"A Workbook for Arguments" builds on Anthony Weston's "A Rulebook for Arguments" to provide a complete textbook for a course in critical thinking or informal. Download this ebook at: tvnovellas.info?book=X [PDF] Download A Workbook for Arguments, Second Edition [PDF]. conjunction with the Rules for Short Arguments chapter in A Rulebook for Arguing. The . tvnovellas.info
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Chapter I: Short Arguments: Some General Rules. 3. Rule 1: Identify premises and conclusion. 3. Exercise Set Distinguishing premises from conclusions. 4. David Morrow, Anthony Weston - A Workbook for Argument - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. David Morrow, Anthony . A Workbook for Arguments, Second Edition: A Complete Course in Critical Thinking (2nd ed.) by David R. Morrow. Read online, or download in secure PDF or.
Then assess how you can better engage them. It is tailored to your needs and the audiences you want to connect with, and can take the form of an Infographic, Dashboard or Impact Report. This tool will give you a clear picture of your work to help you plan and manage your day-to-day activities, demonstrate your value to others, and ensure the long-term sustainability of your organization. Seeing key trends and relationships in data, so you can get the most from the data you collect. Combining different types of information effectively to engage your audience. The exact content and format of the Snapshot depends on who you want to reach and the issues that are important. For example, the layout and content for a bi-monthly board presentation might be very different from a Snapshot designed to be part of your public website to engage volunteers and donors.
You can set the ConflictResolution parameter to any of the following 3 values: 1: Stands for xlUserResolution. In this case, Excel displays a dialog box asking the user to resolve the conflict. This is the default setting in case you omit the ConflictResolution argument. If you choose this value, the changes made by the local user are accepted always.
This is the opposite from the above: the changes made by the local user are rejected always. This makes reference to Excel's list of most recently used files which, generally, you find on the Backstage View.
The AddToMru argument of the Workbook. Save method allows you to determine whether the saved workbook is added to this most recently used list. The default value of AddToMru is, however, False. SaveAs method is Local.
As implied by its name, Local refers to language and localization aspects of the saved workbook. More precisely, the Local parameter allows you to determine whether the saved workbook is saved against the language of: Excel, as generally determined from the control panel setting; or VBA, which is usually US-English.
My guess is that you're unlikely to work with such projects often. To determine how Excel proceeds in connection with this topic, you can set the Local argument to True or False. True: Saves the workbook against Excel's language. However, both of these methods save and modify the current open Excel workbook. You may encounter some situations where this isn't the outcome you desire. In other words, you'll probably be in situations where you want a macro to simply: Save a copy of the current Excel workbook, but… Don't actually modify the current file in the memory of the computer.
These type of situations are great for using the Workbook. This method does precisely this.
It takes the workbook and: Saves a copy to a file. Doesn't modify it in memory. The syntax of the SaveCopyAs method is, once again, relatively simple: expression.
Since you're likely to use this method on the active workbook most of the time, you'll probably end up using the following syntax often: ActiveWorkbook. The main difference between ThisWorkbook and ActiveWorkbook is that: ActiveWorkbook refers to the current active workbook.
ThisWorkbook refers to the workbook where the macro is actually stored. Let's take a look at an example of a macro that uses the Workbook. This macro has a single quite long statement. This goes as follows: ActiveWorkbook. SaveCopyAs method explained above. However, let's split the statement in 2 parts in order to understand better what's going on, and what can this particular method do for you: Part 1: ActiveWorkbook. It follows the basic syntax explained above. Workbook property. This property returns a Workbook object representing the current active workbook.
This active workbook is the one which is manipulated by the SaveCopyAs method. In other words, the statement simply tells Excel to proceed as follows: Step 1: Take the current active workbook. Step 2: Save a copy of the current active workbook, without actually modifying it in memory.
Name This part of the statement specifies the only argument of the Workbook. A third reason for beginning with short arguments is that they are the best illustrations both of the common argument forms and of the typical mistakes in arguments.
In longer arguments it can be harder to pick out the main points and the main problems.
Therefore, although some of the rules may seem obvious when first stated, remember that you have the benefit of a simple example. Other rules are hard enough to appreciate even in short arguments. Chapter VII guides you into sketching and then elaborating an extended argument, considering objections and alternatives as you do. Chapter VIII guides you from there into writing an argumentative essay. Chapter IX then adds rules specifically about oral presentation. Again, all of these chapters depend on Chapters I VI, since extended arguments like these essentially combine and elaborate the kinds of short arguments that Chapters I VI discuss.
Don t skip ahead to the later chapters, then, even if you come to this book primarily for help writing an essay or doing a presentation. At the very least, read through the shaded sections of the earlier chapters the parts from the Rulebook for Arguments, on which this book is based so that when you arrive at those later chapters you will have the tools you need to use them well.
Three appendixes close out Part 1 of the Workbook. The first is a listing of fallacies: types of misleading arguments that are so tempting and common, they even have their own names. The second offers three rules for constructing and evaluating definitions.
The third, which is not included in the original Rulebook, covers argument mapping, which is a powerful technique for understanding how the pieces of an argument fit together. Use them when you need them! Part 2 new in the Workbook offers model responses to the oddnumbered exercises in nearly every exercise set. Most model responses have commentaries that explain the strengths and weaknesses of each response. Part 3 also new in the Workbook contains longer critical thinking activities that build on the rules and exercises in Part 1.
Some of these you can do on your own. Others you will need to do in class or with a group of classmates. The passages with the sidebar come from Anthony Weston s Rulebook for Arguments. The passages without the sidebar are new to the Workbook for Arguments. The new elements in Part 1 consist mainly of exercise sets designed to help you learn how to apply the lessons from the passages with the sidebars. You can get the main ideas of each chapter by reading just the passages with the sidebars.
Before attempting an exercise set, though, be sure to read both the Rulebook text before it and the Tips for success that accompany the exercise set.
After you have completed an exercise set or at any rate, after you ve given it your best shot take a look at the model responses for that exercise set. You ll find the model responses in Part 2. We strongly encourage you to read them even if you don t need help doing the exercises. The model responses often contain important further discussions.
Moreover, part of their aim, considered as a whole, is to paint a wide-ranging and compelling picture of critical intelligence at work. The spirit of critical thinking is just as vital as the letter, so to speak, and in the Workbook you will find both. Every exercise set ends with a suggestion about how to get more practice applying the skills used in that exercise set. Many of these suggestions are most effective if you work in a group. If you find that you consistently want more practice, form a study group with some of your classmates.
From time to time, your instructor may have you complete one of the critical thinking activities from Part 3.
These activities are designed to be especially enjoyable and engaging and to help you connect the material in this book to your own life. Be sure to find out whether your instructor has any additional or alternative instructions for the activity, or if he or she wants you to complete one of the variations listed at the end of the activity s assignment sheet. Critical thinking is a skill and like most skills, it s a skill that you can always improve, even if you re already good at it.
Reading about guidelines for critical thinking, such as the rules presented in this book, is an important part of honing your skill, but there is no substitute for practice. That could even be Rule Practice, practice, practice. The aim of this workbook is to give you an opportunity for guidance, practice, and feedback.
With some persistence and hard work, you ll find yourself thinking more clearly and more critically than ever. Chapter I offers general rules for composing short arguments. Chapters II VI discuss specific kinds of short arguments.
Identify premises and conclusion The very first step in making an argument is to ask yourself what you are trying to prove. What is your conclusion? Remember that the conclusion is the statement for which you are giving reasons. The statements that give your reasons are your premises. Consider these lines from Winston Churchill: I am an optimist. It does not seem to be much use being anything else. This is an argument as well as an amusing quip because Churchill is giving a reason to be an optimist: his premise is that It does not seem to be much use being anything else.
Premises and conclusion are not always so obvious. Sherlock Holmes has to explain one of his deductions in The Adventure of Silver Blaze : A dog was kept in the stalls, and yet, though someone had been in and fetched out a horse, [the dog] had not barked Obviously the One is explicit: the dog did not bark at the visitor. The other is a general fact that Holmes assumes we know about dogs: dogs bark at strangers.
Together these premises imply that the visitor was not a stranger. It turns out that this is the key to solving the mystery. When you are using arguments as a means of inquiry, you sometimes may start with no more than the conclusion you wish to defend. State it clearly, first of all. Maybe you want to take Churchill a step farther and Rule 1 1. If so, say so explicitly. Then ask yourself what reasons you have for drawing that conclusion.
What reasons can you give to prove that we should be optimists? You could appeal to Churchill s authority. If Churchill recommends optimism, who are we to quibble? This appeal will not get you very far, however, since equally famous people have recommended pessimism. You need to think about the question on your own. Again, what is your reason for thinking that we should be optimists? One reason could be that optimism boosts your energy to work for success, whereas if you feel defeated in advance you may never even try.
Optimists are more likely to succeed, to achieve their goals. Maybe this is what Churchill meant as well. If this is your premise, say so explicitly. This book offers you a ready list of different forms that arguments can take. Use this list to develop your premises. To defend a generalization, for instance, check Chapter II.
It will remind you that you need to give a series of examples as premises, and it will tell you what sorts of examples to look for. If your conclusion requires a deductive argument like those explained in Chapter VI, the rules outlined in that chapter will tell you what types of premises you need.
You may have to try several different arguments before you find one that works well. Exercise Set 1. Instructions: Rewrite each argument below, underlining the conclusion of each argument and putting brackets around each premise. Tips for success: Distinguishing premises from conclusions is sometimes more of an art than a science. We wish people were always clear about the premises and conclusions of their argument, but that s just not the case. Therefore, learning to distinguish premises from conclusions takes practice.
As you practice, there are two strategies that you should keep in mind.
The first strategy is simply to ask yourself what the author of this argument is trying to convince you to believe. The claim that the author is trying to get you to believe is the argument s conclusion. Then you can ask what reasons the author gives to try to convince you. These will be the argument s premises. Some words or phrases are conclusion indicators. These are words or phrases that tell you that you re about to read or hear the conclusion of an argument.
Other words or phrases are premise indicators. These tell you that you re about to read or hear a premise. Here s a sample of the most common conclusion and premise indicators: Conclusion Indicators therefore thus hence so consequently this shows that Premise Indicators because since given that for on the grounds that this follows from You ll start to notice more indicator words as you get better at analyzing arguments.
Two more pieces of advice: First, don t rely solely on indicator words. Some arguments will not use any indicator words. Others will use indicator words in other ways. Some words, like because, since, and so, have many other uses; not every use of because indicates that you re about to hear a premise. When in doubt, fall back on our first strategy: ask yourself whether the author is giving you a reason for the conclusion.
If your answer is no, you haven t found a premise, even if the sentence includes because or since. Second, don t assume that everything in a passage is either a premise or a conclusion.
Not all passages contain arguments. Some passages are telling stories, describing things, giving explanations, issuing commands, making jokes, or doing other things besides giving reasons for a conclusion. Even in passages that do contain arguments, some sentences or clauses will provide background information, make side comments, and so on.
Again, the key is to ask yourself, Is this sentence stating a conclusion or giving me a reason to believe that conclusion? If it is doing either, it s part of an argument; if not, it s not. Adapted from: Steven M.
Cahn, letter to the editor, New York Times, May 21, The markings in this sample problem indicate that the last sentence is the conclusion and that each of the first three sentences is a separate premise. Although each sentence in this letter to the editor expresses either a premise or a conclusion, remember that many passages contain sentences or parts of sentences that are neither premises nor conclusions.
You don t need to bracket or underline those parts of sentences. Racial segregation reduces some persons to the status of things. Hence, segregation is morally wrong. Adapted from: Martin Luther King, Jr.
Stacy found shrimp in the turtle s throat. Sea turtles can only catch shrimp if they are stuck in nets with the shrimp. Therefore, the dead sea turtle was probably caught in a net. Most people experience no side effects from the yellow fever vaccine.
A Workbook for Arguments, Second Edition 2nd ed. Morrow , Anthony Weston. Add to Cart Add to Cart. Add to Wishlist Add to Wishlist. The second edition adds: Updated and improved homework exercises—nearly one third are new—to ensure that the examples continue to resonate with students. Increased coverage of scientific reasoning, demonstrating how scientific reasoning dovetails with critical thinking more generally.
Two new activities in which students analyze arguments in their original form, as provided in brief selections from the original texts.