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Ferma de Capre - [PDF Document] ; Trunchiul caprelor trebuie s fie lung i ngust, cu nlimea la greabn partea din fa cuprins ntre 60 - 80 cm i linia superioar a spinrii n cretere uoar de la greabn la crup partea din spate a animalului , fr defecte de exterior sau de aplomb, unghii infectate etc. Se remarc forma de triunghi de la cap spre partea din spate a animalului unde se dezvolt i este cuprins ugerul. Noutatea tezei de doctorat. Cresterea iepurilor, afaceri cu iepuri ; Cresterea caprelor Boli si defecte ale ugerului la capre - Boli ale ugerului la capre Ugerul caprelor este deosebit de predispus la infectii sau la alte tipuri de boli, in special daca productia de lapte este una Ospatul de aur - Stephen Roll - Cumpara cartea.

Cresterea caprelor. Laptele si mai ales branza de capra au cautare pe Este o cartea foarte buna. Cresterea caprelor - Gazeta de agricultura ; Valorificarea caprelor Crescatorie de capre intr-o ferma mixta Capra Bodie realizeaza venituri din tablouri Cresterea caprelor Noutati. Documentatii Cresterea Ovinelor si Caprinelor - Forumul Cresterea Caprelor Pdf - info Anunturi! Accesati http afacerirapide.

Ofer pachet informational privind cresterea prepelitelor strutilor fazanilor sturionilor. Preserve the PDF files' fonts, paragraphs, lists, tables, and columns. You can then edit the word document, extract its contents and republish in PDF as a new document. Convert your files to PDF right now — free! Upload your document and convert to PDF instantly. Optionally just enter a URL and we will convert the file we find there.

Nu mananca, a incercat, dar nu Am o intrebare pt. ABSTRACT Dissolved nucleic acids DNC are ubiquitous components of the dissolved organic matter DOM pool of all oceanic, neritic, estuarine, and freshwater habitats studied to date, and may be also important for microbial growth, because of its enrichment in nitrogen and phosphorous, and as a source of nucleic acid precursors. Additionally, DNC could be genetically important, encoding for gene sequences with the potential to transform microbial populations.

Transformation has been demonstrated for a variety of terrestrial bacteria and genetic exchange via transformation has been observed in soil. In order to understand the dynamics of DNA and RNA in soils, sampling was carried out at five different locations in southern Jordan, which is one of the driest places in the world. For nucleic acid determination, we sampled on each site the top 1cm slices of two parallel cores which were subsequently homogenized and deep frozen for later nucleic acid DNA and RNA analyses in the laboratory.

Nucleic acid extraction and measurement were done by the procedures of Zachleder as applied by Danovaro et al. The results reveal two important facts. A similar trend has been noticed with RNA. These results confirm the large variability among different environments. Secondly, our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the microbial loop plays an important role in NA dynamics suggesting the presence of enzymatic activities decomposing organic materials and releasing DNA.

Our results confirmed the hypothesis that DNA released from dry matter by decomposition in soil is rapidly degraded or adsorbed onto soil particles; the adsorption of DNA onto soil components retards DNA degradation and constitutes a major mechanism of DNA molecule persistence in soil. DNA concentrations reported in this study were high when compared to the Mediterranean Sea indicating that organic matter accumulation is higher in continental environments.

Also, RNA concentrations in the study areas were extremely high and comparable to those found in highly productive systems. Wedyan and K. Die Ergebnisse zeigen zwei wichtige Fakten. Transformation has been demonstrated for a variety of terrestrial bacteria and genetic exchange via transformation has been observed in soil Graham and Istock, Mechanisms of genetic exchange amongst natural populations of environmental bacteria are poorly understood, and transformation by extra cellular DNA in the marine environment has not been investigated to our knowledge.

The available information on soil nucleic acid concentrations demonstrated the presence of large amounts of DNA about 0. Such DNA pools converted to carbon equivalents were 1. Nucleic acid accumulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea could be a basin scale anomaly due to an uncoupling between input and consumption Danovaro et al. The purpose of the present study was to investigate DNA and RNA dynamics in soil of southern of Jordan in order to provide quantitative estimates of DNC distribution and accumulation in soils.

Soil sampling was carried out at five different locations in the southern of the Jordan territory Fig. For nucleic acid determination, we sampled the top 1cm slices of two cores 2 cores sample for each location , which were subsequently homogenized and deep frozen for later analyses in the laboratory.

Figure 1: Sampling sites in southern Jordan. Nucleic acid analysis. Before analysis, larger macroscopic organisms were removed from the samples. All solutions were prepared with distilled water and then autoclaved. Briefly, 1 g of soil three replicates was treated with 3. DNA concentration was then reported as equivalent of absorbance at nm in order to calculate by difference the absorbance due to RNA: The mean concentrations of the dissolved nucleic acid DNC in the soil samples were The distribution of DNC found in this study follows a similar pattern characteristic of organic matter in soil as reported in Pote et al.

We found a high concentration of total DNC in soil and observed a significant difference between the sampling sites. This suggests the presence of enzymatic activities decomposing organic materials plant, animal, etc.

Our results confirmed the hypothesis that DNA released by decomposing dry matter in soil is rapidly degraded or adsorbed onto soil particles as well as the adsorption of DNA onto soil components retards DNA degradation and constitutes a major mechanism of DNA molecule persistence in soil Trevors, ; Pote et al.

Previous studies have shown that nucleic acid concentrations in the sediments and soils might vary according to changes in environmental conditions and that higher sedimentary nucleic acid values are generally observed in highly productive systems Danovaro et al. DNA concentrations reported in this study were high when compared to the Mediterranean Sea Danovaro et al.

This is not surprising since i bacteria contribute to a larger fraction of the total biomass in oligotrophic than in eutrophic systems Danovaro et al. Data reported here are in agreement with these hypotheses, indicating that the microbial loop reported here in terms of bacterial capability to recycle detrital organic compounds otherwise lost to the benthic food webs might play a much more important role in nucleic acid dynamics.

Danovaro R. Deep-Sea Res. Target Project Newsl. Graham J. Moran M. Pote J. Trevors J. Opinion in Biotech. Zachleder V. Romania, Transylvania, terrestrial gastropods, communities, alluvial forests. A number of 51 species from 19 families were identified.

The highest statistical density was ind. Concerning the biomass, the values were between The more significant association between gastropod species was found between Fruticicola fruticum and Perpolita hammonis, Perforatella bidentata and Perpolita hammonis, Perforatella bidentata and Valonia costata, Cochlicopa lubrica and Vitraea crystalina, Cochlicopa lubrica and Vallonia costata, Succinea oblonga and Vallonia costata, Perforatella bidentata and Vitrina pellucida. As ecotones between aquatic and terrestrial systems, alluvial forests are typically characterized by environmental gradients, and are exposed to frequent disturbance events, such as flooding and debris flows.

In southern Transylvania, alluvial forests are one of the prioritary Natura habitats 91E0 habitat type. Many of these forests were drastically reduced, consecutive to land use and wood exploitation.

Alluvial forests are mesohygrophylous vegetal associations witch abrite one of the richest terrestrial gastropod fauna due to the rich and diverse vegetation and humidity Gheoca, Little data are available concerning terrestrial gastropods from this area, most of them are historical data Bielz, ; Kimakowicz, , , ; still some records are mentioned by Grossu , , , , , More recent papers Gheoca and Popovici, discuss the terrestrial gastropods form the Olt River basin.

All this are faunistic studies, with no concern in snail assemblages. The present paper intends to analyze the structure of terrestrial gastropod communities of some alluvial forests in southern Transylvania.

In the studied area Fig. Salicetum albae fragilis, Salicetum triandrae, Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae with Rubus caesius and Urtica dioica.

There were also observed transition zones between alluvial forests and antropophylous weeds, alluvial forest and orchard or alluvial forest and oak forest. A number of 80 samples were collected from each station. For the quantitative description of the gastropod communities, were used the values of the statistical density, of the relative abundance, of the frequency and of the Dzuba index. The association analysis has been made using the mean quadratic-contingency index and the Cole interspecific association coefficient.

The Fager cenotic affinity index was also used. SYSTAT multivariate statistics program was also used for the evaluation of correlations and regression equations. The statistical density values vary between and 40 ind. High differences concerning statistical abundances are caused by the presence of Carychiidae, Cochlicopidae, Valoniidae, Gastrodontidae, Oxychilidae, with very small and abundant species.

Other species have high amounts in different sampling points, being dependent of the local habitat conditions.

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The most important are Zonitoides nitidus, Perpolita hammonis, Carychium tridentatum, Succinea oblonga, Perforatella bidentata and Fruticicola fruticum. The terrestrial gastropod community at Tocile sampling station has a different structure, due to a nearby oak forest, species characteristic to both habitats alluvial and oak forest , as Macrogastra latestriata, Cochlodina laminata, Fruticicola fruticum and Euomphalia strigella being found here.

Contribution to the total biomass of different terrestrial gastropod families. Relative abundance of terrestrial gastropod families. List of terrestrial gastropods from alluvial forests in Southern Transylvania. The affinity degree between terrestrial gastropod species is represented as a cluster tree Fig. The more significant association were found for Fruticicola fruticum and Perpolita hammonis, Perforatella bidentata and Perpolita hammonis, Perforatella bidentata, and Valonia costata, Cochlicopa lubrica and Vitraea crystalina, Cochlicopa lubrica and Vallonia costata, Succinea oblonga and Vallonia costata, Perforatella bidentata and Vitrina pellucida.

The most important affinity was found between Cochlicopa lubrica and Vallonia costata, and between these two species and Fruticicola fruticum. Fager affinity index for terrestrial gastropod species. The line marks the species pair with non significant index values. Species codification: Cluster tree using Fager affinity index values.

The same species codification was used as in the table 2.

Succinea putris, Cochlicopa lubrica, Vallonia pulchella, Vallonia costata and Helix pomatia. Finally it must be underlined the fact that the relatively large variability of snail assemblages is a consequence of the habitat heterogeneity. The most different snail assemblage composition and the highest diversity 29 species was found in the Tocile area, caused by the vicinity of an oak forest, witch maintains humidity and the diversity of herbaceous vegetation.

The presence of species like Clausilia dubia, Cochlodina laminate, Macrogastra latestriata, Vestia elata, Oxichillus depresus, Aegopinella epidentosoma and Limax cinereoniger is a prove of forest influence on gastropod community in this specific sampling station.

In these points high frequencies were found for the ubiquist species like Succinea putris and Fruticicola fruticum. The most significant associations were found between Fruticicola fruticum and Perpolita hammonis, Perforatella bidentata and Perpolita hammonis, Perforatella bidentata, and Valonia costata, Cochlicopa lubrica and Vitraea crystalina, Cochlicopa lubrica and Vallonia costata, Succinea oblonga and Vallonia costata, Perforatella bidentata and Vitrina pellucida.

The riparian zones as alluvial forests often comprise a heterogeneous mosaic of microhabitats, where species may be distinctive Sabo et al. Terrestrial gastropod communities are depending on this heterogeneity, and they are intensely affected by disturbances that affect habitat diversity. Bielz A. Filtsch, Hermannstadt. Gheoca V. Gregory S. Cummnins, — An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones, BioScience, Grossu A. Fauna R.

Succineacea, Cochlicopacea, Pupillacea, Ed. Naiman R. Sabo J. Kimakowicz M. The whole area comprises sand dunes and sandy flat areas. The Nagarparkar area is distinguished by the presence of Karoonjhar hills, a granite area about feet high. It is an arid area where aquatic resources are meager. During the rainy season, the water from the hills flows down to the ravines and some quantity is retained in shallow depressions.

Across the hill streams of Karoonjhar, few dams are constructed for the storage of water. Apart from these resources the people of Thar use subterranean water obtained from deep wells. The rain water is retained for a couple of months where aquatic vegetation and planktonic communities establish their populations. Planktonic rotifer community of Nagarparkar area was studied for the first time during October Plankton and water samples were collected from 16 different stations.

Most of them were temporary and retained water for 3 - 6 months. The water bodies included ponds, small dams and wells. A total of 36 rotifer species have been identified. Major genera recorded were Brachionus 13 species , Lecane five species , Keratella three species , Monostyla, Mytilina and Platyias two species each.

Among the above rotifer species, 11 are recorded for the first time from Pakistan, Brachionus caudatus aculeatus Hauer being the most abundant. All the Lecane species occurring in Thar Desert are also recorded for the first time from Pakistan and hence are new record. Water temperature ranged from Conductivity and salinity range was The distribution of rotifer species in relation to water quality showed that Brachionus caudatus aculeatus was most abundant and a common species of small ponds where salinity was very low.

On the contrary Lecane candida occurred only in saline water bodies. The other Lecane species however, occurred in soft water bodies with low salinity. The documentation of 11 newly recorded rotifer species is an addition to the rotifer fauna of Pakistan. Baloch et al. Au fost identificate 36 de specii de rotifere. The whole area mostly consists of barren tracts of sand dunes covered with thorny bushes. The Nagarparker area is distinguished by the presence of Karoonjhar hills, a high area of granite rocks.

These hills are spread over about 20 kilometres in length and attain a height of about feet. The Thar area has a tropical desert climate. The months of April, May and June are the hottest ones during the day. Rainfall varies from year to year. Most of the rain falls in the monsoon months between June and September whereas the winter rains are insignificant. Few dams have been constructed across the hill streams of Karoonjhar, which also store water during rainy season.

Apart from these sources, the people of Thar use subterranean water obtained from deep wells. Some of these wells contain saline water. Literature on rotifer fauna of Pakistan is very meager. Only few references are available so far, those include, Akhtar and Ali , Baloch , Mahar et al. As no scientific study is available on the quality of water and planktonic fauna of Thar Desert therefore, present study was planned and conducted during October These samples were obtained from 16 different water bodies Tab.

Rotifer species were carefully observed under binocular Microscope Nikon Eclipse E, Japan and identifications were made following standard methods with the aid of keys and illustrations given by Ruttner-Kolisko , Mizuno and Takahashi and Battish Physico-chemical parameters of different water bodies in Thar Desert.

Anchlesar Eisai 31 5 0. Markhar 32 5. Lorlai 31 8.

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Chitrasar Nikharjo Barh Talau Nariasar Ghantiari Kuara Bhodesar Mor High School Wadhrai Mori Sangha 27 4. Ranasar 32 6. However, some dams, a well and a spring were slightly brackish Tab.

A small pond station 14 that receives seawater through a channel from Rann of Kuchchh, showed a high salinity value of A total of 36 rotifer species belonging to 15 genera were recorded Fig. The Brachionus genus was dominant 13 taxa followed by Lecane five species and Keratella three species. There are eleven rotifer species which are recorded for the first time from Pakistan Tab. The Brachionids, B. The other species like B. Whereas, B. There occurred five species of Lecane in which L.

All the occurring Lecane species are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. The other newly recorded rotifers were B. These species showed rare presence.

Rotifer genera like Lecane and Brachionus are zoogeographical considered as tropic- centred thermophil while Cephalodella and Synchaeta are cold water species Segers, The dominance of the genus Brachionus is in agreement with the previous studies undertaken in Pakistan Baloch and Soomro, ; Baloch et al.

In riverine system however, Keratella was found dominant Baloch, Asplanchna priodonta occurred in all types of water bodies, but contributed with very low populations. On the other hand, Lecane genus dominated in tropical areas in India Sharma, , Thailand Sanoamuang, ; Savatenalinton and Segers, and Guatemala and Belize Garcia- Morales and Elias-Guterrez, , where genus Lecane was always dominant and Brachionus never dominated.

In subtropical Argentina also Lecane genus was found dominant Paggi, Rotifers are considered highly adaptive to a wide range of freshwater conditions Hutchinson, The dominance of Lecane with paucity of Brachionus is probably due to special characteristics of water bodies as in Loktak Lake, where Brachionus paucity was attributed to acidic water bodies Sharma, In temperate lakes Brachionus did not appear and Lecane rarely occurred.

On the contrary Conochilus and Ploesoma were commonly found Baloch et al. Conochilus were strongly associated with low trophic state whereas Brachionus with high trophic state Duggan et al. The literature on rotifer fauna of Pakistan is very meager hence the documentation of eleven newly recorded rotifer species from Thar Desert is attributed to the paucity of literature on Rotifera.

Some rotifer species occurring in the Thar Desert: Top from left, Tetramastix opoliensis, Lecane leontina, B. Centre from left, Brachionus calyciflorus f. Bottom from left, Keratella valga, Lecane candida, Keratella cochlearis, Monostyla bulla. Akhtar S. Baloch W. Pakistan Congr. Kagoshima Univ. Battish S. Duggan I. Fafioye O. Fernando C. Green J. Hutchinson G. New York, p. Mahar M. Fish, 1: Mizuno T. Ruttner-Kolisko A. Sanoamuang L. Savatenalinton S.

Segers H. Sharma B. The paper is based on quantitative benthic macroinvertebrates and mayflies qualitative samples, sampled in June-September , in 24 sampling stations. In the reference zone 24 mayfly species were identified, belonging to 12 genera and six families, representing In these lotic sectors the aquatic habitats are in good state, close to the natural one and the anthropogenic impact in this area is not significant.

These areas should to be managed for the aquatic biodiversity conservation. In these sectors ecological restoration measurements should be implemented for the lotic habitats, these being degraded due to the pollution, respectively due to the substratum exploitation.

Die in der Arbeit vorgestellten Ergebnisse beruhen auf der Auswertung von quantitativen Zoobenthos- und qualitativen Ephemeropterenproben, die Juni- September an 24 Probestellen entnommen wurden. The sampling stations were chosen according to the valley morphology, the confluence with the main tributaries and the human impact types and degrees on the river sectors - hydro- technical works, pollution sources, and over exploitation of the riverbed mineral resource and exploitation of riverine lands, in order to highlight the Ephemeroptera species diversity, and also the variation of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities structure.

At each site were sampled quantitative samples from five points, in order to highlight the micro-habitats specific diversity. In the study period quantitative benthic macroinvertebrates samples were sampled and analysed. The numerical weight of the mayfly larvae in the benthic macroinvertebrate comunities vary, between the reference area with In the studied area a total of 24 mayfly species belonging to 12 genera and six families were identified, representing In all these studied lotic sectors the aquatic habitats are considered as being in a good state, close to the natural one and the anthropogenic impact in this areas is not a significant one.

These areas should be managed for the aquatic biodiversity conservation. In all these sectors ecological rehabilitation measurements are needed for the lotic habitats, these being degraded due to pollution, respectively due to the river courses substratum exploitation.

Badea L. Gomoiu M. Krebs C. Posea G. Staicu G. Slovakia, Carpathians, water reservoirs, biodiversity, phytobentos, macrophytes, benthic and pelagic invertebrates, mollusks, fish, birds.

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The evaluation of the function and importance of small water reservoirs in the biodiversity development on all levels is still unappreciated. In this case, preliminary results of the study on six small water reservoirs in West Slovakia are presented. The research has covered the major species groups phytobentos, macrophytes, benthic and pelagic invertebrates, mollusks, fish and birds. As the first step, we are focusing on the description of the biodiversity patterns within the particular water reservoirs followed by the analyses of species links to the environmental variables using the multidimensional methods neural networks, ordination methods and generalized linear methods as the second step.

The third step covers the compilation of obtained results and evaluation of the function and importance of the small water reservoirs. The major benefits of this study are as follows: Small water reservoirs are very important landscape elements for effective water management.

Although these man-made artificial ponds change the proportion of lotic and lenitic habitats and thus influence the species community structure, secondarily offer a broader scale of microhabitats and, in general, can significantly influence the fauna sustainable development.

The evaluation of the function and also of the importance of the small water reservoirs on the biodiversity development on all levels is still unappreciated. The aim of the project SAV-FM-EHP is to identify the function of small water reservoirs in the system of aquatic biotopes of the Slovakia in respect to preservation and development of water biota diversity.

The results should enable to model the development of the biodiversity for the purpose of reservoir management with the respect of ecological value of the reservoirs.

Management should involve the primary purposes of reservoirs together with effective protection of the nature. This paper brings first results of limnology of selected six reservoirs of the west Slovakia.

They differ in respect to the land use and anthropic pressure. Intensive agricultural land use is characteristic for them, leading to runoff from adjacent agricultural land and settlements, reflected in chemical agents content Tab.

Inlets catchments lie within the protected area. Also chemical parameters suggest different trophic status of reservoirs of these two geographical areas Tab.

Basic characteristics of water in all studied reservoirs. Zooplankton Quantitative and qualitative samples of zooplankton were taken from medial and littoral zone of the lakes. For quantitative assessment abundance N.

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Most invertebrate groups were determined to the species level. Fishes Fish species occurring in reservoir inlets and outlets were sampled using electrofishing and data on fish occurrence in reservoirs were obtained from the statistics of local anglers clubs and supplemented by own sampling using electrofishing or beach seining. Chemical parameters Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were measured directly in the field using multimeter.

Statistical analysis For the assessment of the main environmental gradients and the relationship of sampling sites the principal component analysis PCA was used. Those parameters with non normal distribution were transformed. Valued above 75 indicated that groups are well separated, values 0. Qualitative samples of all invertebrate groups were used.

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The 14 species of Rotatoria, 34 species of Cladocera and 11 of Copepoda were found in reservoirs of river Morava Watershed. The most abundant were Bosmina E. The high dominance of rotifers and small average size of cladocerans, mainly Bosmina longirostris, indicated the fish predation in reservoirs. As for water quality, based on zooplankton structure, chemical parameters and phytoplankton concentration are the better beta-mesosaprobic and oligosaprobic degree.

From the aspect of cladocerans diversity 34 species these reservoirs are reaching and should be protected. Zooplankton biomass Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotatoria and chlorophyll a concentration in studied reservoirs. Macrozoobenthos Quality and quantity is studied in 18 localities littoral, inlet and outlet of every reservoir.

Based on preliminary results from two autumn sampling quite high biodiversity were found. In all inlets and outlets Gammarus sp. Figure 2: Number of taxa and density on individual sites littoral, inlet, and outlet.

The first axis can be explained as flow gradient - littoral samples separated in the right part of the diagram. Total P is correlated with the second axis. Littoral assemblages: For the littoral assemblages of reservoirs in Morava Watershed higher abundances of following taxa: Endochironomus tendens, Microtendipes gr.

The presence of different habitats in littoral zone play important role in assemblages composition. Diversity of different substrata such as coarse and fine substrata, macrophytes and detritus support different taxa Weatherhead and James, Inlets and outlets: Several taxa were found only in these inlets, mainly from Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera - Ephemera danica, representatives of Nemouridae, Leuctridae, Perlidae and Perlodidae.

Negative effect of water reservoirs on outlets bottom fauna consist in increased erosion leading to the changes in macro and microzoobenthos abundance and taxonomic composition Krno et al. The changes were more evident in sites of Morava Basin probable due to more intense human pressure.

Selected reservoirs can be divided in several ways. Coldwater inlets and outlets of the remaining two reservoirs in Morava Watershed have salmonid character, while the reservoirs are dominated by common percid and cyprinid species. In general, fish species diversity there is influenced by fish stocking, where mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio is stocked.

Clarke K. Oger R. Ertl M. Hudec I. Krno I. Masarykianae Brunensis Biologia, 91, Hydrobiological probles in streams under the reservoirs. Reid M. Weatherhead M. Danube, floodplain forests, black and white poplar gallery forests, poplar-elm forests, elm-oak forests relict habitat types. Emphasis was prevalently put on near-natural black poplar and white poplar forests, poplar-elm forests as well as the few remaining oak-elm floodplain forests that have been studied on various sections along the Romanian-Bulgarian Danube.

Further studied communities are tamarisk bushes that are listed under 92D0 Southern riparian galleries and thickets Nerio-Tamaricetea and Securinegion tinctoriae , occurring frequently together with the White poplar gallery forest. The curtains of wild wine Vitis sylvestris and on the eastern section of the Lower Danube also of the silkvine Periploca graeca and Cynanchum acutum give them a tropical touch.

On the one hand the surfaces became smaller, on the other hand the remaining floodplain forests have been dramatically altered as for their structure and species composition as a result of interventions for sylvicultural purposes.

From an ecological point of view the remainders of near-natural floodplain forests are thus of very great importance. There are on the one hand the softwood floodplain forests, on the other hand there are those of the hardwood floodplain and those showing transition characteristics.

Depending on their ecological significance they attract special attention as from a point of view of nature conservation. Climatic and phytogeographic aspects of floodplain vegetation along the Danube River. The Danube River and its floodplains shows a considerable West-Southeast extension and thus its life communities and vegetation composition is not only defined by the ecologically determining factors such as the hydrological and morphological dynamics, but also by the continentally gradients of the climate.

This becomes obvious from the comparison of the floodplain vegetation occurring along the varying sections of the Danube River. Whereas the influence of the sub continental-central European climate prevails on the Upper Danube abundant summer precipitations and moderately cold winters , the pannonian lowlands already show a continental influence moderately poor winter precipitations and relatively frequent years with dry late summers.

In the southern regions the central European- submediterranean climate affects the vegetation of this area. In the easternmost Danube region, the large floodplain on the Lower Danube, as well as in the Danube Delta, the impact of a typically continental climate becomes apparent summer aridity, frequent frosty winters with little snow see also Walter and Lieth, ; Horvat, Glavac and Ellenberg, ; Schneider, This classification differentiates, with a growing continentally in the eastward direction, by the occurrence of section-specific species.

These influences reflect increasingly in the species composition of hardwood floodplain forests and may be anticipated from the occurrence of geographic differential species. The sometimes still gallery-like softwood floodplain stands, however, are more azonal.

The central European moderately continental upper Danube area is mainly characterized by European respectively central European species of the colline level. These are partly species of dynamic pioneer stands with large grain sized sediments, among others Salix elaeagnos, German Tamarisk Myricaria germanica and grey alder Alnus incana.

Moreover, the hardwood floodplain forests comprise a number of alpine calcareous beech forests species Schneider, The pannonian section is much more continental and is characterized by the occurrence of pontic-pannonian and continental but also submediterranean, thermophilic species. These do already occur partly in the Danube floodplains east of Vienna Margl, ; Schneider, b. This thermophilic, submediterranean but also Balkan-Moesian characterized rock vegetation occurs over long stretches along the right bank of the Lower Danube, where the hills of the Bulgarian chalkstone table are steeply sloping down to the river.

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Summer Snowflake Leucojum aestivum and Wilde Vine Vitis sylvestris , being characteristic also for the Pannonian stretch of the Danubian floodplains are also characteristic of this section. On pioneer stands one may find the Tamarisk Tamarix ramosissima , indicating also lightly halophilous stands, that escorts the Danube up to its mouth in the Black Sea Simon and Dihoru, and also occurs frequently on the lower courses of its tributaries such as e.

Further pontic species may be found in the Danube-Delta, but Irano-Turanian and eastern mediterranean elements do occur all the same. Wherever possible samples of 20 m x 20 m have been taken along transects so as to record the sequence according to the various floodplain levels as well. The emphasis was put on the area of Cama-Dinu upstream Giurgiu , samples having been taken on further representative Danube River sections all the same. Vegetation data have been recorded and evaluated according to the vegetation layers herb layer, shrub layer between 1 - 3 m and between 3 - 5 m, and both a lower and a higher tree layer.

Subsequent to this, the samples have been gathered in phytocoenological tables and classified according to their affiliation to various associations. Last but not least they were also allocated to the habitat types of the Directive on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, given that special attention is drawn to the Danube River especially with regard to the Natura network.

Flood depth, duration, moment and frequency play an important role at this Schneider , b. This vegetation distribution which is conditioned by the river dynamics and grain sizes applies to the whole Danube River. It implies the formation of characteristic plant communities that occur in various densities as a result of the intervention of man. Some communities have almost completely disappeared in consequence of the Danube River development, so e. On the Lower Danube the crucial flood level for the alignment of the forest communities is measured in hydrogrades.

In the relevant Romanian scientific literature 1HG corresponds to the tenth part of the difference between lowest and highest water level. When considering the flood levels according to hydrogrades, in the historical situation of the Lower Danube floodplains there is no indication of any shrub vegetation below hydrograde 3 below mean water level.

Between HG 3 - 6 white willow settlements have been recorded on the lower spots and tamarisks in the more elevated ones.

Between HG 6 - 9 willow coppices occurred in more elevated areas and pure ash woods bordered the depressions together with alder Alnus glutinosa. Within the hydrograde band width the swampy alder areas in the depressions are limited to hydrogrades 7 - 8. Between 8 - 9 the shrub vegetation consists in a conglomerate composed of oak, elm and poplar Stoiculescu, ; Popescu-Zeletin, On sandy soils the white poplar occurs as a pioneer species.

It has to be stated here that the most elevated floodplain areas are sometimes situated directly adjacent to the shore, where the Danube River inundates the whole area at the moment of the floods and where continuous sediment deposits entailed the formation of natural levees.

These have been taken over by hardwood floodplain forests that developed in the course of the years. Considering the historic situation, i.