Modern Control. Engineering. Fifth Edition. Katsuhiko Ogata. Prentice Hall. Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS. Introduction. History of Automatic Control 4. Two Examples of Engineering Creativity 7. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Richard C Dorf and others published Modern Control Systems, 13th Edition.
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Hybrid Fuel Vehicles. Wind Power. Embedded Computers. Smart Grid Control Systems. Rotating Disk Speed Control. Insulin Delivery Control System. Robert H. Bishop. Marquette University. Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data. Dorf, Richard C. Modern control systems/ Richard C. Dorf, Robert H. Modern. Control Systems. TWELFTH EDITION. Richard C. Dorf. University of California, Davis. Robert H. Bishop. Marquette University. PEARSON.
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Request a copy. Download instructor resources. Additional order info. download this product. download an eText. For senior or graduate-level students taking a first course in Control Theory in departments of Mechanical, Electrical, Aerospace, and Chemical Engineering.
A comprehensive, senior-level textbook for control engineering. The text provides a gradual development of control theory, shows how to solve all computational problems with MATLAB, and avoids highly mathematical arguments. A wealth of examples and worked problems are featured throughout the text.
The author has also updated and revised many of the worked examples and end-of-chapter problems. Download Sample Chapter. This material is protected under all copyright laws, as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Download Preface. Chapter 8 first discusses PID control in general and then presents two-degrees-of-freedom control systems — Presents a computational MATLAB method to determine system parameters so the system will have the desired transient characteristics.
An improved chapter on the design of control systems in state space Chapter 10 — This chapter treats pole placement and observer design and includes quadratic optimal control.
An in-depth treatment of topics emphasizes both the basic concepts and the design aspects of control systems. An accessible presentation that avoids highly mathematical arguments.
The author introduces mathematical proofs only when they contribute to an understanding of the material. Over chapter-end worked problems and unsolved problems clarify students' understanding of the material at strategic points throughout the text.
An introduction to the two-degrees-of-freedom control system and introduction to robust control. Bringing a finger or conductive stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the local electrostatic field, which in turn reduces the mutual capacitance. The capacitance change at every individual point on the grid can be measured to accurately determine the touch location by measuring the voltage in the other axis. Mutual capacitance allows multi-touch operation where multiple fingers, palms or styli can be accurately tracked at the same time.
Self-capacitance[ edit ] Self-capacitance sensors can have the same X-Y grid as mutual capacitance sensors, but the columns and rows operate independently. With self-capacitance, the capacitive load of a finger is measured on each column or row electrode by a current meter, or the change in frequency of an RC oscillator. The cost of this technology has fallen greatly in recent years and capacitive styli are now widely available for a nominal charge, and often given away free with mobile accessories.
These consist of an electrically conductive shaft with a soft conductive rubber tip, thereby resistively connecting the fingers to the tip of the stylus.
Infrared grid[ edit ] Infrared sensors mounted around the display watch for a user's touchscreen input on this PLATO V terminal in The monochromatic plasma display's characteristic orange glow is illustrated. An infrared touchscreen uses an array of X-Y infrared LED and photodetector pairs around the edges of the screen to detect a disruption in the pattern of LED beams.
These LED beams cross each other in vertical and horizontal patterns. This helps the sensors pick up the exact location of the touch. A major benefit of such a system is that it can detect essentially any opaque object including a finger, gloved finger, stylus or pen. It is generally used in outdoor applications and POS systems which cannot rely on a conductor such as a bare finger to activate the touchscreen.
Unlike capacitive touchscreens , infrared touchscreens do not require any patterning on the glass which increases durability and optical clarity of the overall system. Infrared touchscreens are sensitive to dirt and dust that can interfere with the infrared beams, and suffer from parallax in curved surfaces and accidental press when the user hovers a finger over the screen while searching for the item to be selected.
Infrared acrylic projection[ edit ] A translucent acrylic sheet is used as a rear-projection screen to display information. The edges of the acrylic sheet are illuminated by infrared LEDs, and infrared cameras are focused on the back of the sheet. Objects placed on the sheet are detectable by the cameras. When the sheet is touched by the user, the deformation results in leakage of infrared light which peaks at the points of maximum pressure, indicating the user's touch location.
Microsoft's PixelSense tablets use this technology. Optical imaging[ edit ] Optical touchscreens are a relatively modern development in touchscreen technology, in which two or more image sensors are placed around the edges mostly the corners of the screen. Infrared backlights are placed in the camera's field of view on the opposite side of the screen.
A touch blocks some lights from the cameras, and the location and size of the touching object can be calculated see visual hull. This technology is growing in popularity due to its scalability, versatility, and affordability for larger touchscreens. Dispersive signal technology[ edit ] Introduced in by 3M , this system detects a touch by using sensors to measure the piezoelectricity in the glass.
Complex algorithms interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen, it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity.
Any object can be used to generate touch events, including gloved fingers. A downside is that after the initial touch, the system cannot detect a motionless finger. However, for the same reason, resting objects do not disrupt touch recognition.
Acoustic pulse recognition[ edit ] The key to this technology is that a touch at any one position on the surface generates a sound wave in the substrate which then produces a unique combined signal as measured by three or more tiny transducers attached to the edges of the touchscreen. Modern Control Systems, 8th edition.
Robert Bishop. Bishop Marquette University, robert. Books by Marquette University Faculty.
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