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Aug 12, The White Plague by Frank Herbert, , Berkley Books edition, in English. Editorial Reviews. Review. "A tale of awesome revenge."--The Cincinnati Enquirer on The The White Plague - Kindle edition by Frank Herbert. Download it. The White Plague [Frank Herbert] on tvnovellas.info and millions of other books are available for instant access. view Kindle eBook | view Audible audiobook.
It begins in Ireland, but soon spreads throughout the entire world: As fully half of the human race dies off at a frightening pace and life on Earth faces extinction, panicked people and governments struggle to cope with the global crisis. Infected areas are quarantined or burned to the ground. The few surviving women are locked away in hidden reserves, while frantic doctors and scientists race to find a cure. Anarchy and violence consume the planet. The plague is the work of a solitary individual who calls himself the Madman. As government security forces feverishly hunt for the renegade scientist, he wanders incognito through a world that will never be the same.
Due to the potential for high connec- tivity within marine environments McCallum et al. In labora- tory experiments, Richardson et al.
Research in the marine environment has demonstrated that WP-2 could be trans- ferred between colonies via the calcareous green macroalga species H. Clearly, more work is needed Fig. Thomas, USVI. Photograph taken September 23, to identify mechanisms of WP transmission and their , 5 m depth potential to aid WP propagation in the marine environment. In studies of black- band disease BBD of corals, an infection was able to be Study region transmitted through direct contact Rutzler et al.
Collection of experimental animals occurred at two which is both a reservoir and vector for the bacterial locations on the south side of St. Thomas separated by a dis- bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi in the Mediterranean, and tance of 4. Both H. For each of the trials, fragments of O. The growth form of O. Fragments collected for the study consisted of the et al.
In addition to its association with mass bleach- living tops of columns that were broken off at the dead area ing, this disease was also associated with storm-related using a hammer and chisel.
Large fragments were further fragmentation and contact with sediment Brandt et al. Its spatial distribution suggests infectious transmis- healthy O. Average sion Brandt et al.
In this study, we examined multiple potential mecha- Following collection, fragments were immediately nisms of transmission of the Virgin Islands WP-1 in a transferred in seawater to the laboratory where they were controlled laboratory setting. Experiments consisted of placed in running seawater tables and allowed to acclimate using fragments of the susceptible reef-building coral for 7 d before being used in various treatments.
The colony O. The sea water tables are unknown pathogen causing disease, but that one would be part of a flow-through system located at CMES, which sits the most effective. Seawater flows by gravity to the culture tanks This work may also lead to the identification of important below via a 3 Sch. Seawater aspects of the transmission mechanisms that could be tar- temperatures in the water tables remained at ambient levels geted for intervention or in an effort to prevent future found on the reef during the same time period Trial 1: outbreaks and impacts.
Six additional fragments of apparently healthy O. Therefore, a total of an individual bubbler and daily water changes. Coral eight diseased fragments were used in inoculant experiments fragments were then randomly assigned to be used as an in each trial. Each diseased fragment was assessed each day to inoculant, treatment, or control. Five sets of experiments determine whether the lesion was still progressing and active explained below were performed, including 1 unfiltered before being used in any experiments.
For each trial, before each trial. In the unfiltered water experiment, three individuals of H. The treatment from 7 to 9 cm long. The animals were not fed before and control corals were photographed and monitored each being used in experiments, and during the experiment, all day for signs of disease. An identical design was used in H. Clumps of Dictyota menstru- between buckets was first filtered using a 0.
Replicates transmission experiments included c treatment replicates where for the water transmission experiment included a treatment replicates Coralliophila abbreviata or Hermodice carunculata were allowed where 0.
Red ovals represent diseased corals, from a 2-L bucket containing a healthy coral. Replicates for the vector and green ovals represent apparently healthy corals Coral Reefs — Buckets with inoculation corals used as a source of water test was performed to test for a significant effect on the rate were refilled and allowed to sit for 24 h before being of lesion appearance between the two experiment types. Therefore, water that was used in the Tissue loss rate data were calculated per lesion as the treatments had been in contact with either diseased or area cm2 of tissue loss per day.
These data were first healthy corals for at least 24 h but no more than 36 h square root transformed to approximate normality and then before being transferred to the treatment corals. Once experiments, each suspected vector was placed in either a coral of origin was determined not to affect lesion pro- diseased or healthy coral bucket and allowed to feed for 2 d gression rates, a repeated-measures ANOVA was used to before being transferred into a treatment or control bucket.
Each coral fragment was then photographed and To determine whether a relationship existed between the monitored for signs of disease and mortality daily.
Inocu- experiment type and the number of corals that became lation corals used for water experiments were not used in diseased, a contingency table analysis was used. A separate vector experiments. For each of the three trial periods, there were two controls and four treatments per trial for each of the filtered and unfiltered water experiments.
For the Dictyota, H. Low sample sizes fragments became affected by WP during the study period were limited by logistical and permit constraints, and Fig. Signs of disease transmission were not observed in Following previous descriptions Remily and Richard- either H. Fragments in the expanding across the coral for at least 2 d. In contrast, feeding scars from the mobile vectors and other lesions due to fragmentation were distinguished from lesion signs based on their ragged edges the fact that the lesion did not enlarge following feeding or contact.
In order to calculate lesion enlargement rates, the area of recently denuded skeleton left by the lesion was traced using ImageJ software NIH for each daily photograph of fragments that developed lesions.
The length of time for the disease signs to appear was recorded as the number of days between initial exposure to the treatment and start of tissue loss. Statistical analyses Rates of lesion appearance after exposure to inoculant corals were calculated as the number of days from the start of the trial until a WP lesion was observed.
Where lesions Fig. N are indicated in parentheses Coral Reefs — observed between 1 and 5 d after exposure to the different treatments. Overall, average lesion enlargement rate on experi- mental corals was 0. Most lesions resulted in total mor- tality, where total mortality was defined as the complete loss of tissue from the coral fragment.
Average length of time until total mortality was 6. The average days mental mechanism, but this distribution was not until tissue loss began after exposure for unfiltered water, significantly related to the colony of origin Table 1. Overall, new tissue losses were indicate a cautious interpretation of the Chi-square statistic. Recent work has shown that viruses may play an important role in the etiology of WP in the Virgin Islands, and the transmission of disease using 0.
This could indi- cate a role of a filterable factor in the initiation of disease, similar to what has been demonstrated in WP signs from other regions Barash et al.
However, it is possible that these results are the result of contamination or incomplete efficiency, although all precautions were taken Fig.
Letters indicate significant applied equally to all treatments. While less is known about the role of viruses and Archaea, bacteria have Discussion been noted to work as pathogen defense mechanisms and play a role in nutrient cycling Lesser et al. Shifts in Disease transmission the overall microbial communities of corals can result in decreased resistance to disease Ritchie , and poten- The results of this study demonstrate that the causal agent tially increased virulence of pathogens Vega-Thurber et al.
Therefore, it would not be surprising if WP results anisms, including water transport and snail predation. Richardson et al. Field studies have shown that feeding of generally occurred within the first 1—2 d for the unfiltered C. This is in contrast to field experiments in the same reef Since these vectors have limited mobility and are not likely system where direct tissue-to-tissue transmission was not to travel between reefs, it is far more likely that water observed until after 3 weeks Brandt et al.
The transmission may be the effective mechanism of transmis- discrepancy in timing was likely the result of laboratory sion in the natural environment. Williams and Miller also removed from field corals, while laboratory corals were in hypothesized that once disease is introduced into a system, constant contact with materials that could have resulted in mobile predators that feed on one colony with disease can infection.
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