Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. The ways in which the second edition differs from the first—from the addition of new. of this book: Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. A second goal is to help you uncover the thoughts that guide your own actions as a teacher. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching Views 24MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Read more .
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|ePub File Size:||29.34 MB|
|PDF File Size:||15.73 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
tribute to the field of language-teaching professionals a newly revised, updated, and enlarged Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. The ways in. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching 2nd Edition - Diane Larsen and Freeman .. Applied Linguistics (a method is 'a way of teaching a language wh ich Brattleboro, Vermollt Dian e Lar sen-Freeman is ba sed Download pdf. Table of Contents Introduction A systematic method Chapter 1 – Principles and Method of the Work Do not force, do.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Hoang Huynh Phuc. It timhe.. What has not changed, however- and and ye n tn,,,t Intpo.
Task oriented. Ss learn to communicate by negotiating meaning in real context. Activities include information gap, choice, feedback. Changes over time. T speaks, Ss respond nonverbally.
Later, Ss verbalize. Both initiate interaction. T arranges tasks for communication. S viewed as whole person, no separation of intellect and feelings. Ss have fun in a nonstressful situation. Affective factors over cognitive factors. Optimal learner has low affective filter.
Ss are motivated to learn thru usefulness of language functions. Language for developing critical thinking. Culture integrated with language. Spoken over written. Language as a tool for communication. Language function over linguistic form.
Language in social context, for communication.
What skills are emphasized? Ss determine syllabus by what they what to say. Grammar and vocabulary initially via imperatives. Comprehension precedes production. Vocabulary over grammar. Function over form. This book has also benefitted from the fact that leading methodologists have generously responded to my request for feedback on portions of this manuscript.
Their comments made me feel more confident that I have interpreted the methodologists' intent. Any remaining errors of interpretation are, of course, fully my responsibility.
For the initial faith they showed and for their continued encouragement and helpful suggestions, I acknowledge with gratitude the editors of this series, Russell Campbell and William Rurherford. Finally, I must express my deep appreciation to my spouse, Elliott, who has, as always, given me his support throughout this project.
A major purpose of teacher education is to help teachers make the tacit explicit Shulman ; Freeman 1. When teachers are exposed to methods and asked to reflect on their principles and actively engage with their techniques, they can become clearer about why they do what they do.
They become aware of their own fundamental assumptions, values, and beliefs. They are able to see why they are attracted to certain methods and repelled by others. They are able to make choices that are informed, not conditioned. They may be able to resist, or at least argue against, the imposition of a particular method by authorities. In other situations, where a method is not imposed, methods offer teachers alternatives to what they currently think and do.
It does not necessarily follow that teachers will choose to modify their current practice. The point is that they will have the understanding to do so, if they are able to and want to.
With it, teachers join a community of practice Freeman Being a community member entails learning the professional discourse that community members use so that professional dialog can take place. Being part of a discourse community confers a professional identity and connects teachers with others so they are not so isolated in their practice. Interacting with others'.
This in itself provides an additional avenue for professional growth, as some teachers find their way to new philosophical positions, not by first entertaining new principles, but rather by trying out new techniques. Moreover, effective teachers who are more experienced and expert have a large, diverse repertoire of best practices Arends , which presumably helps them deal more effectively with the unique qualities and idiosyncrasies of their students.
Despite these potential gains from a study of methods, it is important to acknowledge that since the publication of the first edition of this book in , a number of writers in our field have criticized the concept of language teaching methods. Some say that methods are prescriptions for classroom behavior, and thar teachers are encouraged by textbook publishers and academics to implement them whether or nor the methods are appropriate for a particular conrext Pennycook ; Richards ; Holliday Others have noted thar the search for the best method is ill-advised Prabhu ; Bartolome , that teachers do not think about methods when planning their lessons Long , and that methodological labels tell us little about what really occurs in classrooms Allwright ; Karz These criticisms have made me srop and rhink.
I suppose it is true, I thought, that a particular method can be imposed on teachers by others. However, these others are likely to be disappointed if they hope that mandating a particular method will lead to standardizarion.
For we know that teaching is more than following a recipe. Any method is going to be shaped by a teacher's own understanding, beliefs, style, and level of experience. Teachers are not mere conveyor belts delivering language through inflexible prescribed and proscribed behaviors Larsen-Freeman ; they are professionals who can, in the best of all worlds, make their own decisions.
They are informed by their own experience, the findings from research, and the wisdom of practice accumulated by the profession see, for example, Kumaravadivelu Furthermore, a method is deconrextualized. How a method is implemented in the classroom is going to be affected not only by who the teacher is, but also by who the students are, their and the teacher's expectations of appropriate social roles, the institutional constraints and demands, and factors connected to the wider sociocultural context in which rhe insrrnction takes place.
Even the 'right' method will not com-. In addition, decisions that teachers make are often affected by exigencies in the classroom rather than by methodological considerations. Saying that a particular method is practiced certainly does not give us the whole picture of what is happening in the classroom. Then, too, since a method is more abstract than a teaching activity, it is not surprising that teachers think in terms of activities rather than methodological choices when they plan their lessons.
Thus, while I understand the ctiticisms, I do not believe that a study of language teaching methods should be excluded from language teacher education. It is not methods, but how they are used that is at issue.
A study of methods need not lead to the de-skilling of teachers but rather can serve a variety of useful functions when used appropriately in teacher education. Methods can serve as models of the integration of theory the principles and practice the techniques. Their study can encourage continuing education in the lifelong process of learning to teach Larsen-Freeman Teachers and teacher educators should not be blinded by the criticisms of methods and thus fail to see their invaluable contribution to teacher education and continuing development.
Key to doing so, though, is moving beyond ideology to inquiry, a movement to which I hope this book will contribute. In addition to some modest updating of all the methods presented in the first edition, Chapter 6 has undergone a substantial revision to reflect the evolution of Suggestopedia first edition to Desuggestopedia in this edition. Further, the Introduction Chapter 1 has been expanded.
Contrary to those who fear that a method will be imposed on practitioners, my experience as a teacher educator is that the challenge lies in getting reachers to leave behind teaching as they were taught and become aware of, and open to, alternatives.