FREE Soroban Abacus Mental Math Learning Basic Abacus Math, Math Books, Math . UCMAS Basic - Free download as Excel Spreadsheet .xls), PDF File . Tens And Ones Worksheets, Math Worksheets, Abacus Math, Study Materials. The Abacus (or Soroban as it is called in Japan) is an ancient been fascinated by the abacus – and have recently taken up the study of this. remaining half of students were assigned to receive no abacus training, and manuscript (see Supplemental Online Material for detailed description of all.
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Working memory refers to a limited capacity involved in storage, manipulation and retrieval of relevant information [ 17 ]. It is assumed that problem-solving processes in arithmetic, algebra and geometry often involve the storage of relevant information and retrieval of partial results, which may rely on working memory resources [ 18 ].
It may also restrain math abilities because solving math problems requires individuals to switch flexibly between different operations, strategies and problem-solving steps [ 18 ]. Past research has showed that working memory is a stable predictor of different math abilities [ 20 , 21 ], but the findings for the associations between task switching and math abilities are still scarce and inconclusive.
For example, several studies have shown that task switching is significantly correlated with math abilities [ 12 , 18 , 22 ], while other studies failed to duplicate such relationship [ 23 , 24 ].
Thus, further exploring the associations between task switching and math abilities is of great importance, which can help us gain a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying cognitive basis for math success and thus develop more effective math instruction methods. Here, we focused on abacus-based mental calculation AMC training, a traditional method widely used in Asian countries to help children perform calculations [ 28 ].
Initially, Abacus users learn to calculate with a physical abacus, gradually they can get rid of the physical abacus, and calculate extraordinary large numbers via an imagined abacus in their minds with unusual speed. Neuroimaging studies have indicated that abacus experts perform mental calculation by using motor and visual-spatial resources [ 31 , 32 ] and that AMC training enhances white matter tracts integrity related to visual-spatial processing [ 33 ]. Therefore it is reasonable to hypothesize that AMC training might help children improve math abilities in visual-spatial domain.
Recent studies have also shown that AMC children have advantages in some other cognitive abilities, such as numerical processing efficiency [ 34 ], memory spans [ 33 ], simple working memory [ 35 ], and general intelligence [ 36 ]. In contrast to abundant findings of positive AMC training effects, no study, to our knowledge, has ever reported any detriment effect of AMC training although one study has indicated no differences between AMC experts and controls on the more active aspect of working memory [ 37 ].
Moreover, no study to date has assessed whether AMC training affects the task switching aspect of EF. As long-term AMC training enables users to operate beads in different spatial locations within a very short timing window, it may enhance the efficiency switching between complicated contexts. Furthermore, another intriguing question deserves exploring.
Our previous neuroimaging study [ 32 ] has indicated that AMC children mainly activated areas of frontal-temporal circuit during simple serial calculation but activated frontal-parietal circuit during complex serial calculation. In contrast, for control children, the activated areas were almost similar during both simple and complex calculation.
This implied that when solving math problems with increasing difficulty, AMC children tended to flexibly switch to more appropriate strategies while controls continued with the old strategy.
Hence, AMC children might utilize more powers of their task switching ability in solving math problems. Therefore, we hypothesized that the relationship between task switching and math abilities might be stronger in AMC children. That is, AMC training would serve as a moderator in such relationship. In summary, the current study attempted to explore the impact of long-term AMC training on math abilities, task switching ability and their relationships. Our first prediction was that long-term AMC training would be associated with better performance in both arithmetical and visual-spatial math abilities.
Secondly, we predicted that long-term AMC training would also affect the task switching aspect of executive function.
Finally, we predicted that long-term AMC training would modulate the relationship between task switching and math abilities arithmetical ability and visual-spatial ability. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants or their guardians before the implementation of the experiments. These enhanced activations were often observed in brain regions including fusiform gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and occipital gyrus 2 , 6 , 7.
It has been proposed that the utilization of a visual-spatial representation in mathematical tasks may account for this phenomenon in AMC experts 8 — Anatomical MRI studies also indicated that frequent employment of visual-spatial processing in AMC training might result in structural plasticity 3 , A voxel-based morphometric study provided evidence of between-group differences in the gray matter of AMC experts and controls Gray matter volume decreased in AMC group in visual-spatial related regions, such as fusiform gyrus Another study showed increased fractional anisotropy values in the occipitotemporal junction, a key fiber connected to fusiform gyrus and parietal lobule, which plays an important role in visual information processing 3.
Moreover, it was reported that the projections from the fusiform gyrus to other brain regions in AMC experts were strengthened in comparison with the control individuals However, previous studies were based on voxel-based comparisons or seed-based connectivity, which both are less able to offer a complete view of the characteristics of whole brain connectivity. The present study, utilizing graph-based network analysis, assessed connectivity in a brain-wide network We hypothesized that long-term AMC training might induce the plasticity of brain functional network, especially in visual-spatial related regions, such as fusiform gyrus.
Nowadays, studies have implied that the human brain was organized as a complex system 15 , Graph-theoretical network analysis is the most prominent method to quantify brain network properties and describe the framework of brain network organization 17 , Using network analysis, studies have assessed brain network based on both structural and functional properties 17 , 19 — 21 , with brain regions as nodes and the strength of region-to-region correlations as edges.
Results have shown that human brain is organized as a network to process information efficiently by balancing brain integration and segregation Meanwhile, a large number of studies reported the alterations of brain networks induced by brain maturation, atrophy, psychiatric disorders, and skill acquisition 14 , 17 , 19 , 20 , 23 , Backed by our Experienced Technical teams and innovative approach we are able to offer Junior abacus Books, Junior Abacus Kit, Junior Mental Arithmetic Books, teacher training Materials, teacher resource stores, teacher tools,teacher supplies,training courses,user manual,instruction manual,manual instructor and lesson plans.
Abacus Math Class is structured method of learning and practicing the skills of operating Abacus to perform basic math or arithmetic operations like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division etc. Junior Abacus Book Years Abacus Math Class is structured method of learning and practicing the skills of operating Abacus to perform basic math or arithmetic operations like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division etc.
Smith's 'chalk and talk. We have the technology. Integrating MathXL online software with developmental and other mathematics Since one method might not work effectively for all students, teachers should be familiar with several methods.
Teaching approaches There are several approaches to teaching the use of the abacus.
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