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Computer Applications and Information Technology through a single book complete with numerous illustrative diagrams, practical examples, chapter summaries, end-of-chapter questions and glossary of important term About the Book: Computer Fundamentals The Sixth edition of this widely popular book is designed to introduce its readers to important concepts in Computer Science. Computer Applications and Information Technology through a single book complete with numerous illustrative diagrams, practical examples, chapter summaries, end-of-chapter questions and glossary of important terms. Computer Fundamentals is designed to serve as text book for various introductory courses in Computer Science, Computer Applications, Information Technology and other related areas. Computer languages, Computer networks, Operating systems and Database technologies The Internet, Multimedia computing systems and their applications and many more This edition more useful than previous editions because:- New topics and classifications are added to various chapters, introducing readers to newer frontiers in computing The layout has been improved considerably to make the contents attractive and easier to read Illustrative diagrams and overall layout are improved to make the contents attractive and lucid to read Lecture Notes CD contents is suitably updated Size of the book is made handy on feedback from readers.

Different patterns of bars reflect the beam in different ways sensed by a light-sensitive detector. Speaker-independent systems are mostly of this type. Such systems are normally speakerdependent.

Now they are also used with nonportable desktop computer systems because they occupy less table space. Consist of a laser beam source, a multi-sided mirror, a photoconductive drum and toner tiny particles of oppositely charged ink.

To print a page, the laser beam is focused on the electro statically charged drum by the spinning multi-sided mirror. Toner is then permanently fused on the paper with heat and pressure to generate the printer output. Laser printers produce very high quality output having resolutions in the range of to dpi.

Very high-speed laser printers can print to pages per minute. They are complementary to each other. Relationship among hardware, system software, application software, and users of a computer system. Slides Computer Fundamentals P.

K Sinha Ch Given a job, computer can work on it automatically without human interventions z ia R n 2 Speed: Computer can perform data processing jobs very fast, usually measured in microseconds , nanoseconds , and picoseconds a s s a H d 3 Accuracy: It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumbling z ia R n 5 Versatility: Computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of logical steps a s s a H d 6 Power of Remembering: It forgets or looses certain information only when it is asked to do so a m m a h u M Ref Page 02 Chapter 1: It cannot take its own decision in this regard z ia R n 8 No Feelings: Their judgement is based on the instructions given to them in the form of programs that are written by us human beings a s s a H d a m m a h u M Ref Page 03 Chapter 1: Page Chapter 2: Page 15 Chapter 2: Directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed a s s a H d a m m a h u M Ref.

Page 16 Chapter 2: It accepts or reads instructions and data from outside world a s s a 2. It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable form H d 3. It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further processing a m m a h u M Ref. It accepts the results produced by the computer, which are in coded form and hence, cannot be easily understood by us a s s a 2. It converts these coded results to human acceptable readable form H d 3.

It supplies the converted results to outside world a m m a h u M Ref. Data and instructions required for processing received from input devices a s s a 2.

Intermediate results of processing H d 3. Final results of processing, before they are released to an output device a m m a h u M Ref. Page 17 Chapter 2: Page 18 Chapter 2: A system has more than one element R n 2. All elements of a system are logically related a s s a 3. All elements of a system are controlled in a manner to achieve the system goal H d A computer is a system as it comprises of integrated components input unit, output unit, storage unit, and CPU that work together to perform the steps called for in the executing program a m m a h u M Ref.

The digit itself 2. The position of the digit in the number R n 3. Determine the column positional value of each digit R n Step 2: Multiply the obtained column values by the digits in the corresponding columns a s s a Step 3: Divide the decimal number to be converted by the value of the new base R n Step 2: Record the remainder from Step 1 as the rightmost digit least significant digit of the new base number Step 3: H d Divide the quotient of the previous divide by the new base a m m a h u M Ref Page 25 a s s a Continued on next slide Chapter 3: Record the remainder from Step 3 as the next digit to the left of the new base number z ia R n Repeat Steps 3 and 4, recording remainders from right to left, until the quotient becomes zero in Step 3 a s s a Note that the last remainder thus obtained will be the most significant digit MSD of the new base number H d a m m a h u M Ref Page 25 Continued on next slide Chapter 3: Convert the original number to a decimal number base 10 R n Step 2: Convert the decimal number so obtained to the new base number a s s a H d a m m a h u M Ref Page 27 Continued on next slide Chapter 3: Divide the digits into groups of three starting from the right R n Step 2: Convert each group of three binary digits to one octal digit using the method of binary to decimal conversion a s s a H d a m m a h u M Ref Page 29 Continued on next slide Chapter 3: Divide the binary digits into groups of 3 starting from right a s s a H Step 2: Combine all the resulting binary groups of 3 digits each into a single binary number H d a m m a h u M Ref Page 30 Continued on next slide Chapter 3: Divide the binary digits into groups of four starting from the right Step 2: Combine each group of four binary digits to one hexadecimal digit R n a s s a H d a m m a h u M Ref Page 30 Continued on next slide Chapter 3: Convert the decimal equivalent of each hexadecimal digit to a 4 digit binary number R n a s s a Step 2: Combine all the resulting binary groups of 4 digits each in a single binary number H d a m m a h u M Ref Page 31 Continued on next slide Chapter 3: Example Page Chapter 4: Page 36 Chapter 4: Page 36 Continued on next slide Chapter 4: Page 37 00 00 00 R n a s s a H u o Y Octal Equivalent 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 10 11 12 Chapter 4: Page 38 Chapter 4: Page 39 Chapter 4: The zone half and the digit half of the rightmost byte are reversed R n a s s a Step 2: Page 40 Chapter 4: R n Solution: Page 43 Chapter 4: Page 44 Chapter 4: Page 46 Chapter 4: R n a s s a Solution: Hence, in the said computer, numeric characters will be placed after alphabetic characters and the given string will be treated as: A1, 1A, Hence, in the said computer, numeric characters will be placed before alphabetic characters and the given string will be treated as: Page 47 Chapter 4: Page 47 z ia Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Go through explanation given in the book u M Ref Page 52 Chapter 5: Verify by conventional complement u M Ref Page 53 Chapter 5: Find the complement of the are subtracting subtrahend Step 2: Add this to the number are taking away minuend R n a s s a u o Y from number you which you Step 3: If there is a carry of 1, add it to obtain the result; if there is no carry, recomplement the sum and attach a negative sign H d a m m a h Complementary subtraction is an additive approach of subtraction u M Ref Page 53 Chapter 5: R n Solution Step 1: Result Since there is no carry, re-complement the sum and attach a negative sign to obtain the result.

Start from the left of the dividend z ia u o Y 2. Perform a series of subtractions in which the divisor is subtracted from the dividend R n 3. If subtraction is possible, put a 1 in the quotient and subtract the divisor from the corresponding digits of dividend a s s a 4.

If subtraction is not possible divisor greater than remainder , record a 0 in the quotient H d a m m a h 5.

Proceed as before in a manner similar to long division u M Ref Page 57 Chapter 5: Page Chapter 6: Page 60 Chapter 6: Follows law of binary compliment u M Ref. Page 61 Chapter 6: Page 62 Chapter 6: Postulate 4: Page 63 Chapter 6: By using postulates to show that L. By the Principle of Duality where the dual of an already proved theorem is derived from the proof of its corresponding pair a m m a h u M Ref.

Page 64 by by by by by i f su u o Y postulate 2 b postulate 5 a postulate 3 a theorem 2 a postulate 2 b Chapter 6: Page 63 R n postulate postulate postulate postulate postulate u o Y 2 b 6 a 5 b 6 b 2 a Chapter 6: Dual Theorem: Page 63 a s s a H d by by by by by a m m a h u M z ia postulate postulate postulate postulate postulate 2 a 6 b 5 a 6 a 2 b u o Y Notice that each step of the proof of the dual theorem is derived from the proof of its corresponding pair in the original theorem Chapter 6: Page 67 Chapter 6: Page 68 Chapter 6: Page 69 z ia u o Y Chapter 6: Page 71 Chapter 6: Examples are: Construct a truth table for the given Boolean function z ia R n 2.

Form a minterm for each combination of the variables, which produces a 1 in the function a s s a 3. Page 72 Chapter 6: Page 73 Chapter 6: Page 74 Chapter 6: Construct a truth table for the given Boolean function z ia 2. Form a maxterm for each combination of the variables, which produces a 0 in the function R n 3. Page 73 , , , and Chapter 6: Page 76 Chapter 6: Page 77 Chapter 6: Page 78 Chapter 6: Page 79 Chapter 6: Page 80 Chapter 6: Page 85 Chapter 6: Assume that both the normal A and complement A inputs are available z ia R n a s s a Step 2: Also remove inverters connected to single external inputs and complement the corresponding input variable a m m a h u M Ref.

Page 87 Chapter 6: NAND implementation. Page 89 z ia Chapter 6: Page 89 Chapter 6: Page 90 Chapter 6: Substituting equivalent NOR functions. NOR implementation. Page 91 Chapter 6: State the given problem completely and exactly z ia 2. Interpret the problem and determine the available input variables and required output variables R n 3.

Assign a letter symbol to each input and output variables a s s a 4. Design the truth table that defines the required relations between inputs and outputs H d 5. Obtain the simplified Boolean function for each output a m m a h 6. Draw the logic circuit diagram to implement the Boolean function u M Ref. Page 93 Chapter 6: Page 94 Chapter 6: Page 94 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Truth table for a full adder Chapter 6: Page 95 Chapter 6: With memory becoming cheaper and larger day-by-day, most modern computers employ fixed-word-length memory organization u M Ref Page Chapter 7: There is an IBG after each record.

There is an IBG after every two records. Read H d Write writes one block of data a m m a h Write tape header label Erase tape Back space one block u M Ref Page a s s a reads one block of data used to update the contents of tape header label erases the data recorded on a tape rewinds the tape to the beginning of previous block Chapter 8: H d 6 7 u o Y Recording area ends here Chapter 8: The disks are not removable from their disk drives a m m a h u M Ref Page Chapter 8: The drive mechanism clamps on to a portion of the disk exposed by the drive access opening in the jacket u M Ref Page Chapter 8: Floppy disks, zip disks, and disk packs are often used for this purpose z ia R n a s s a H d a m m a h u M Ref Page Chapter 8: Originally sold software or software updates are often distributed by vendors on floppy disks and zip disks a m m a h u M Ref Page Chapter 8: For example, many banks use them for storing their daily transactions H d a m m a h u M Ref Page Chapter 8: This allows computer systems to be also used as music systems H d a m m a h u M Ref Page Chapter 8: Disk array, which uses a set of magnetic disks H d 2.

Automated tape library, which uses a set of magnetic tapes a m m a h 3. R n a s s a Cache memory Main memory Smaller capacity, faster access time, and higher cost per bit stored z ia H d Larger capacity, slower access time, and lower cost per bit stored On-line, direct-access and sequential-access secondary storage device such as hard disk Off-line, direct-access and sequential-access secondary storage devices such as magnetic tape, floppy disk, zip disk, WORM disk, etc.

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