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books based on votes: രണ്ടാമൂഴം | Randamoozham by M.T. An attempt to find out the best 10 books Malayalam ever had. Books shelved as malayalam: രണ്ടാമൂഴം | Randamoozham by M.T. Vasudevan Nair, ആടുജീവിതം | Aatujeevitham by Benyamin, ഖസാക്കിന്റെ . PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy .

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How good or how real would a novel be in which Brahmin, Nayar, Mappilla, men or women, from different regions of Malabar, all spoke alike? What is equally interesting of course is that he did not consider Indulekha or its clones, spawned by the dozen in the last decade of the nineteenth century, a worthy representative of such realism!

One is regarding the presence of the cultural matrix within these novels-for instance, it allows one to ask how, or indeed, why Nayar society is represented here. Todorov, The Poetics of Prose, Oxford, , pp. Williams, ed.

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Gopala- krishnan, ed. Chandu Menon, Indulekha , trans. Dumergue, Calicut, , pp. Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination , Texas, There are two important ideas here that I wish to develop through the essay-one the relational nature of the self and second, of its unbounded and seamless character, constantly in a state of flux. Moreover, the multivocality of these texts raises the important question-can a universalized, nationalized reading of the modern Indian novel be possible?

I shall return to these questions later. II The earliest novel was written in Kerala in the late nineteenth century, a time when this society was undergoing fundamental transformations. Older forms of marriage customs, inheritance practices and property rights were in the process of being questioned.

All these were directed against the power and privilege of the landowning households or taravads. On the one hand, the propertied castes of the Nayars and the Nambudiri Brahmins were facing an increasing amount of opposition from their tenants and lower caste dependents. On the other, internal differences especially within the Nayar community, over marriage and inheritance, were challenging the authority of family elders and caste elites alike. The battles over tenancy had led to sustained debates and the resultant legislations of the s provided some respite to the more substantial tenantry.

The s witnessed a protracted debate on the nature of marriage and attendant morality amongst the matrilineal Nayars. The central issue was whether the practice of sambandham followed by the Nayars, constituted a valid marriage or not. Sambandham was the customary manner in which Nayars entered into sexual relations with each other.

Ritually there were minor variations between different regions in Malabar; it essentially involved a small ceremony indicating the beginning of a sexual union. While theor- etically Nayars were polyandrous, i. Evidence for polyandry is practically non-existent, though many of them certainly had more than one relationship in their life, after the death of, or separation from, one partner.

What was even more dramatic was that the conjugal union in a sambatidham did not create a distinct socio-economic unit. Nayar women continued to live within their natal taravads households , and descent too was traced in the female line. Even in the instances where women went to Downloaded from sih.

The ire regarding sambandham was fuelled by a variety of causes.

Their attacks echoed the currently fashionable ideas of Victorian repressiveness; ideologically the evolutionary theorists of the late nineteenth century provided a voca- bulary that was quickly marshalled to strengthen their position. They wanted the government to initiate a legislation that would legalize mono- gamous marriage which would ensure long lasting relationships, not dis- soluble at will.

In addition, they also urged for legal intervention in allowing for bilateral inheritance. In other words, the conjugal unit and not the taravad was to be treated as the primary socio-economic unit,. While the arguments for biological families and the sanctity of the marital bond were couched in highly emotive language, their more arid legal aspect revealed the strategy for enabling easy partitions.

In the debate on marriage, one of the main points of agitation was the sambandhams between Nayar women and Nambudiri brahmin men.

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Since the marital bond did not entail the pooling of resources or the creation of a common socio-economic unit, this did not cause much concern for either community. The origins of this custom are shrouded in mystery but in the late nineteenth century this became the focal point of the debate. The Nayar reformers argued that their community had been pushed into their backward, matrilineal state with barbaric practices like polyandry by the Nambudiri brahmins.

The Nambudiri men were allowed up to four wives at any time, but only one of these could be from their own community, and that too was allowed only to the eldest son. This meant that most Nambudiri men often entered into sambandhams with Nayar women. As the Nambudiris were a strictly patrilineal community with elaborate joint-family arrangements and pri- mogeniture, none of the children born out of their unions with Nayar women ever inherited their property.

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III In this section I shall discuss two novels and their authors. Indu- briefly lekha, written in , is love story set in the context of the landed a families of Malabar. Its author, Chandu Menon, was born in in Kodungallur in Cochin state, but grew up in Tellicherry in north Malabar. He worked Downloaded from sih. In he was promoted to the post of District munsif, a job he held till his death, and it was at this time that he began working on his famous novel.

It was due to his knowledge of Malabar, colonial law, and an apparent closeness to British officials like William Logan that Chandu Menon was appointed as one of the Commissioners on the Malabar Marriage Com- mission set up in They resolve to marry each other.

Meanwhile, her guardian and grandfather, Panchu Menon, throws Madhavan out of the house in a fit of anger Madhavan wishes to educate one of his younger cousins and resolves to prevent their marriage. He attempts unsuccessfully to arrange a match between Indulekha and a rich, though lascivious, Nambudiri brahmin. With the right degree of mishaps, heartache and separation Madhavan is wrongly informed that Indulekha had married the Nambudiri and sets off on a journey around the country to ease his pain; Indulekha on learning that Madhavan had left without confirming this rumour is distraught, both because of his lack of trust in her, and because of her inability to communicate the true state of affairs to him all complications are sorted out and a reconciliation contrived.

The novel ends in marriage and the happy couple and their two children live happily ever after in Madras. A perfectly ordinary love story with a predictable ending; so, what is so special about Indulekha?

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In this essay, I am concerned with two themes in Indulekha. One, the interesting ambiguities about desire, sexuality and marriage encoded in the story. Second, with the manner in which the 8 T. Sankara Menon, Chandu Menon, Delhi, , pp.


For the purposes of the first broad theme, that relating to sexuality and marriage, I propose to read Indulekha along with a text remarkably at variance with it. There were two broad positions regarding sexuality and marriage that surfaced in the debates on marriage reform in this period. This was to be undertaken by controlling and disciplining unbridled sexuality by legislating for monogamous marriage. In addition, he feared that such a legislation would do away with caste strictures on Nayars which restricted their legitimate sexual relations to members of their own caste and with Nambudiris.

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He argued that any form of marriage customarily prevalent in a community and acceptable to its practitioners should be accepted as constituting legitimate practice. What is significant here is the apparently paradoxical position occupied by Chandu Menon as legislator and author. On a closer look what emerges is that while both the Memorandui. An important reason could be the dominance of ideas of 10 In , the Malabar Marriage Commission was set up to investigate into the sexual practices of the Nayars of Malabar and whether legislative intervention in the shape of a Marriage Law was necessary to correct this.

Chandu Menon, district court judge at Calicut, was one of the six members of this Commission. He was the only dissenting voice when the proceedings were eventually concluded. The attempt of men involved in marriage reform in the period was to discipline female sexuality and monogamous marriage removed the threat posed by polyandrous relations.

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Henceforth, sexual activity, wrapped up in the confines of monogamous conjugality, was to be largely for reproduction. Moreover, it sanitized the subversive possibilities of female desire that polyandry represented.

Therefore, through both these texts he constructs the idea of a new woman imbued with radically different ideas of femininity.

The paradox then, lies in the fact that what Chandu Menon feared and opposed in the proposed legislation the legal break-up of.

Politically, his stance as a dissenter in the context of the Marriage Commission represents a radical break with the reformers who demanded legal intervention. This is interesting in the light of the almost celebratory engagement with colonial modernity reflected in Indulekha. The virtues of English education, the technological superiority of the factory and the steam engine, the kindness of the colonial masters, appear as the benefits of the colonial encounter.

Modernity and its civilizational impulse are welcomed by Chandu Menon. Indulekha is a story set within the strife-ridden Nayar taravads of the late nineteenth century. In a sense it is a statement about the crisis central to these families in this period-a generational conflict caused more often than not by the dependence of the younger members on the karnavanlhead for maintenance and livelihood.

The control of landed holdings by the Downloaded from sih. Learn Hindi through Malayalam - Malayalam to Hindi. SilverParticle Solutions. Learn Hindi through Malayalam: Malayalam to Hindi Speaking. Vernal Info. Emasters - Online Electrician. We are locally owned and operated which makes our services causal.

Beauty Tips. The natural ways to enhance beauty. The door to beauty is just a click away. Tasty Cook - My Recipe Book. United States Language: Of course, this could be the case with every other book written in ones mother tongue since there is nothing that I have described here which is peculiar to this novel.

I will just have to read more and see whether in terms of the language constructs he had used, this novel stands out from the rest of the others. The novel talks about the dreams that a person would have and how reality dawns upon him to crush not only the dreams, but his entire life as well.

Najeeb, the main character in the novel, is a jobless husband, with his wife expecting their first kid in 6 or so months. One of his friends tells him about an opportunity in the gulf, upon which, after discussing with his wife, he decides to take it up no matter what happens. After somehow begging and borrowing enough money for the commission and airplane tickets, he spends one last night with his wife before he leaves for Mumbai to catch the plane.

The conversation during that night is bitter sweet. They talk about how he would go there and earn a lot. How he would come back in a year and bring gifts for his newborn and his wife. He leaves the next day for Mumbai and stays a day or two with his friends there. Hence, both of them were traveling together. The other person was a brash young kid, full of life and full of expectations. After waiting for a long time, they see a torn apart mini lorry revving up the road that leads to the airport.

It stops midway and an Arab jumps out from it, wearing a white Kandhuura covering him from top to bottom and with a turban on his head. He walks here and there for a while looking frustrated and finally spots our two young gentlemen standing over there. He comes over, takes their passport, looks at it and then looks at their faces. After what looks like a face analysis, he gestures them to get in the truck. Happy that someone finally paid them some attention they jump in.

The Arab takes them on a long ride. A very long ride, into the heart of the desert, where they reach during midnight. Najeeb gets down at some unknown place and sharpens his hearing. He hears the slight braying of a goat. I do not want to give away what happens then and how the story develops.