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East Bengal West Bengal Paddy Dal Fish Mutton Biryani Bengal has been famous for its food and cuisine ever since the establishment of civilization in the landscape of gluttons, made up of the sovereign state of Bangladesh earlier East Bengal or East Pakistan and the Indian state of West Bengal, with a total area of more than , square kilometers Banerji xx. Traditionally, Bengal has been renowned for its extraordinarily fertile agricultural land and production of paddy. At the same time, the rivers of Bengal are an apparently inexhaustible resource of different varieties of fish. That is why, from the ancient times, rice and fish emerged as the staple food for the Bengalis. Nearly 5, years ago, paddy cultivation came to Bengal from Southeast Asia and rice became a major calorie resource of Bengali daily life Murshid
The gourmets of Bengal were so enthusiastic about eating that they not only prescribed the sequence of eating but they left behind plentiful texts where different Bengali food items and dishes were mentioned. At their wedding feast, different dishes are served, such as cooked vegetables, fish, mutton, deer meat, different varieties of pitha a kind of sweet dish , flavoured drinks and tambul or pan.
Sukumar Sen provides detailed information regarding popular Bengali food culture. Mukundaram Chakravarti compiled his collection of verses in the region of Medinipur.
So, it is fair to assume that Mukundaram depicted in his verses the common food culture of that region. Even in the late 18th century the eating culture remained mostly unchanged. There is an episode where the deity Annapurna prepares certain dishes. The aforesaid texts were compiled between the 12th and 18th centuries. With the establishment of Islamic rule in Bengal the eating culture gradually took a different shape.
There is confusion still existing regarding onion and garlic: whether these items were imported from the outside or these were indigenous to India.
But it is clear that the use of these items in the daily cooking was introduced after the coming of Islam. Therefore this process took a very slow path to unfold.
According to Ghulam Murshid, it was the lower classes who initially adopted the new food culture brought by Islamic rulers. After that, through the high class converts to Islam, this culture spread among other classes of Bengal Murshid — Taste in Transition: Food Culture During the Colonial Era From the late 18th century, with the expansion of British paramountcy in Bengal, a transformation in the eating culture began, which reached its culmination during the early 20th century.
That is why a broad idea of the traditional food can help us to identify the complex process of transformation within the Bengali culinary culture during the 19th century.
From the late 15th century European ships from various countries began to touch the shores of India in order to establish mercantile relations with Indians.
They never consider commercial interest as one of the important aspect of publishing. As a result the publishing industry in Bengal was dominated by personal motivation and aptitude, rather than professional approach for a prolonged time.
Most of the publishing houses here are proprietorship business due to the fact these are personal aptitude-oriented; as a consequence many publishers withered away within first generation, at best they can continue to second generation.
Third generation publisher is seldom found among the Bengali publishers. Key players… The publishing business in Bengal is very small in volume. The govt.
From the days of freedom struggle, publishing was a means of communication of the revolutionaries. Most of the publishers at that time are also revolutionaries. Afterwards they entered the publishing business. And so publishing is mostly family business here. As a result publishing is usually one generation business. Economics of Bengali publishing… Essentially the economics of Bengali language publishing is same as economics of any other publishing.
But with a tiny market of books only in West Bengal is a hindrance to the expansion of Bengali book market.
Population wise, the Bangladesh book market is much larger than West Bengal. The export-import legal complicity prevents us from exporting books in Bangladesh. Moreover, piracy is rampant in Bangladesh, but we cannot take any legal action against them.
Another problem of Bengali publishers is the low price of Bengali books compared to English books. With so small return, they cannot afford to appoint expert professionals in editorial marketing, production etc. And the readership of Bengali books is shrinking day by day.
A few books are also sold in Bangladesh. Customers are mostly from middle class. The nature of distribution channels in West Bengal is so poorly organized that it can be very well said that it is almost non-existent here.
Individual publishers have their agents book-sellers scattered around the districts. Most of the publishers cannot even cover all the districts.
Besides, there is no such solid organized plan for book promotion marketing and sales in West Bengal. A few publishers can afford online sales. Most of the publishers do their marketing individually according to their own capability.