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Reddit Abstract Objective: To introduce a new method of assessment; an observed structured clinical examination OSCE into a postgraduate course for rheumatology clinical nurse specialists. Method: The OSCE was introduced into a physical assessment module, which focused on the nurses' ability to perform an examination of patients' shoulders, knees and hands. A modified blueprinting exercise was used to ensure adequate sampling of the different components of the syllabus. This resulted in five active stations and one rest station. To enhance authenticity real, rather than simulated, patients were used where practical. All 11 students rated the OSCE a worthwhile experience reflecting the learning outcomes of the module and recommended that the OSCE should be used to assess the next cohort of students. All examiners felt this mode of assessment was more valid than the previous assessment format of a viva on a single patient.
Boet en saartjie men and women who wanted to approach her, those who wanted to touch her did. People told her all sorts of words, sweet as well as disdainful.
Doctors and scientists came up with all sorts of theories to explain her anatomy. To them, she was victim of a sickness that was the lot of all people of her race. Her sickness was called steatopygy, and since her sexual organs were abnormally developed she was said to be suffering from macronymphy even though this is a normal characteristic boet en saartjie only in Black women. Illustration of Sarah Baartman from Illutrations Histoire Naturelle des mammiferes History of Natural studies of mammals A young Jamaican, Robert Wedderburn, activist against racism and slavery watched those disgusting scenes and decided to act.
He formed a support group for Sarah and started a series of judiciary pressures against the British government to stop this sort of horrible spectacles.
Because of all these pressures, Sarah was taken to Paris, where she was exposed publicly between two circus spectacles, in music halls, and in the halls of the Boet en saartjie Bourgeoisie.
They called her the Hottentot Venus. She ended up being forced to prostitute herself at private soirees where she became a true sex object, believing that in due time she will be given the money she had made up to then.
It is at that time that she became the subject of studies by zoologist and surgeon Georges Cuvier, generalist, and surgeon of Napoleon Bonaparte.
For him, Sarah was the missing link between boet en saartjie animal and man. He royally accepts everything: She died poor, she who was made to think that she could become rich by exposing her body as an art object.
Unlike systematic reviews, scoping reviews summarize a range of evidence in order to convey the breadth and depth of evidence in a certain field [ 23 ]. In addition, scoping studies differ from systematic reviews because they address broad research questions and do not typically quantify the effect of interventions [ 24 , 25 ].
Instead, a scoping review examines the extent, range, nature, and characteristics of the primary research and summarizes the evidence [ 22 ].
Scoping reviews are often preliminary to full systematic reviews when the field of research is broad and complex, such as anesthesiology and perioperative medicine, making the feasibility of a systematic review a concern because the potentially relevant literature is thought to be especially vast and diverse.
In order to achieve the purposes of the scoping review, we employed a five-stage framework: 1 identify the research question, 2 identify relevant published studies, 3 refine the study selection criteria, 4 collect the relevant data from each published article, and 5 collate, summarize, report, and interpret the results.
Anesthesia-related interventions were defined as interventions provided in the perioperative period that either were, or could have been, performed, organized, or initiated by a healthcare professional with specific training in anesthesia. For example, the following interventions were included: perioperative administration of antibiotherapy [ 28 ], intraoperative remote ischemic preconditioning [ 29 ], and postoperative ventilation support [ 30 ]. Furthermore, studies involving surgical procedures involving local anesthesia only were excluded, as well as studies reporting perioperative interventions that are exclusively interested in comparing different surgical techniques e.
The perioperative period referred to the time window from the initial preoperative anesthesia assessment before the surgery to the final care provided or organized by anesthesia providers following surgery. Therefore, the perioperative period was separated into three distinct phases: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative.
We focused on the studies assessing mortality as an outcome and included randomized controlled trials RCTs.
The comparator group of the RCT was defined as either no treatment or usual standard of care. We did not impose a minimum sample size for included studies. Information sources and search strategy The initial search strategy was developed with the active contribution of experts in the methodology of conducting reviews AS , a practicing anesthesiologist SB , and a health sciences librarian LAH.
Literature searches were performed without any language restrictions, but we only included articles published in English. The literature search was performed on March 5, , without any year restriction.
Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were also searched to identify additional relevant studies. Selection of sources of evidence The identified articles were merged into the web-based systematic review software DistillerSR Evidence Partners, Ottawa, Canada , and duplicates were removed.
The screening tools were developed by the research team and piloted with a subset of articles for refinement and reviewer calibration. Reviewers were trained on how to use DistillerSR Evidence Partners, Ottawa, Canada and to critically appraise articles according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this scoping review.
Articles were screened for eligibility by title and abstract by two individuals using the liberal accelerated screening approach [ 33 ]. This approach involved one reviewer screening citations by title and abstract using the screening tool based on the predetermined criteria.
Disagreements were resolved by consensus or referred to a third member of the research team for resolution.
The list of included articles was reviewed by the investigators to determine if any additional articles should be included [ 34 ]. The accuracy of the included and excluded studies was verified using the artificial intelligence feature of DistillerSR Evidence Partners, Ottawa, Canada.
Data charting process A data extraction form was created and piloted by the research team.