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As acknowledged by Haspelmath , however, defining g-words language-specifically is not necessarily troublesome. Even though p-word domains and g-word domains do not coincide in a simple way in Mapudungun, I would like to claim that several of the usual criteria for g-wordhood free occurrence, mobility, interruptability, non-coordinatability, non- extractability, and morphological idiosyncrasies are in fact rather unproblematic when applied in the language and allow the identification of a meaningful kind of g-word in the language.
Other than noting that most long g-words probably consist of several p-words cf. Evans et al. For purposes of this study, I will limit myself to surveying the grammatical and semantic traits involved in complex word formation on a strict language-specific basis in Sections 2 and 3.
The discussion section will assume some cross-linguistic commensurability along traditional lines. The complexity of Mapudungun non-verbal words The traditionally defined parts of speech in the language include verbs, nouns, pronouns and articles, adjectives including participles , adverbs, adpositions, conjunctions, interjections, and particles.
The former category is the subject of the next section.
The latter four do not participate in either derivational or inflectional morphological processes and I will not address them further here. Adverbs comprise a closed subclass of underived items, and a potentially open class of derived ones. Adjectives show a degree of derivational complexity roughly comparable to what equivalent elements display in Romance languages, and are therefore relatively unspectacular, except in the case of participles, which may inherit substantial complexity from the verbs they originate in.
The inflection of non-deverbal adjectives consists only of the non-singular number marker -ke. Nouns can show a higher degree of morphological complexity. Nevertheless, there are some deverbal nominalizing suffixes: -fe for agentive nouns e. More importantly, compounding is a prominent process in Mapudungun nominal word formation.
Compound nouns can be formed unproductively from adjectives plus nouns 1a and verbs plus nouns 1b on the one hand the former being more frequent than the latter , and productively from nouns plus nouns 1c-d on the other: 1 a. The complexity of Mapudungun verbal words There are two reasons why Mapudungun verbs can show a remarkable degree of morphological complexity.
First, the suffixes that a verb stem can take to form a word are numerous; they include valency-changing operators, temporal and aspectual markers, elements expressing evidentiality and mood, person and number markers, suffixes encoding either actional direction i. Many of these can co-occur on any given verb form. The following subsections deal with these two sources of complexity.
The following examples illustrate complex verb forms with suffixes of different kinds; 3a shows a future-marked form with two syntactic arguments; 3b shows several voice markers and the reportative evidential -rke on a negative form.
All but one appear to originate as incorporated verbs. The first can be seen in 9 and denotes progressivity. The fact that both an extra-verbal and a suffixal construction exist, plus the fact that the latter retains an agentivity requirement, suggests a relatively recent grammaticalization: 4 7 a. In the latter case, the whole has cessative value, i. Several other elements occurring in the verbal complex are clearly of verbal origin; most will be discussed in Section 3. The examples in 13 illustrate the kind of structures more frequently found in texts; a shows a finite verb and b shows a non-finite verb form with incorporated nominals: 13 a.
Ina-mara-le-i tachi pu trewa.
Harmelink says that any common noun can be incorporated if the semantics and pragmatics are appropriate, and my own data confirm this.
Although the details of how stress patterns operate in the context of NI are not well understood, nominal elements retain some prosodic prominence in that they can carry secondary, possibly independent stress.
Incorporating predicates are typically bivalent.
Although some studies claim this is obligatorily so Harmelink , Loncon , others explicitly say that monovalent verbs can incorporate as well, and my own data confirms this — at least for some nonagentive verbs, cf.
Based on data like the following, Baker et al. Lastly, observe that trivalent verbs whether underived a or derived b can also incorporate nominals: 16 a. It is particularly noteworthy that incorporated elements need not be mere noun roots or stems. Harmelink mentions two subtypes here, viz. Harmelink says he does not know how productive this subtype is; to judge from my own experience with such constructions, I would say that the compound-N subtype is not only more frequently found in texts but more readily accepted and volunteered in elicitation than the complex-NP subtype.
These verb roots do not normally combine with each other. Examples follow: 20 a. He also discusses others that are productive, viz. Entonse leli-nie-ke-fi-i. A: Nge-la-i chadi.
A: There is no salt. IND over. But note that, if we only consider the verbs in those texts, the index reaches 4. At the higher end are the groups with and morphemes per word respectively, to which only 9 languages belong.
Some suffixes do express location, direction, and motion, but morphemes denoting chronology, specific temporal location, or instruments e.
Other qualitative approaches to synthesis, however, clearly give the language polysynthetic status. The Mapudungun brand of nominal incorporation and its polypersonal verbs are straightforwardly polysynthetic for Baker , for instance. Mapudungun might be said to be strongly polysynthetic in that verbal compounding is quite productive and allows for up to easily 3 to exceptionally 5 stems per verb, and especially in that syntactically complex NPs can be integrated into the stems of verbal predications— although the incorporation of complex NPs is admittedly infrequent.
Nevertheless, lexical affixation in general is comparatively limited, and there are no raising affixal verbs like the ones found in Wakashan Pittman and Eskimoan Fortescue , Pittman , Mithun Thus, the ways in which Mapudungun verbal words reach high levels of complexity depend exclusively on the possibility of expressing selected notions related to the clause head, its arguments, some circumstantial information, and modality. There do not seem to exist any structures in the language where predicates, arguments, or adjuncts belonging to superordinate or subordinate clauses migrate towards, or are integrated into, a single verbal word.
Valdivia: Imprenta Central J. Santiago: Imprenta Universitaria. Baker, Mark C. The Polysynthesis Parameter. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Golluscio Oxford: Oxford University Press, — Shopen ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, — Haspelmath, M. Although the orthography used in this article is based on the Alfabeto Mapuche Unificado, the system used by Chilean linguists and other people in many publications in the language, the competing Ragileo, Nhewenh and Azumchefi systems all have their supporters, and there is still no consensus among authorities, linguists and Mapuche communities.
They claimed that Microsoft needed permission to do so and had not sought it. Morphology[ edit ] Mapuche is an agglutinative language. The subject agent of a transitive clause tends to precede the verb, and the object tends to follow A—V—O order ; the subject of an intransitive clause tends to follow the verb V—S order. For example, pu is a plural indicator for animate nouns and yuka as the plural for inanimate nouns.
Chi or ti can be used as a definite animate article, as in chi wentru 'the man' and chi pu wentru for 'the men'. Subjects and objects use the same case. They are often found with a particle ta, which does not seem to add anything specific to the meaning: tami 'your'. Mapudungu uses particles, which is a small group of morphemes that enable the speaker to express how they feel about what they have said.
Examples include chi doubt , am surprise , nga regret , llemay certainty , chemay amazement , chiam wonder , amfe exclamation. There are also more complicated particles such as kay, which suggest the information about to be said is in contrast to what was just said.