble in water. Solids are rigid. But the liquids and gases are not rigid. Liquids flow from higher to a lower level. What do you understand from this? What is evaporation? Give an example. What is matter? Prove by an experiment that air has weight. Give an example to understand the gaseous diffussion.
By an experiment how can you prove that volume of a gas can be reduced by applying pressure. How do aquatic plants respire? Cooking vessels are provided with wooden handles. When you add a drop of ink to water what will happen? Separation of substances It is very essential that the food we eat, the air we breathe, the water we drink and the different substances we use in our day-to-day life are pure.
As the environmental pollution is more nowadays, we must remove the pollutants and the unwanted components from them. Let us study about the different methods adopted in our daily life and laboratories to separate and purify the substances. Pure substances have the following characters. Definite composition by nature. Definite physical properties such as melting point, boiling point and density.
Homogeneous nature. A mixture contains two or more pure substances which can be separated by easy physical methods. Table 4. Pure substances Mixtures i The components of a pure substance are of the same type The components of a mixture are of two or more types.
Mixtures are heterogeneous in nature. They contain particles of different types. Particles are uniform throughout the substance. Pure substances iii Pure substances have definite physical properties.
Add water to it and stir well. Salt dissolves in water. Carefully observe the bottom of the container. You can see a deposit of fine sand. The salt crystals that are obtained from sea water contain particles of sand which do not dissolve in water.
So these sand particles settle at the bottom of the container. What will happen if we add the salt crystals directly to our food while cooking? Sand particles will mix with our food and affect our health. So, while using crystals of salt for cooking it is better to use the solution of salt in water. Grains like rice, Mixtures Mixtures do not have definite physical properties.
They have different physical properties depending upon the components present in it. We can easily pick them and separate.
If the size, colour and shape of the components are different, it is easy to separate them by hand picking Fig. This method is useful to remove the husk from grains like rice, wheat and ragi. Farmers drop the mixture of grains and husk slowly from a height when the wind blows. Heavier grains fall directly on the ground as a heap.
Husk being lighter are carried away by wind and fall as another heap separately Fig. The insoluble solids in water or lighter and heavier components of a mixture, can be separated by this method Fig. If the components of a mixture are of different sizes, they can be separated by sieving method using a sieve. With the help of a sieve, broken particles of grains can be separated from its flour. During sieving, fine flour passes through the holes of the sieve while bigger particles remain in the sieve Fig.
Activity 4. You can also remove worms or small insects from sooji or rava and purify it with the help of a sieve. The mixture containing solid and liquid components is allowed to stand for sometime. The heavier particles settle at the bottom of the liquid. The process of settling down of insoluble particles in a suspension is called sedimentation.
The process of transferring the clear liquid standing above the sediment carefully into another container using a glass rod is called decantation. You know that peanut burfis are made by mixing the nuts with jaggery extract.
When jaggery is mixed with hot water and allowed to stand for sometime the sand particles mixed with it settle at the bottom. This is separated by carefully decanting the clear jaggery liquid. You must have observed this at your home. Allow the water to stand for sometime without disturbing.
Fine sand particles settle at the bottom. This is called sedimentation. Clear water stands above the sand. Transfer this clear water into another vessel with the help of a glass rod as shown in the Fig. Sand remains in the beaker. This method is called magnetic separation.
The iron particles mixed with sand or sooji can be separated easily by a magnet. When the magnet is passed through the mixture, fine particles of iron get attracted by the magnet and stick to it.
This can be removed later Fig. Take it out. Again insert. Repeat it several times. You can see small particles of iron sticking to the magnet near the poles. Water, containing insoluble impurities is filtered by using a thin cotton cloth or filter paper. When large quantities of substances are to be filtered, cotton, glass wool, charcoal or sand layers are used. In the laboratories we use filter paper for filtration. Filter paper is in the round form.
Fold the circular filter paper first into a half circular shape. Then fold it again into a quarter circle. Arrange it in the form of a cone See Fig. Place the cone shaped filter paper into a glass funnel and fix it in a stand. Place a flask below the stem of the funnel. Pour the water mixed with sand into the filter paper fitted in the funnel.
Water passes through the filter paper and gets collected in the flask below. It is called the filtrate. The sand remains in the filter paper. It is called the residue. By this method we get crystals of common salt from sea water. The process by which a liquid is converted into vapour by heating is called evaporation. Let us know how we get the crystals of common salt from sea water.
Sea water is passed on to the prepared land surface. It is called salt pan. The sea water evaporates by heat of the Sun. The salt remains in the land. Place the container on the wire gauze placed on a tripod stand.
Heat the container strongly. When the water evaporates salt is deposited in the container See Fig. To prepare crystals and to separate them from the impurities 'crystallisation' method is used. Dissolve some copper sulphate crystals in water taken in a beaker. Dissolve as much as possible to get a saturated solution.
Filter this solution and collect the filtrate in a china dish. When the vapours are cooled, they condense back to solid state. Substances like iodine, naphthalene and ammonium chloride have this property.
So these substances are purified by this method. Cover the dish by an inverted funnel. Plug the opening in the stem of the funnel with cotton. This prevents the exit of ammonium chloride vapours. Place the china dish on a wire gauze placed over a tripod stand. Heat the mixture well. Ammonium chloride vapours rise above and deposit on the cooler side of the funnel.
Sodium chloride remains in the dish since it does not undergo the process of sublimation. Place the china dish on a tripod stand fitted with a wire gauze. Heat the dish. You can see a crust forming on the upper layer of the solution. Cool the china dish and drain the liquid below. You can see the pure crystals depositing in the dish. These crystals can be dried using a filter paper. Some solid substances when heated are converted into gaseous state without melting into a liquid.
The suitable method used to separate lighter particles from heavier ones in a mixture a Sieving b Winnowing c Crystallisation d Filtration Identify the mixture in the following a oxygen b milk c gold d silver When your mother makes tea from tea leaves, by which method does she get pure tea decoction? What is the need for the separation of a mixture. How is a mixture separated by winnowing? For what type of mixtures sieving is needed for separation? Can you use the method of magnetic separation to separate all mixtures?
Give reason for your answer. Explain the method of using a filter paper. How is salt obtained from salt pans? How will you separate the mixture of camphor and salt?
Write any two methods of separating lighter solid impurities from solid mixtures. Explain the method of magnetic separation. How is a suspension purified by the method of filtration? Explain a method to separate a mixture of iodine and charcoal. Changes around us In our daily life, we observe many changes around us.
Everything in this universe undergoes a change. These changes may be observed by us at school, home, play ground or garden. For example sudden change in weather, flowering of plants, melting of ice, ripening of fruits, drying of clothes, milk changing into curd.
The changes can bring about different kinds of alterations in the things around us. Some of the alterations brought about are permanent in nature and hence cannot be reversed. However, some alterations are brought about in position, shape, size or state of the things. These alterations are temporary in nature and hence can be reversed.
Classification of changes: Ice on being warmed once again becomes water. When electricity is switched on, the filament in the bulb glows. When electricity is switched off, the filament returns to its original state.
But it shrinks to its normal position when air is removed Fig.
Activity 5. Take a dry leaf and burn it. Which is a slow change here? Place some water in one dish and petrol in the other. Keep the two dishes in sunlight. Observe which is a slow change and which is a fast change? Irreversible change The change in which the product cannot be converted back into its original form reactant is called irreversible change. But from these products the candle cannot be obtained back. You cannot get back the wood from the ash Fig.
Paper cannot be obtained from ash and smoke. Differences between periodic and non-periodic changes are given in Table 5. Periodic They occur again and again at regular intervals of time. They can be predicted seasons It dissolves and forms a clear solution. Take two teaspoons of sugar in a china dish and heat it strongly. Sugar turns into a black powder charcoal with the liberation of steam. Do you know the main difference between the above two processes. In the first case, sugar can be regenerated from the solution by It is a physical change.
In the second case, sugar reactant cannot be obtained from the products charcoal and steam. It is a chemical change. A physical change is a temporary change during which no new substance is formed. Characteristics i No new substance is formed during a physical change. It melts into water. The heat from the mouth makes the ice melt. Chemical change A chemical change is a permanent change in which entirely new substances are formed with different properties.
Characteristics i It is a permanent change ii It is irreversible iii New substances are formed iv Energy in the form of heat or light is either absorbed or released. Keep them exposed to air. After a few days you will notice that the iron fillings are coated with brown rust.
Unlike iron, this rust is not attracted by a magnet. You cannot get back the iron from this rust. Hence rusting is a chemical change. We get ash from the paper. From the ash we cannot make the paper again. So this is a chemical change. Here sugar is called solute and water is called solvent.
Dissolution is a process in which a solute is dissolved in a solvent to get a solution. Dissolution is a physical change as the solute can be regenerated from the salt by evaporation. Take a beaker and fill half of it with water. Add common salt to it and stir well. Now a clear solution is formed i. The salt is completely dissolved in water Fig. Now heat the solution strongly. A single textbook could therefore have dozens of ISBNs that denote different combinations of supplements packaged with that particular book.
When a bookstore attempts to track down used copies of textbooks, they will search for the ISBN the course instructor orders, which will locate only a subset of the copies of the textbook. Legislation at state and federal levels seeks to limit the practice of bundling, by requiring publishers to offer all components separately. No data suggests that this is in fact true. However, The Student PIRGs have found that publishers actively withhold pricing information from faculty, making it difficult to obtain.
Campus downloadback[ edit ] As for downloadback on a specific campus, faculty decisions largely determine how much a student receives. If a professor chooses to use the same book the following semester, even if it is a custom text, designed specifically for an individual instructor, bookstores often download the book back. The GAO report found that, generally, if a book is in good condition and will be used on the campus again the next term, bookstores will pay students 50 percent of the original price paid.
If the bookstore has not received a faculty order for the book at the end of the term and the edition is still current, they may offer students the wholesale price of the book, which could range from 5 to 35 percent of the new retail price, according to the GAO report. If a textbook is not going to be used on campus for the next semester of courses then many times the college bookstore will sell that book to a national used book company. The used book company then resells the book to another college bookstore.
At each step, a markup is applied to the book to enable the respective companies to continue to operate. Student to student sales[ edit ] Students can also sell or trade textbooks among themselves.
After completing a course, sellers will often seek out members of the next enrolling class, people who are likely to be interested in downloading the required books. This may be done by posting flyers to advertise the sale of the books or simply soliciting individuals who are shopping in the college bookstore for the same titles. Many larger schools have independent websites set up for the purpose of facilitating such trade.
These often operate much like digital classified ads, enabling students to list their items for sale and browse for those they wish to acquire. Also, at the US Air Force Academy , it is possible to e-mail entire specific classes, allowing for an extensive network of textbook sales to exist.
Student online marketplaces[ edit ] Online marketplaces are one of the two major types of online websites students can use to sell used textbooks. Online marketplaces may have an online auction format or may allow the student to list their books for a fixed price. In either case, the student must create the listing for each book themselves and wait for a downloader to order, making the use of marketplaces a more passive way of selling used textbooks.
Unlike campus downloadback and online book, students are unlikely to sell all their books to one downloader using online marketplaces, and will likely have to send out multiple books individually. Online book downloaders[ edit ] Online book downloaders download textbooks, and sometimes other types of books, with the aim of reselling them for a profit. Like online marketplaces, online book downloaders operate year-round, giving students the opportunity to sell their books even when campus "downloadback" periods are not in effect.
Students enter the ISBN numbers of the books they wish to sell and receive a price quote or offer. These online book downloaders often offer "free shipping" which in actuality is built into the offer for the book , and allow students to sell multiple books to the same source.
Because online book downloaders are downloading books for resale, the prices they offer may be lower than students can get on online marketplaces.
However, their prices are competitive, and they tend to focus on the convenience of their service. Some even claim that downloading used textbooks online and selling them to online book downloaders has a lower total cost than even textbook rental services.
Textbook exchanges[ edit ] In response to escalating textbook prices, limited competition, and to provide a more efficient system to connect downloaders and sellers together, online textbook exchanges were developed. Most of today's sites handle downloader and seller payments, and usually deduct a small commission only after the sale is completed.
According to textbook author Henry L. Roediger and Wadsworth Publishing Company senior editor Vicki Knight , the used textbook market is illegitimate, and entirely to blame for the rising costs of textbooks. As methods of "dealing with this problem", he recommends making previous editions of textbooks obsolete, binding the textbook with other materials, and passing laws to prevent the sale of used books.
Obviously, this idea is completely opposed to the millennia-old tradition of the sale of used books , and would make that entire industry illegal. E-textbooks[ edit ] Another alternative to save money and obtaining the materials you are required are e-textbooks. The article "E books rewrite the rules of education" states that, alternately to spending a lot of money on textbooks, you can download an e-textbook at a small amount of the cost. With the growth of digital applications for iPhone, and gadgets like the site kindle, e-textbooks are not an innovation, but have been "gaining momentum".
Some stores use a hybrid of both methods, opting for in-store selections of the most popular books and the online option for more obscure titles or books they consider too risky to put in the rental system.
Textbook sharing[ edit ] Another method to help students save money that is coming up is called Textbooks Sharing. Using textbook sharing the students share the physical textbook with other students, and also the cost of the book is divided among the users of the textbook.
Main article: Open textbook The latest trend in textbooks is "open textbooks. Currently, some open textbooks have been funded with non-profit investment. The other challenge involves the reality of publishing, which is that textbooks with good sales and profitability subsidize the creation and publication of low demand but believed to be necessary textbooks.
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