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IS: — specifications for hard drawn steel wire fabric for reinforcing concrete. IS: — specifications for plain hard drawn steel wire fabric for prestressed concrete. IS: — specifications for high tensile strength steel bar for prestressed concrete. IS: — specifications for steel for general purposes.
IS: — specifications for rolled steel made from structural steel. IS: — specifications for prime coat for structural steel. IS: — specifications for synthetic enamel paint for structural steel. Specification for 33 Grade ordinary portland cement IS - 2.
Specification for Rapid hardening portland cement IS - 3. Methods of physical test for hydraulic cement IS - 5.
Method of chemical analysis of hydraulic cement IS - 6. Method of sampling for hydraulic cement IS - 7. IS - 2 Code of practice for preparation and use of masonry mortar IS - E Cement Concrete 1 Specification for coarse and fine aggregate. ASTM-C 2 The standard method of test for the effect of organic materials in fine aggregate on strength of mortar. ASTM C.
IS — 4 Hard drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement. Pipes 1 Specifications for pre cast concrete pipes.
IS — 2 Methods of Tests for concrete pipes. I 2 Determination of water content moisture content IS Part. IS: Part. VI 8 Determination of water content - dry density relation using light compaction. VII 9 Determination of water content - dry density relation using heavy compaction.
Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society.
John Smeaton , the "father of civil engineering" In the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London,  and in the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in , formally recognising civil engineering as a profession.
Its charter defined civil engineering as: the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns.
Main article: Civil engineer Civil engineers typically possess an academic degree in civil engineering.
The length of study is three to five years, and the completed degree is designated as a bachelor of technology , or a bachelor of engineering. The curriculum generally includes classes in physics, mathematics, project management , design and specific topics in civil engineering.
After taking basic courses in most sub-disciplines of civil engineering, they move on to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines at advanced levels. Practicing engineers[ edit ] In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification , and a professional body certifies the degree program. After completing a certified degree program, the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements including work experience and exam requirements before being certified.
Once certified, the engineer is designated as a professional engineer in the United States, Canada and South Africa , a chartered engineer in most Commonwealth countries , a chartered professional engineer in Australia and New Zealand , or a European engineer in most countries of the European Union.
There are international agreements between relevant professional bodies to allow engineers to practice across national borders. The benefits of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada, "only a licensed professional engineer may prepare, sign and seal, and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or seal engineering work for public and private clients.
In Australia, state licensing of engineers is limited to the state of Queensland. Almost all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics which all members must abide by. In cases where an engineer's work fails, they may be subject to the law of tort of negligence , and in extreme cases, criminal charges.