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Size reduction is paramount, to make the nodes as inexpensive and easy-to-deploy as possible. The research team is confident that they can incorporate the requisite sensing, communication, and computing hardware, along with a power supply, in a volume no more than a few cubic millimeters, while still achieving impressive performance in terms of sensor functionality and communications capability. Smart Dust Technology Integrated into a single package are:- 1. MEMS sensors 2. MEMS beam steering mirror for active optical transmission 3. MEMS corner cube retroreflector for passive optical transmission 4. An optical receiver 5.
Artificial Intelligence In Power Station.
Securing Underwater Wireless Communication Networks. Earthing transformers For Power systems.
Nuclear Batteries-Daintiest Dynamos. Adaptive Optics in Ground Based Telescopes.
Grating Light Valve Display Technology. Co-operative cache based data access in ad hoc networks.
User Identification Through Keystroke Biometrics. Compact peripheral component interconnect CPCI. Speed Detection of moving vehicle using speed cameras. Adaptive Blind Noise Suppression. An Efficient Algorithm for iris pattern. Artificial Intelligence Substation Control. This communication may include new programs or messages from other motes. In response to a message or upon its own initiative the microcontroller will use the corner cube retro reflector or laser to transmit sensor data or a message to a base station or another mote.
The primary constraint in the design of the Smart Dust motes is volume, which in turn puts a severe constraint on energy since we do not have much room for batteries or large solar cells. Thus, the motes must operate efficiently and conserve energy whenever possible.
Most of the time, the majority of the mote is powered off with only a clock and a few timers running. When a timer expires, it powers up a part of the mote to carry out a job, then powers off. A few of the timers control the sensors that measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure.
When one of these timers expires, it powers up the corresponding sensor, takes a sample, and converts it to a digital word. If the data is interesting, it may either be stored directly in the SRAM or the microcontroller is powered up to perform more complex operations with it.
When this task is complete, everything is again powered down and the timer begins counting again. Wireless communication facilitates simultaneous data collection from thousands of sensors.
There are several options for communicating to and from a cubic-millimeter computer. Radio-frequency and optical communications each have their strengths and weaknesses. Radio-frequency communication is well under-stood, but currently requires minimum power levels in the multiple milliwatt range due to analog mixers, filters, and oscillators.
If whisker-thin antennas of centimeter length can be accepted as a part of a dust mote, then reasonably efficient antennas can be made for radio-frequency communication. While the smallest complete radios are still on the order of a few hundred cubic millimeters, there is active work in the industry to produce cubic-millimeter radios.
Moreover RF techniques cannot be used because of the following disadvantages: - 1. When the user looks in particular angle chair is controlled according to that angle. It is useful in many computer vision applications. This paper provides different affects of aerodynamics at high altitude and at different angles. This acts like a satellite but unlike satellite it is not placed in the orbit.
Using of SMT components reduces the space used than through hole.
They collect the information such as temperature ,humidity etc. Smart Dust: Smart Dust is an tiny device that can be held in the environment to monitor the real world phenomena. One can see the plasma display in TVs. Power Electronics Module is a key system in any electronics system.
Image based Authentication System: Image based Authentication System is an alternative to the traditional username and password type authentication. This type of authentication can be used as an independent system or along side the password based authentication for improved security and usability. New Security measure will not only involve protocols and cryptography but also the microarchitecture, design method, system architecture etc.
An Autonomous Car is a fully computerized car, which simulates a human driver and controls the vehicle on road. Development of Autonomous Cars shows the technical brilliance and advancements in the field of embedded systems. Wireless Communications from High Altitude Platforms: The World is shifting from wired networks to wireless at a rapid pace.
People want high speed wireless communication, where they do not have to hassle with bunch of wires. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: The demand for energy is always increasing and we must start looking for alternative sources of energy. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting is an interesting method of generating energy that can act as an alternative to the traditional method of energy generation. The mechanical strain in a piezoelectric object is converted in to electrical energy.
Spintronics Spin Electronics : Spintronics or Spin Electronics is an emerging topic in the area of Physics where the spin of electron is used alongside the charge of the electron to carry information. This exploitation of electron spin will open opportunities in nano — electronic devices. Spintronics is also known as Magneto Electronics, as the spin of the electron is controlled by an external magnetic field.
This lead to large power dissipation and hence researchers and designers are working on Low Power Embedded Systems in order to increase the battery life.