um. New York: Henry Holt & Co. London und Bm bly: Immun», GreenûCo THE LITERARY REMAINS 0F HENRY JAMES. Edited. with nu Introduction. The Varieties of Religious Experience. A Study in Human Nature. William James. To E.P.G.. IN FILIAL GRATITUDE AND LOVE. This web edition published by. File:William James The Varieties of Religious tvnovellas.info . 1, pixels, file size: MB, MIME type: application/pdf, pages).
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E.P.G.. IN FILIAL GRATITUDE AND LOVE. Página 1 de The Varieties of Religious Experience: a Study in Human Nature / William James. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. PDF | This essay addresses the familial, religious, and cultural context for the writing and presentation of William James' classic work The Varieties of Religious .
In Course Hero. Accessed June 25, The Varieties of Religious Experience Lecture 18 : Philosophy Summary Share Click to copy Summary James now turns to the question of whether philosophy can "stamp a warrant of veracity upon the religious man's sense of the divine. Using a pragmatic approach, originated by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, James argues that the metaphysical attributes of God for example, immateriality, self-sufficiency, and so forth have no practical effect in everyday life. On the other hand, the moral aspects of God "positively determine fear and hope and expectation, and are foundations for the saintly life. James now looks at modern idealism to see if it can provide a better warrant for God's existence. Modern idealism is based on the philosopher Immanuel Kant's doctrine of the Transcendental Ego of Apperception, which presupposes a universal self that precedes all experiences and makes experience possible through the unity of consciousness.
The Value Of Saintliness. James identified two main features to a mystical experience:. Ineffability —" no adequate report of its contents can be given in words.
No one can make clear to another who has never had a certain feeling, in what the quality or worth of it consists. Noetic quality —"Although so similar to states of feeling, mystical states seem to those who experience them to be also states of knowledge.
They are states of insight into depths of truth unplumbed by the discursive intellect. They are illuminations, revelations, full of significance and importance, all inarticulate though they remain; and as a rule they carry with them a curious sense of authority for after-time.
He also identified two subsidiary features that are often, but not always, found with mystical experiences:. Passivity —"the mystic feels as if his own will were in abeyance, and indeed sometimes as if he were grasped and held by a superior power. Lecture XIX. Other Characteristics. Lecture XX.
In the final chapter James identifies a two part "common nucleus" of all religions: James finds that "the only thing that [religious experience] unequivocally testifies to is that we can experience union with something larger than ourselves and in that union find our greatest peace.
James was most interested in direct religious experiences. Theology and the organizational aspects of religion were of secondary interest. He believed that religious experiences were simply human experiences: Religious trance is trance. He believed that religious experiences can have "morbid origins"  in brain pathology and can be irrational but nevertheless are largely positive. Unlike the bad ideas that people have under the influence of a high fever, after a religious experience the ideas and insights usually remain and are often valued for the rest of the person's life.
James had relatively little interest in the legitimacy or illegitimacy of religious experiences. Further, despite James' examples being almost exclusively drawn from Christianity , he did not mean to limit his ideas to any single religion. Religious experiences are something that people sometimes have under certain conditions.
In James' description, these conditions are likely to be psychological or pharmaceutical rather than cultural. James believed that the origins of a religion shed little light upon its value.
There is a distinction between an existential judgment a judgment on "constitution, origin, and history" and a proposition of value a judgment on "importance, meaning, or significance". For example, if the founder of the Quaker religion , George Fox , had been a hereditary degenerate, the Quaker religion could yet be "a religion of veracity rooted in spiritual inwardness, and a return to something more like the original gospel truth than men had ever known in England.
Furthermore, the potentially dubious psychological origins of religious beliefs apply just as well to non-religious beliefs:. Scientific theories are organically conditioned just as much as religious emotions are; and if we only knew the facts intimately enough, we should doubtless see "the liver " determining the dicta of the sturdy atheist as decisively as it does those of the Methodist under conviction anxious about his soul.
This is the religious experience of optimism and positive thinking which James sees running from the transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman to Mary Baker Eddy 's Christian Science. At the extreme, the "healthy minded" see sickness and evil as an illusion. James considered belief in the "mind cure" to be reasonable when compared to medicine as practiced at the beginning of the twentieth century.
By contrast, the "healthy minded" deny the need for such preparatory pain or suffering. James believes that "morbid-mindedness ranges over the wider scale of experience" and that while healthy-mindedness is a surprisingly effective "religious solution",. James sees the two types as being a mere matter of temperament: Everywhere there is a frolic welcome to the eccentricities and extravagances of the religious life.
Many will question whether its more sober exhibitions would not have been more fruitful of results, but the interest and fascination of the treatment are beyond dispute, and so, too, is the sympathy to which nothing human is indifferent. A July Time magazine review of an expanded edition published that year ends with quotes about the book from Peirce and Santayana: In making little allowance for the fact that people can also be converted to vicious creeds, he acquired admirers he would have deplored.
Mussolini , for instance, hailed James as a preceptor who had showed him that "an action should be judged by its result rather than by its doctrinary basis.
He was simply impatient with his fellow academicians and their endless hairsplitting over matters that had no relation to life. A vibrant, generous person, he hoped to show that religious emotions, even those of the deranged, were crucial to human life.
The great virtue of The Varieties , noted pragmatist philosopher Charles Peirce , is its "penetration into the hearts of people.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Publication date. The Varieties of Religious Experience ". The New York Times. August 9, Retrieved William James in Russian Culture. Lanham MD: Lexington Books. Mysticism In the next two lectures — and, in a way, the final two proper lectures of this series — William James explores the concept of mysticism.
Ineffability: no mystical experience can be adequately put into words; it defies expression; 2. The first two of these four qualities of the mystical experiences are general: all mystical experiences have them; however, the second two are subsidiary features found often, but not always, in cases such as these. Philosophy In this lecture, William James tries to explain why it is so difficult to talk about religious experiences in philosophical language.
Of course, the answer is simple: the former is illogical, and the latter follows the laws of logic by definition. Lecture XIX. The three topics covered here are institutional religion, prayers, and the relationship between religion and the subconscious. Prayers are then analyzed both historically and pragmatically, as is the relationship between religion and the subconscious, leaving room for the interpretation of at least some religious experiences as products of psychopathological conditions.
Lecture XX. They, in the eyes of James, should be able to reveal to us a sounder basis for scientific exploration of the religious experience. For now, it is our duty to not dismiss it as something inherently unscientific because it has helped many people become both happier and smarter.
Healthy-Mindedness and Morbid-Mindedness 2. Saintliness: Traits and Effects 3. The Four Marks of a Mystical Experience Healthy-Mindedness and Morbid-Mindedness Some people are born healthy-minded, and others are born morbid-minded; the former are capable of sustaining happiness, the latter think that they are doomed to suffer through life.
Positive thinking is, more or less, the only religion the first group of people needs; however, the second can only become healthy-minded trough some sort of religious conversion. The traits in question are: a feeling that the world is more than what we can see; a sense that there is an Ideal Power which exists in you as well; an immense elation and freedom; and a shifting from a no-state to a yes-state of being.
These four traits lead to four practical consequences: asceticism, strength of soul, purity, and charity. The Four Marks of a Mystical Experience Just like saintliness, mysticism can also be defined within the limits of four qualities.
These are: ineffability, noetic quality, transiency, and passivity. The first two are general and describe all mystical experiences; the latter two can often be found in them, but are sometimes absent and are subsidiary.
Like this summary? I maintain that one should always talk of philosophy with a smile. Click To Tweet Knowledge about life is one thing; effective occupation of a place in life, with its dynamic currents passing through your being, is another. Click To Tweet I am no lover of disorder and doubt as such.
Rather I fear to lose truth by the pretension to possess it already wholly. Click To Tweet There are two lives, the natural and the spiritual, and we must lose the one before we can participate in the other.
Click To Tweet The lunatic's visions of horror are all drawn from the material of daily fact. Our civilization is founded on the shambles, and every individual existence goes out in a lonely spasm of helpless agony. Just as it has been for over a century now.
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