routine used in calculations is the highly accurate Steam_IAPWS, which incorpocates the Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordmary . Table C.1aSI Saturation Temperature Table for Steam in SI Units. T. Psat vf vg vfg hf hg hfg uf ug ufg sf sg sfg. C. kPa m3/kg m3/kg m3/kg. kJ/kg. kJ/kg. kJ/kg. Steam Tables. This is the table for the properties of Saturated Steam and Saturated Water. It shows us the correlation of data for various pressures and.
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Saturated Steam: TEMPERATURE Table. STEAM TABLES. (from M. D. Koretsky, "Engineering and Chemical Thermodynamics", John Wiley & Sons, ). Table 1. Saturated Steam: Temperature Table-Continued. Specific Volume. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. | Sat. Liquid Evap. Liquid Evap vapor. Liquid Evap vapor. Entropy. (Thermodynamic Properties of. Ordinary Water Substance). Based on the NIST Steam Tables. For ME Thermodynamics at IITBombay.
Units By R. S Khurmi, J. With Mollier Diagrams in S. This has been a useful text for the students of Mechanical Engineering for more than 30 years. K Gupta Free?
If using a separatory funnel on the Claisen adapter, turn the stopcock to gradually pour in water. If water is drained too quickly so that it pools in the Claisen adapter, it will be difficult to drain into the distilling flask for the same reason that a separatory funnel doesn't drain with its stopper in place.
Draining water from the separatory funnel slowly prevents this from happening. Stop the Distillation If following a procedure, collect the recommended quantity of distillate.
If the distillate is milky, the distillation can be ceased when the distillate dripping from the vacuum adapter clarifies, indicating that only water is condensing. If using a steam line, fully drain the liquid in the separatory funnel steam trap and leave open before turning off the steam. If water is in the funnel when the steam line is turned off, suction formed by the trap cooling faster than the distilling flask may pull liquid from the distilling flask into the steam trap sometimes violently.
Isolate the Oil If the oil separates from the distillate as in Figure 5. If milky as in Figure 5. Three extractions are typically necessary to fully extract the oil from a milky distillate into an organic solvent.
In the extraction of the milky clove oil distillate from Figure 5. This milky appearance shows that the oil was not fully removed with one extraction. The aqueous layer clarifies with the second extraction Figure 5.
Steam Distillation Summary Figure 5. Table 5.
Place large amount of plant material in a large round bottomed flask no more than half full , and just cover with water. Always use a Claisen adapter, as there is often turbulence in the flask. Two variations are common: Heat the water with a Bunsen burner to create steam directly.
It is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, and is cheap and abundant, unlike helium. The required heat, however, leads to condensation problems and requires an insulated envelope.
These factors have limited its use thus far to mostly demonstration projects. September Learn how and when to remove this template message Steam engines and steam turbines use the expansion of steam to drive a piston or turbine to perform mechanical work. The ability to return condensed steam as water-liquid to the boiler at high pressure with relatively little expenditure of pumping power is important. Condensation of steam to water often occurs at the low-pressure end of a steam turbine, since this maximizes the energy efficiency , but such wet-steam conditions must be limited to avoid excessive turbine blade erosion.
Engineers use an idealised thermodynamic cycle , the Rankine cycle , to model the behavior of steam engines.
Steam turbines are often used in the production of electricity. Sterilization[ edit ] An autoclave , which uses steam under pressure, is used in microbiology laboratories and similar environments for sterilization. However, the entrained wet steam will reduce heating efficiency, and should be removed through point-of-use or distribution separation stations Steam that incurs pressure losses due to piping friction, etc.
When steam is generated using a boiler, it usually contains wetness from non-vaporized water molecules that are carried over into the distributed steam. As the water approaches the saturation state and begins to vaporize, some water, usually in the form of mist or droplets, is entrained in the rising steam and distributed downstream. This is one of the key reasons why separation is used to dis-entrain condensate from distributed steam. Superheated Steam Superheated steam is created by further heating wet or saturated steam beyond the saturated steam point.
This yields steam that has a higher temperature and lower density than saturated steam at the same pressure. Advantages of using superheated steam to drive turbines: To maintain the dryness of the steam for steam-driven equipment, whose performance is impaired by the presence of condensate To improve thermal efficiency and work capability, e. It is advantageous to both supply and discharge the steam while in the superheated state because condensate will not be generated inside steam-driven equipment during normal operation, minimizing the risk of damage from erosion or carbonic acid corrosion.