Teachers Handbook for Athenaze, Book 2 download pdf tvnovellas.info?book= Designed to accompany the corresponding. Combining the best features of traditional and modern methods, Athenaze: An Introduction to Ancient Greek 3/e, provides a unique, bestselling course of. Book 0 in the Greek Language series in the Classical Languages genre.
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Documents Similar To Athenaze Book II. Athenaze an Introduction to Ancient Greek Book I Oxford University Press A Reading Course in Homeric Greek, Book 1 - Raymond v. Schoder. Athenaze Teacher's Handook 2 - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File book to a chapter, grammar section, and . 4 Athenaze: Teacher's Handbook. pdf. ATHENAZE An Introduction to Ancient Greek Second Edition. Pages . Thus on vii viii Athenaze: Book II the second chart you will find the.
They found Dicaeopolis sitting in front of the inn. And when he saw the boy walking firmly and seeing, he stood up, and running toward him he em- braced him and said, "Dearest child, do really see you being cured healthy, sound? Did the god really heal your eyes? We must pay hearty thanks to As- clepius. Am allowed to put up an offering to the god as well?
We must pay hearty thanks to As- clepius. Am allowed to put up an offering to the god as well? You may. Do you also want to put up a memorial of the cure in the temple?
For you give me three drachmas, and will make the sacrifice and put up the memorial for you. Oh, what an expense!
For will make the sacrifice for one drachma, and will put up the memorial for two. And so give me three drachmas, if you want me to do this. Are two enough for you? Socrates' last words were, "Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius; please pay the debt and don't forget" Plato, Phaedo a.
For said to the god that would give my knucklebones. Luce, James, ed. Ancient Writers: The World of Athens: An Introduction to Classical Athenian Culture. References to other books are given in the notes to each chapter. Students should be assured that they are not expected to learn everything contained in this sec- tion now but that they should use it as a framework of reference throughout their study of Greek in Book.
One of the most troublesome matters for most students is the distinction be- tween active and passive voice, and in Greek the problem is compounded with the addition ofthe middle voice. We therefore believe that it is useful to spell out the distinctions as clearly and sim- ply as possible pages , reminding students of what they have already learned about the middle voice.
The charts on pages are arranged in such a way as to emphasize the cate- gories of active, middle, and passive.
We include in the charts all ofthe categories of forms that students will be expected to learn in the course of Book including subjunctives, optatives, im- peratives both second and third person , infinitives, and participles. Brief ex- planation of the third person imperative is included on page 2, but it need not be 1 emphasized at this stage since these forms will not be introduced until Chap- ter Further discussion of the sequence of moods in Greek should ob- viously be left to the chapters in which these matters are formally discussed.
Because of limitations of space, we give only the periphrastic forms of the perfect active subjunctive and optative; the alternative forms are given in Chap- ter Note that we do not mention or include the dual forms of nouns or verbs. W e believe that these are best left until students begin to encounter them in their reading of Greek authors after completion of this course. The presentation ofthe two stems of - on page 3 may be a good opportunity to remind students of the distinctions in pronunciation between long and short vowels and of the conventions of mark- ing long vowels with macrons.
It should be remembered that the circumflex ac- cent implies a long vowel or diphthong and that alpha with iota subscript is long but is usually not marked with a ma- cron, e. It shows Asclepius healing a woman. Behind him stands Hera? Caption under Illustration "'rhe doctors order me to go to Ascle- pius; perhaps the god will help me": Vocabulary Remind students that in Book we will in the chapter lists full sets of principal parts for most verbs.
We will not the principal parts ofregular contract that fol- low the patterns of the model contract verbs and for the principal parts of these model and of simple that appear in the ulary lists compounded with prefixes, students should consult the Greek to English list at the end of their books.
Also, remind students that after the and readings we will full sets ofprincipal parts that they met in Book 'rhese sets are ar- ranged according to certain linguistic principles see Reference Grammar, paragraph 35 to help students see simi- larities among and organize them into meaningful groupings. We include here some that students already met and in order to show the formation of the future tense of these verbs and their other principal parts.
Show how the ten8e 8ign ha8 combined with the final con8onant ofthe 8tem in 8tem 8tem , and 8tem. Verb8 Reading pa88age contain8 the fol- lowing verb8 in the future ten8e: We glo88 and and we recommend that teacher8 not di8CU88 the8e form8 until after i8 8tudied in Grammar 2 and the future of in Grammar 1. The other form8 will be ea8ily recognized a8 future8 after brief di8CU88ion of the formation of the future conducted in conjunction with exami- nation of the verb8 in the vocabulary li8t 8ee above.
The three verb8 not in- cluded in that li8t and will be ea8ily recognized as future8 because ofthe ten8e 8ign. Tran8lation Lines Meanwhile Dicaeopoli8, leading Philip, di8embarked from the 8hip and 8aid, "Come on, 8on, what 8hould we do? Do you want to look for a wine-8hop and take 8ome dinner? You lead then, and will follow. Of tho8e present, a certain woman asked Dicaeopoli8 where he wa8 going, and learning that he was going to Epidauru8 8he 8aid, al8o am going to Epidaurus.
For am 8ick in the 8tomach, and the doctors cannot help me at all; and so they tell me to go to Asclepius; for per- hap8 the god will help me. But tell me, when will the boat 8ail ofl? Will we ar- rive at Epidauru8 today or not? But they 8ay that Epidaurus i8 not far off.
Perhap8 we will arrive before night or even earlier. But listen; for we 8hall learn 8oon; for hear the captain calling us. Shall we not return to the 8hip quickly? And the captain 8eeing them approaching, shouted shouting 8aid , "Get in quickly; for we will 8tart at once. For we mu8t arrive at Epidauru8 before night. But hurry; for we are going to ca8t off loo8e the ship at once. And a favorable wind filled the 8ail8, 80 that the 8hip ran 8ailed quickly through the wave8.
Principal Parts The verb8 that are given in mo8t of the 8ection8 titled Principal Parts that follow the reading passages are verb8 4 Athenaze: Teacher's Handbook that were introduced in Book where only the present and aorist tenses were given. Full principal parts are given in these sections in Book and students should memorize them carefully.
More information on principal parts and the ways in which they are grouped for study in these sections after the reading pas- sages will be found in the Reference Grammar, Section 35 and in the ap- pendix to this handbook, titled "Principal Parts. Note that in the perfect and the aorist passive the stem vowel is short; in it remains long throughout. Word Study 1.
One who studies the soul or personality. Grammarl Review the formation of the first aorist Book pages and ofthe aorist ofliquid verbs Book page while teaching the formation of the fu- ture. Some teachers may find it useful when teaching the verbs at the bottom of page 9 to give students the stems, e.
Note on no.
Exercise 17b 1. Teacher's Handbook tion according to custom. And he took the bowl in his hands and made a liba- tion, and, raising his hands toward heaven, he said, savior, most kindly of the gods, hear my prayer me praying , who thinking holy thoughts and being pure in soul am here as your suppliant. Be gracious to me who have become blind, and, if it seems good to you, heal my eyes. Lines Then the priest led the boy to the holy place and told him to lie on the ground and sleep.
The aorist middle occurs rarely in compounds. Word Building Note that adjectives formed by adding the suffix to the verb stem are either passive in meaning, e.
Paul's famous words to the Athenians Acts Be brave! He was brave. They will go. We will be brave. They will be. Grammar3 Notes: Grammar4 Notes: Exercise 17e 1. Go, boy, and tell your mother that am waiting by the door.
Will you not go to the agora to learn what has happened? The slave went out to look for his master. You must send a messenger to tell all to the king. Xerxes was preparing a very large navy to enslave the Greeks. The Greeks were preparing to fight bravely. We will always honor those who died in this battle. The boys were returning home to relate to their mother what had hap- pened.
Exercise 17f 1. Translation Lines With the beginning of spring Mar- donius set out from and led his army with haste against Athens. And as he advanced, none of the Boeotians resisted him, nor did the Spartans come to help the Athenians. When he arrived I 10 Athenaze: Teacher's Handbook in Attica, he did not find the Athenians, but he learned that most were in Salamis and in the ships; and he took the city de- serted. But when he was in Athens he sent a messenger to Salamis, bearing a friendly message friendly words ; for he said that the king would give Attica back to the Athenians and make an al- liance with them , ifthey stopped fight- ing ceased from war.
But the Atheni- ans did not accept the proposal the words but sent the messenger away. Lines The Athenians crossed to Salamis as follows; as long as they hoped that the Spartans would send an army to help, they stayed in Attica; but when the Spar- tans did not come to help and Mardonius advanced and arrived in Boeotia, then they evacuated everything from Attica and themselves crossed to Salamis.
And they sent messengers to Sparta to blame the Spartans because they were not coming to help. And when the mes- sengers arrived in Sparta, they said this: But now we tell you to send an army as quickly as possible to ward off the barbarians from Attica. Epidaurus Mu- seum. Caption under Illustration "Asclepius was august and tall": Vocabulary We include in the vocabulary list to show its principal parts even though it does not occur in uncom- pounded form in the reading.
We in- clude the aorist infinitives and partici- ples of and because they are so different from the aorist indica- tive forms and therefore difficult to rec- ognize. New usage of preposition: New usage ofpreposition: Verbs Passage contains the following forms of and or their com- pounds: Translation Lines But finally Philip was so tired that he fell into a deep sleep.
And the god ap- peared to him as he slept; he was august and tall, and in his right hand he car- ried a staff, around which curled the sa- cred serpent. He stood by the boy and with a kindly look looking kindly he said this, "What is the matter with you, boy? Why are you sleeping in my holy place?
And after doing this he went away. See illustration. Teacher's Handbook Lines On the next day when day first dawned, Philip woke up and, behold, he could see; for he saw the sky and the sun rising above the hills and the trees mov- ing in the wind; and he enjoyed look- ing; for everything seemed to him most beautiful.
And so he hurried to find the priest. And he, seeing him approaching, said, "Greetings, boy; it is clear that the god has come to you in kindness kindly. And so give thanks to the god. But go to look for your father. Students should be warned that , , and are irregular see English to Greek V ocabulary for their principal parts. Call attention to the irregular future of which is identical to the pre- sent Attic future.
In the aorist keeps instead of changing to and in both perfects and the aorist passive the short ofthe stem drops out syncope.
Students should be reminded that most contract verbs have principal parts like those of More exam- ples of contract verbs will be given after reading passage Word Study 1. In late Greek we find but not 2. Autistic is a recent medical coinage, used to describe children who are imprisoned in themselves. Illustration page 21 Drawn from a first century B.
Naples, Museo Nazionale. Grammarl Notes: Exercise 8 ; 2nd sing. When their mother gave them only found in compounds, e. We will go to ask the king to help active of giving you. Give thanks to god; for he saved us. The farmer asked his friend to 7. You give me the wine, and will 8.
The father laughed kindly and 9. Draw to the attention of students the illustrations on page the Eurotas valley and ancient Corinth. Vocabulary We give the principal parts of to show the principal parts of the uncompounded verb run. Translation Lines They found Dicaeopolis sitting in front of the inn.
And when he saw the boy walking firmly and seeing, he stood up, and running toward him he em- braced him and said, "Dearest child, do really see you being cured healthy, sound? Did the god really heal your eyes? We must pay hearty thanks to As- clepius. Am allowed to put up an offering to the god as well? You may. Do you also want to put up a memorial of the cure in the temple? For you give me three drachmas, and will make the sacrifice and put up the memorial for you.
Oh, what an expense! For will make the sacrifice for one drachma, and will put up the memorial for two. And so give me three drachmas, if you want me to do this. Are two enough for you? Socrates' last words were, "Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius; please pay the debt and don't forget" Plato, Phaedo a.
For said to the god that would give my knucklebones. Look, take these and dedicate them to the god and write on the memorial tablet , if you approve if it seems good to you , that Philip dedicated these knuckle- bones to Asclepius with having the greatest gratitude.
But now you must journey home. Will there be war against the Peloponnesians, or will you be able to preserve the peace? For it is clear that the Corinthians are urging the Spartans to war, since they are being hostile to the Athenians. So what do you think? Will they be willing to al- low arbitration of their differences or will they resolve their differences by war rather than words?
The priest's words are based on Thucydides 1. But it is , for this rea- son, in my opinion as it seems to me that the Spartans will make war, for, fearing the power ofthe Athenians, they will not be willing to disregard its in- crease it increasing. But nevertheless will rejoice if you are proved right and wrong.
The priest is right ; dides 1. And so, bidding the old man farewell, Di- caeopolis and the boy began their jour- ney. This rule is broken by which has even though the of the stem is preceded by note also the insertion of in the aorist passive. Students should be reminded that 16 Athenaze: Teacher's Handbook most contract verbs have principal parts like those of Word Building 1.
Grammar3 In the masculine and neuter the stems of these adjectives end in cf. The enemy will not dare to do the same things again. The woman, after handing over the money to the doctor, returned home by the same road. The king himself will go to the agora to announce this to the people. You must give thanks to the god himself. Exercise 18g 1. And so the Spartans advancing arrived in Attica, and the Athenians crossing from Salamis joined with the Peloponnesians.
And when the Greeks did not come down into the plain, Mardonius sent out all his cavalry against them. And the Greeks pushed back the cavalry and killed the general himself, so that they were much more confident. And after this they decided to go down toward Plataea. And the barbarians, learning that the Greeks were in Plataea, marched there themselves also. And Mardonius drew up his army for battle to fight.
And so after waiting for night they set out. But when day dawned, Mardonius saw that the Greek camp the camp ofthe Greeks was de- serted he saw the camp being deserted ; and so he pursued the Greeks at full speed at a run.
And first the barbar- ians caught the Athenians, who fighting very bravely pushed back the cavalry. Then Mardonius fell on the Spartans, and a mighty battle developed. But when Mardonius himself was killed, the bar- barians turned and fled in disorder in no order into their camp. Pausanias, regent for the Spartan king, who was a minor, was commander-in-chief of the Greek army. When as leader of the Greeks he had destroyed the army of theMedes, Pausanias dedicated this memorial to Apollo.
This dedication of Pausanias, the first sign of the megalomania that re- sulted in his downfall the following year, caused a diplomatic rumpus see Thucydides 1.
The inscription was carved on a golden tripod supported by three intertwined snakes of bronze. The inscription was obliterated by the Spar- tan authorities, who put in its place the names ofthe cities that had taken part in the war. The gold tripod was melted down in the fourth century, but part ofthe serpent column survives with the names of thirty-one cities inscribed on it; the beginning of the inscription reads: London, British Museum.
Caption under Illustration "While men are collecting olives, a boy is climbing into the tree": Vocabulary We give the verb which stu- dents have already had in the vocabu- lary list in Chapter 9, in order to show its principal parts. Let students discover these and work out their meanings by analogy with the genitive absolute in the caption under the illustration.
Translation Lines When they arrived at the harbor, they were very tired and, as the sun was already hot, they sat under an olive tree and drank wine and ate some food. But soon Dicaeopolis said, "What should we do, son? For as we have no money, we cannot return home by sea. And so we must go on foot. For will be glad to go on foot and to see the tilled fields and the mountains. But how will we find the way that leads to Athens? So stand up; for if you agree if it seems good to you , it is time to start.
And when they ap- proached the hills, they saw vineyards, Lines Note that is added to the stem the first principal part and that changes to before the Note the aspiration of the final consonant of the stem in the second perfect active. Josephus, first century A. Students should be alerted to the use of the verb in such expressions and warned against using the verb For specific references to sunrise and sunset, we use of the rising sun and of the setting sun.
In such temporal expressions the present participle with its imperfective aspect will view the action as a process, e. In Exercise 19a, students are asked to pay particular attention to aspect in the Greek and to tense in English when translating participles. It may be useful Athenaze: Teacher's Handbook at this point to refer students to Reference should be alerted to look out for such Grammar, paragraph 36, Aspect, and to temporal relationships when trans- have them study what is said there about lating from English into Greek; the imperfective and the aorist and to often an English pluperfect will be examine the sentences using present translated with an aorist in Greek, and aorist imperatives, infinitives, and namely, when the action is viewed participles on pages Students in Greek and of tense usage in English.
Although the city was far away, we aspect or process, "was falling"; did not hurry. Since the old man was getting an- come hostile, the young men left the gry, the boy was afraid.
When all was ready, the priest Same as no. Although his wife was tired, the The present participle of i indi- man went quickly down the hill. Since his daughter was asking, the of the main clause, is in a past father walked more slowly. Same as no. When the sun setlhad set At sun- Here the aorist participle in the genitive absolute could indicate action either simultaneous with or prior to that of the verb in the main clause.
Students should be in- formed that aorist participles can indicate action either simultane- ous with or prior to that ofthe main clause. The aorist participle clearly indicates ac- tion prior to that ofthe main verb, thus "after working" or "having worked.
Mycenae Illustration page 37 The massive defenses surrounding the citadel of Mycenae were built about B. The gate is built ofhuge lime- stone blocks, and the triangular space above the lintel is filled with the earliest European monumental sculpture; two rampant lions confront each other across an architectural column, and their feet rest on altars.
The heads, which were made separately, are miss- ing. Illustration page 38 From about B. The of Atreus, also called the Tomb of Agamemnon, is the latest of these about B. The tomb is approached by a passage about twenty feet wide and feet long. The doorway was flanked by half columns of green marble, and the space above the lintels, by a skin of red marble. The chamber is in the shape of an enormous dome, forty-three feet high and forty-seven feet in diameter.
Vocabulary Notes: Lines But not much later they left behind the tilled fields of men and began to climb ingressive aorist onto the moun- tains; and now they rarely met any men, but they did see a few shepherds who were grazing their sheep. And they went through great woods, in which there were many oaks and many pines. But when the road became steep and not easy to find, Dicaeopolis got into difficulty, not knowing the way; but Philip, seeing a man aproaching, said, "Look, father; do you see that man coming down toward us?
For don't see him. And he is clearly a hunter; for a Spartan dog is following him. Teacher's Handbook Word glossed earlier in chapter: The verb will be treated formally in Chapter 20 see Grammar 2, pages Spartan hounds were the best hunting dogs.
Do you know if this road leads to Corinth? Look, you can see it leading over the mountain. And you will easily recognize it, since the stone heaps cairns show the way. But Corinth is a long way off, and it will soon be night; and perhaps you will get into danger spending the night alone in the moun- tains; for the mountains are deserted and the mountains being deserted you will not meet anyone except a shepherd.
But come, how are you offfor food? But wait; will give you a hare. And he accepted it and thanked him heartily paid very great thanks. But the young man said, is nothing. For there are very many hares in the mountains, and easily catch them; for am very clever at hunting. And so farewell and good luck to you. And he, seeing them approaching, got into a panic and shouted said shouting , "Who are you who journey through the night? Where have you come from and where are you going?
But as night is al- ready falling, advise you not to spend the night alone on the mountains. Come now, come with me to my hut, in which you may spend the night. And the shepherd said , "Look; you go in. Hospitality to beggars and strangers was a moral obligation gener- ally accepted throughout Greek history. And the shepherd after milk- ing his flocks returned and prepared dinner-bread and cheese and milk. And Dicaeopolis said, "Look, mend, a huntsman, whom we met on the way, gave us this hare.
Do you want to roast it for dinner?
The telling of tra- ditional stories was another regular form of entertainment, especially among the less literate. Other tenses of are sup- plied by other verbs, , , etc. Word Building 1. Exercise 19c 1. Those on the island were suffering many bad things. The old man is not prudent; for he does not know the ways of fortune.
The men of today are no worse than their ancestors. All wise men honored those who died in that battle. The Greeks, understanding the ways of the sea, could defeat the barbarians although they had fewer ships. As we do not have the resources of war, we can scarcely stand up to our enemies. The ships ofthe barbarians were bigger and slower than those of the Greeks. The sailors in that ship don't know how great a storm there will be.
Did you meet the shepherd who was driving his flocks up the road? Virtue is hard; so say the wise, and they are right not wrong. Teacher's Handbook Exercise 19d 1. Socrates then proves that it can never be just to harm anyone else e5. Additional Exercises: Identify the following forms and trans- late each: Translation Lines At the beginning of spring the fleet of the Greeks gathered at Aegina, one hundred and ten ships in number.
From there they sailed to Delos, wanting to free the Ionians. And while the fleet was at Delos, messengers came from Samos, who asked them to sail to Samos and attack the barbarians. So you can both free men of Greece and ward off the barbarians.
And so, sailing away to Mycale, they beached their ships and built a wall around them. And the Greeks, learning this, pursued them to Mycale. And when they were near the camp ofthe enemy and no one appeared putting out to sea but they saw the ships beached inside the wall, first they sailed past and called to the Ionians, telling them to revolt from the Persians; and then they disem- barked onto land and attacked the wall.
Lines At first the barbarians fought bravely, but when the Greeks charged in a concerted effort with one onset and took the wall, they turned and fled. And when the Ionians saw the Greeks win- ning, they deserted to them and fell on the barbarians. So the Ionians revolted from the Persians for the second time.
See essay, Book page Caption under Illustration "They were standing in the very palace of Agamemnon": Encourage students to deduce the imperfect from their knowledge of and See Book pages and Call attention to the temporal augment and the secondary ending. Vocabulary In presenting the verbs and be sure students understand the tenns transitive and in- transitive and the force of the middle voice.
Verbs Students have seen forms since Chapter 15 see especially Chapter 15, Grammar 1, for The follow- ing forms and its compounds and have occurred in the reading passages in Chapters The verb is fonnally pre- sented in the current chapter; the follow- ing forms occur in passage 3 , 4 , 5 , and The perfect participles 3 and 5 need not be discussed at this time, but the occurrences of the verb in the earlier chapters should be reviewed while the verb is being studied in the current chapter.
Translation Lines When day dawned, they bade farewell to the shepherd and went on their way and finally arrived at the top of the mountains, from which they looked down on the plain lying below and some walls standing on a hill.
And Philip, stopping his father, said, "Papa, see some great walls standing on that hill. But tell me what they are. Teacher's Handbook think as it seems to me , the walls of Mycenae. Did Agamemnon live there? May we go down there and look at Agamemnon's palace?
For the walls are not far from the road, and-for it is late-we will spend the night safe inside the walls.
And soon they were ap- proaching the walls, and, going up the hill, they at the gates. For the Cyclopes, as they say, made these. But look, look up. And, having looked at these, they went forward, and arriving at the top of the hill they were standing in the very palace of Agamemnon the palace it- self , looking down on the plain and the sea shining in the sun. Compound verb to be deduced: For it smells of blood.
Perhaps the Furies of Agamem- non and his completely evil wife are even now wandering about. But they will not hurt you, son. Come, give me your hand. Principal Parts Verbs with guttural stems ending in or are given in this and the next group of principal parts. We Iist first because it shows a complete set of regular forms. Most verbs with have stems and follow the pattern of Be sure students note the reduplica- tion of the stem in the aorist and the deponent future and second aorist of Word Study 1.
Grammarl It should be stressed that and are transitive and will normally take direct objects, while is intransitive and will not.
The stranger got into a panic. The people appointed Pericles gen- eral. Pericles was appointed general. The Athenians established laws for themsel ves. Exercise 1. Singular imperative, 2nd aorist active: Present infinitive active: Aorist infinitive middle: Singular imperative, 1st aorist: Aorist participle middle: Singular imperative, present middle: The shepherd stopped his dog.
The farmer suddenly stood still stopped in the agora. The boy stood up. The father made his son stand up. The Athenians got into a state of war. The enemy will put you to flight.
Who appointed you a judge of us? Theseus was appointed king ofthe Athenians. The Athenians established laws for themselves. The sailors, after leaving the har- bor, set up the mast. The Greeks appointed the Spartans leaders. The generals got into a panic and wanted to flee. After defeating the Persians, Pau- sanias set up a trophy for himself.
Don't flee, friends, but stand and fight bravely. After suffering so much, we will never get into a war again. Teacher's Handbook Exercise 20c 1. New u5age ofprepo8ition: Lines And 80 they decided not to 8pend the night near Mycenae, but, leaving the wall8 behind, they went on toward Corinth. Soon, when the 8un had al- ready 8et, they arrived at a certain vil- lage. And there a certain farmer, meet- ing them re8ting by the road8ide, took pity on them and led them home.
And 80 hi8 wife offered them food, and the farmer told them to 8it near the fire. And when they had dined, the farmer a8ked them where they were going, and, hearing that they were going to Corinth, "Corinth," he 8aid, "i8 a long way off. And 80 you cannot arrive there today. But if you like if it 8eem8 good to you , you may 8pend the night here. The next day, a8 the 8un was ri8ing, they bade farewell to the farmer and hurried in the direction of Corinth. But the road was long, and they arrived at the city when evening wa8 al- ready falling and looked for an inn.
Lines And 80 approaching a man who was going by on the road, they asked where there wa8 an inn. But he, giving a terri- ble look and getting into a rage, 8aid, "By the gods, You are clearly Atheni- ans.
What do you want? What are you doing in Corinth? Some Athenian8 are here; they are 8urely 8pie8, who have come to 8py on the 8hipyard8. We are not 8pie8 but farmer8 who are returning from Epidaurus to Athens. But Philip and hi8 father, run- ning, e8caped their pur8uer8 and hid in a certain ditch unseen escaped [their] notice hiding in a certain ditch , in which they remained the whole night.
The Corinthians ad- dressed the conference last, accusing the Athenians of open aggression and the Spartans of being dilatory. They con- trasted the national characters of Athens and Sparta and ended by demanding that they invade Attica immediately. Athenian ambassadors, who happened to be in Sparta on other business, asked permission to address the Spartans and made the speech from which the follow- ing extracts are taken. The Spartan king, Archidamus, then addressed the Spartan Assembly and tried to dissuade them from embarking on a war with Athens and advised them to make fur- ther diplomatic overtures.
The issue was put to the vote, and the Spartan Assembly resolved by a large majority that the truce had been broken by the Athenians and that war should be de- clared. Nevertheless, diplomatic activ- ity continued until spring B. And the barbarians them- selves gave the greatest proof of this; for when we defeated them with our ships, they retreated as fast as possible with the greater part oftheir army.
Lines And in these actions we Athenians provided the three most useful things, the greatest number of ships, the man who was the most skillful general, and a most resolute spirit eagerness. For we provided two-thirds of all the ships, and Themistocles as general, who persuaded the other generals to fight by sea in the straits, and we showed such spirit that when no one helped us by land, we left our city and destroyed our property, and having boarded our ships we faced the danger.
For you came to help when you were afraid for yourselves and not for us for when we were still safe, you did not come ; but we by endangering ourselves running a risk saved both you and ourselves. Lines After showing such spirit then and such judgment, do we deserve are we worthy of , Spartans, such great hostility from the Greeks because of the empire that we hold?
For this very empire we took not by force, but because you refused to stand fast against the remnants of the barbarians, and the allies approached us and themselves asked us to become their leaders. Exercise 20e 1. The Pnyx is a huge semicircular built on the slopes of a hill, about yards due west ofthe Acropolis.
The following information about the use of the subjunctive is presented in this and subsequent chapters: Chapter21 Grammar 3, pages We include order to show the principal parts ofthis verb that appears in the compound form in passage and is presented formally in Gram- mar4. Note that the stem vowel is long in the first three principal parts and short in the others, just as with 34 Athenaze: Teacher's Handbook We give the singular poetic for because it is used in the selections from the in Chapter 31 line For with the subjunctive in con- ditional clauses, see Grammar 3e in this chapter and Grammar 2 in Chapter For or or with the sub- junctive in purpose clauses, see Gram- mar 3d.
Verbs The following subjunctive forms occur in passage 3; horta- tory , 9; purpose , Translation Lines little later later by not much Di- caeopolis stood up and said to Philip, "Stand up, son; for it is time to go. And so let us hurry straight to the city.
And so Di- caeopolis approached an old man, who was walking near him, and asked why because ofwhat so many people were hurrying to Athens. And he said, "What do you say, man? Don't you know this, that today there will be an Assembly? And so we are all hurrying to the city for this reason, to hear the speakers in the Assembly. For most im- portant matters lie before the people about which it is necessary to debate. Greek fre- quently uses demonstratives that antici- pate a following clause; we use them much more sparingly in English, and they can sometimes be omitted in trans- lation.
For the Peloponnesians have long been hostile, but we did not get into a war but the truce still stands. And so this is what we must debate, whether we are to give up our empire or make war against the Peloponnesians. For now understand why the Corinthians got into a rage and attacked us, when they learned that we were Athenians.
But let's hurry, son, so that we may be present in time. In demanding that the Athenians give up their empire, the Spartans were in fact contravening the terms of this peace, since both sides undertook not to inter- There the people were already gathering and thousands were present, waiting for the presidents. Soon the presidents and the chairman and the other councilors came in and sat down.
Then those pre- sent became silent and the priest approached the altar and sacrificed the victim and prayed to the gods, that they might be kindly to the people. And the herald read out the motion and asked the people whether they wanted it seemed good to vote straightway or to debate the matter first. And the people voted, showing that all wanted to debate the matter, since it was so important. Then the herald said, "Who wishes to speak?
We give the stem verb first, but shows the most complete set offorms. Students should note that is deponent in the future. Grammar2 Occurrences and uses of the sub- junctive in passage are listed under "Verbs" at the beginning ofthe teacher's notes to this chapter. These should be re- 36 Athenaze: Teacher's Handbook viewed with students after studying Grammar 3. Exercise 21b 1. Stop, friends; let us consider what we should do.
Are we to return home or go on?
Since evening is falling, let us not stay in the mountains, but let us hurry home. How are we to reach home? For we do not know the way. Look, we can ask that shepherd which road we should take. Don't run away, old man, but tell us which road leads to the city.
Don't set out to that place now; for you won't before night. What are we to do, friends? For the shepherd says that we cannot ar- rive before night.
Going down into the plain, let us look for a house so that we may rest. And when day comes, let us set out at once. In nos. Exercise 21c 1. The Athenian Democracy For further reading, see of the Vol. Vocabulary New usage of preposition: Spelling Note that in this reading, in Exer- cise 21e, in the passage at the end ofthe chapter, and in the translations ofthe sentences in Exercise 21 g we use the Thucydidean spellings that are de- scribed on page 66 of the student's book.
Translation Lines And finally Pericles, son of Xan- thippus, the leading man at Athens of the Athenians at that time and the most capable in words and action to speak and act , came forward and gave this advice advised things of this sort: For it is clear that the Spartans have plotted against us before and are doing so now are plotting against us both formerly and now. For in the treaty it was had been stated that we must give and accept arbitration of our differences, and that each side should keep what we hold.
But now they have not asked for arbitration themselves nor do they accept arbitration when we of- fer it but want to settle their complaints by war rather than discussion. For they impose many other conditions things on us and this last lot of envoys tells us to let the Greeks go free. And so advise you not to yield at all but to preserve the empire and prepare for war. Word glossed earlier in chapter: Peloponnesians are farmers, and they have no money either privately or in their treasury.
And people ofthis sort can neither man ships nor send out in- fantry armies often; for they are unwill- ing to be away from their farms for a long time, and they have to contribute money from their own resources.
And so in one battle the Peloponnesians and their allies are capable of holding out against all the Greeks, but they are inca- pable of conducting a long war against us. And if they march against our land on foot, we will sail against theirs. For sea power is a great thing. For we live in a city like an island, which no enemy can take. And so we must give up our land and houses and guard the sea and the city. Lines "And now let us send away these ambassadors , answering them that we willlet the cities of our empire go free, ifthey too give up the cities they hold sub- ject, and that we are willing to submit to arbitration in accordance with the treaty, and that we will not start a war, but ifthey start one, we will defend our- selves.
Your fathers drove away the barbarians and advanced the city to its present power, and you must not be- come worse men than they but must de- fend yourselves against your enemies by every means and pass on the city to your descendants no less powerful lesser.
And the ambassadors departed for home and did not come again after this later as ambassadors. Teacher's Handbook Principal Parts Verbs in form a subset of den- tal stem verbs and most have principal parts like those of Note the two perfects of and their different meanings.
For row" Attic usually uses Word Building 1. Grammar4 Have students locate and identify the four occurrences of in passage are: Present infinitive middle; 2.
Present participle middle; 4. Aorist active participle; 6. Singular aorist imperative active; 8. Singular aorist imperative mid- dle; Infinitive; Present infinitive active; Aorist infinitive active; Exercise 21e 1.
The merchants hastening to the harbor looked for a ship that was going to sail to Athens. The ambassadors said: But Pericles advised the Athenians not to let the empire go.
When the Peloponnesians ap- proached Attica, the farmers had to give up their houses and come to- gether to the city. This slave came hurrying here to save us from danger. And so hurrying home let us ask our father to let him go free. But the husband let the slave go and hurried to Athens to download another slave.
In no. The removal was difficult for them, because the majority were always accustomed to living in the country. And they were distressed at leaving their houses and temples, and being about to change their way oflife. And when they arrived at the city, only a few had houses ready for them for some few there were houses ready ; but the major- ity lived in the deserted parts of the city and the temples.
And many set up house even in the towers on of the walls and wherever as each could. For the city was not large enough for them when they all gathered, but later they set up house in the Long Walls and most ofthe Pi- raeus. Caption under Illustration am afraid that we will soon get into war; for the young man is saying goodbye to his father and wife": The same happens in the imperfect, giving etc.
Stu- dents have seen this usage of in tail reading Since it cannot be determined with certainty whether the of is long or short, we do not mark it with a macron. Spelling In the and readings and the grammatical exercises we return to the regular Attic spellings e. In the read- ing from at the end of the chapter we retain his spellings e. When Di- caeopolis had knocked on the door, out came Myrrhine and seeing Philip sound being healthy and no longer blind seeing she embraced him and burst into tears ingressive aorist ofjoy rejoicing began to weep.
And when they had come in and washed and supped, Philip related everything that had happened on the journey and at the sanctuary of Asclepius; and she enjoyed listening. Lines And Dicaeopolis related all that they had heard the speakers saying in the Assembly.
And we must obey Pericles and prepare everything to re- move to the city; for when the Pelopon- nesians invade Attica, it will be neces- sary to leave home and remove to Athens. For how shall we be able to leave home and the flocks and the oxen? And ifwe remove having removed to Athens, where will we live? For there is no house ready for us in the city. But it is not possible to do these things. For the use of etc. Grammarl Note that ifthe introductory verb or clause expressing fear is in a tense, we translate the subjunctive with "will" or "may," but if the introductory verb or expression of fear is in a secondary tense, we translate the subjunvtive with "would" or "might.
Aren't you afraid that we will may suffer some disaster something bad? There is danger that a storm will may arise quickly. Although fearing that the removal will may be difficult, the wife obeys her husband. The old man lamented, fearing he would might never return. The slaves were afraid their mas- ter would might be angry with them. We are not afraid to stay outside the walls. The children were afraid to tell the truth. The captain was afraid the storm would might destroy the ship. Exercise 22b 1.
Grammar2 In this section we discuss relative, temporal, and conditional clauses, and it is important to make sure that students are familiar with these terms and can recognize and produce clauses of these three types. Begin by having students make up sentences in English with first relative, then temporal, and then condi- tional clauses. The temporal conjunc- tions discussed here are "when ever " and "until.
Note that we have provided two sentences introduced by to point up the contrast between use of the present and the subjunc- tive. Conditional sentences will be treated more fully in Chapter 30, Gram- mar 1, pages Be sure students learn the forms of as they will be expected to recog- nize them in future readings and use them in exercises. Exercise 22c 1. Whoever stays outside the walls, will be in danger.
Whenever the Assembly meets takes place , the citizens hurry to the Pnyx. We will stay in the agora until the Don't board the ship until the cap- tain orders. If the Peloponnesians come against our land on foot, we will sail against theirs with our ships. Whatever the boys have, they are willing to give us all ofit the boys are willing to give us what- ever they have.
When the farmer drove had driven the oxen into the field, he soon began to plow. The shepherds will pasture their flocks on the mountains until winter comes.
Whenever the master is away, the slaves stop working. You will get into danger, boys, if you do not do all that we advise. These boys, who were helping their fathers, worked until night fell.
If ever anyone drinks of this, he dies. Note the use ofthe future indicative in the sentences in 10, which express warnings. I, pp. Translation Lines After hearing this Myrrhine fell si- lent and obeyed her husband, although fearing that the removal would be diffi- cult. And so all winter they prepared to move to Athens when the Pelopon- nesians invaded. At the beginning of spring a messenger arrived from Athens saying that the Spartans and their allies were already gathering at the Isthmus.
And so Dicaeopolis sent Philip and Xanthias to take the flocks to Euboea. Then he himself and Myrrhine brought out the wagon and put into it all that they could carry. And when all was ready, Dicaeopolis yoked the oxen and put the grandfather, who was grieving a lot, onto the wagon.