PDF | The Panchayati Raj in India generally refers to the system introduced by constitutional amendment in , although it is Download full-text PDF . Balwant Rai Mehta Committee recommended a three-tier Panchayat. Panchayath tvnovellas.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Recommendations of Balwant Rai Mehta Committee. The Balwant Rai Mehta. This content downloaded from on Thu, 11 Jul UTC. All use subject Prominent among them are the Balwant Rai Mehta. Committee report () and the Asoka Mehta Committee. Report (). Union government's policy on panchayati raj cannot be merely dismissed as a.
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Panchayati Raj would, in our opinion, vary over time as well as space; we can do no more than indicate the Report of Balvantray Mehta Study Team in Various Committees on Panchayati Raj: tvnovellas.infot Rai Mehta: Estd 2.V.T. Krishnammachari: tvnovellas.infomal Jain Study Group: tvnovellas.info Mehta. The Balwant Rai Mehta Committee was a committee appointed by the Government of India in Establishment of a 3-tier Panchayati Raj system - Gram Panchayat at the village level, Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Panchayati Raj has been entrusted with rural development. It is a State Subject. Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayati Raj. It was established in in Nagaur district. Next was Andhra Pradesh, which also adopted the system in After that most of the states adopted it.
Panchayati Raj systems in Independent India After the Independence, Community Development Programme was started in , Balwantrai Mehta Committee tried to find out the cause for the failure of this programme and came up with the inference that there should be an organisation at village level, which would select the true beneficiaries and implement various government programmes and schemes.
Balwantrai Mehta tried to achieve local self-government though Panchayats. This concept of local self-government was the right step towards decentralized democracy. In , Ashok Mehta Committee was set up to review the working of Panchayats. The committee found out that Panchayati Raj is the soul of democracy and therefore it should be empowered with more authority.
Those Panchayats which formed after are known as Second Generation Panchayats. During , Central Government passed the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act in , which became effective from 20th April from the date of publication in the Gazette of India. And for selfgovernance Panchayati Raj System is essential.
What is the basic concept of Panchayati Raj? The basic concept of Panchayati Raj is that the villagers should think, decide and act for their own socio-economic interests. Selfgovernment allows us to decide about ourselves without hampering others interest. Collective interest on one side and social and national interest on the other side. The state government plays major roles to support the village Panchyats and to coordinate the village Panchayats.
They will ensure the implementation of this system. Self reliance is a must for the success of SelfGovernment. Every village must produce according to its capacity and try to increase its capacity.
Self reliance can be achieved in following ways. By identifying economic and human resources of the Panchayat area, By estimating the capacity of these Panchayat and Environment 73rd Amendment Act has not mentioned the term Environment in the Schedule IX, but out of the 29 duties some are related to environment in one way or the other, these are Agriculture, including agricultural extension.
Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development. Social forestry and farm forestry. Minor forest produce. Small scale industries including foodprocessing industries.
Khadi, village and cottage industries. Rural housing. Drinking water. Fuel and fodder. Non-conventional energy sources. Education including primary and secondary schools. Health and sanitation, including hospitals, primary health centers and dispensaries. Maintenance of community assets. To develop networking of Panchayati Raj Institutions and work as connecting link between Ministry and Panchayats. To provide regular input to Panchayat about latest happenings in the field of environment through Newsletter, other resource material and training programmes.
To conduct training programmes on various crucial issues of environment and related areas prevailing in Panchayats. IES publish a quarterly newsletter named Panchayat to disseminate various environ mental news, government schemes and other information useful for empowerment of Panchayats and grass root people.
Important features of Provisions of the Panchayats Extension Scheduled Areas Bill Important features of Provisions of the Panchayats Extension Scheduled Areas Bill are following: State Legislations that may be made shall be in consonance with the customary law, social and religious practices and traditional management practices of community resources. Every village shall have a Gram Sabha, shall be vested with the powers to approve the programmes and projects for social and economic development as also identification of beneficiaries under such programmes.
Panchayats at the appropriate levels shall be endowed with ownership of minor forest produce.
The Gram Sabha or the Panchayat at the appropriate level shall be consulted for granting prospecting licences or mining lease for minor minerals and their prior recommendation obtained for acquisition of land in the Scheduled Areas for development projects or for resettlement of project affected members of the Scheduled Tribes. Panchayats at the appropriate level and the Gram Sabha shall have the power to prevent alienation of tribal lands and to take appropriate action to restore any unlawfully alienated land of a Scheduled Tribe, have powers to regulate money lending to the members of the Scheduled Tribes, to manage village markets and to enforce prohibition or to regulate or restrict sale and consumption of any intoxicant.
State Legislations shall endow the Panchayats at the appropriate levels with specific powers and provide safeguards to prevent Panchayats at the higher level from assuming the powers and authority of Panchayats at the lower level or of the Gram Sabha.
The offices of the Chairpersons in the Panchayats at all levels shall be reserved for the Scheduled Tribes. The r eservation of seats at every Panchayat for the Scheduled Tribes shall not be less than one-half of the total number of seats. Revitalisation of Panchayat in s. A committee under the chairmanship of G. Rao ex-member of Planning Commission was appointed on 25th October, for revitalisation of Panchayat institutions.
The recommendation of the committee are as follows: District should be the basic unit for policy planning and programme implementation. Regular elections should be held to the Panchayati Raj Institutions. The concern of the Indian states for revitalisation of the Panchayats in all states was heard during mids when Rajiv Gandhi was the Prime Minister.
The government appointed a Committee under L. Singhvi to suggest measures for revitalisation of Panchayat institutions. The 8 member Committee headed by Dr. Singhvi was instituted in June It recommended i Reorganisation of villages, viable for more financial resources ii Setting up of judicial tribunals in each State to adjudicate controversies in relation of the functioning of PRIs iii For Constitu tionalisation of Panchayats and looked at the system as a vehicle for homogenisation and socialisation of national goals.
The government approached Parliament in for amending the Constitution to constitutionalise Panchayats, and make them more powerful and broad-based.
But the Bill evoked sharp public protests because there were many features which sought to tighten Central control. Hence it was subsequently withdrawn. The V. Singh government made an attempt to push through the Bill after deleting the controversial sections. But the government was too short lived to do this. The Narasimha Rao government was able to enact the 73 rd Constitution Amendment Act, meant for Constitutionalisation of Panchayats.
This marked a watershed in the history of the village self-government in postcolonial India. The Royal Commission on Decentralisation under the chairmanship of C.
Hobhouse recognised the importance of panchayats at the village level. It recommended for the formation of panchayats in all villages in India. As such he stressed the need of improving the lot of villages and making each village an independent entity.
He thought that the right kind of local self governments with effective participation of people can make use of the locally available resources to convert each village into a self sufficient unit. Gandhijis ideas greatly influenced the later visionaries who gave concrete shape to Panchayat Raj Institutions in India.
Santhanam Committee K. The Committee made the following recommendations: panchayats should have special powers to levy special tax on land revenues and home taxes, etc. It shall make the following recommendations to the Governor. The Principles which should govern the distribution between the States and the Panchayats of the net proceeds of taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied by the State. The Principles which should govern the determination of taxes, duties, tolls and fees which may be assigned to the Panchayats.
The Principles which should govern the grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of State. The measures needed to improve the financial position of the Panchayats. Anyother matter returned to the Finance Commission by the Governor in the interest of sound finance of the Panchayats.
The State Legislature may provide for the composition of the commission, the required qualifications of its members and the manner of their selection. The Governor shall place the recommendations of the commission along with the action taken report before the State Legislature.
The Central Finance Commissioner shall also suggest the measures needed to augment the Consolidated. Fund of State to supplement the resources of the Panchayats in the States on the basis of the recommendations made by the Finance Commission of the State. The Presidebt of India may direct that the provisions of this Act shall apply to any Union Territory subject to such exceptions and modification as he may specify. The State Legislature may make provisions with respect to the maintenance of the accounts by the Panchayats and the auditing of such accounts.
The date of commencement of this Act was 24th April The headquarters of the Tribunal is at Trivandrum. Creation of a Tribunal for adjudication of conflicts between local governments and the citizens is an important step for solving disputes.
Any person aggrieved can submit an appeal or revision against a notice order or proceedings of the Village Panchayat or Municipality or its Standing Committee for Finance or the Secretary in respect of any matter specified in the schedule appended to the Tribunal for Kerala Local self Government Institutions rules. Rao Committee The G. Rao Committee was appointed to once again look at various aspects of PRIs.
The Committee was of the opinion that a total view of rural development must be taken in which PRIs must play a central role in handling people's problems. It recommended the following PRIs have to be activated and provided with all the required support to become effective organisations, PRIs at the district level and below should be assigned the work of planning, implementation and monitoring of rural development programmes, and the block development office should be the spinal cord of the rural development process.
The quorum for the meeting is one-fifth of the total membership. Who are the functions of Grama Sabha? The functions of the Grama Sabha are as follows a.
If the President or the Vice President are not working properly, they can be removed from their offices, provided two-thirds of the members of the Grama Sabha pass a resolution to that effect; f.
Grama Panchayat Gram panchayats are local selfgovernments at the village or small town level in India. The gram panchayat is the foundation of the Panchayat System. A gram panchayat can be set up in villages with minimum population of The Sarpanch or Chairperson is the head of the Gram Panchayat. The elected members of the Gram Panchayat elect from among themselves a Sarpanch and a Deputy Sarpanch for a term of five years.
In some places the panchayat president is directly elected by village people. The Sarpanch presides over the meetings of the Gram Panchayat and supervises its working. He implements the development schemes of the village. The Deputy Sarpanch, who has the power to make his own decisions, assists the Sarpanch in his work. What is the present position of Panchayatiraj system?
There are about 3 million elected representatives at all levels of the panchayat one-third of which are women. These members represent more than 2.
Spread over the length and breadth of the country, the new panchayats cover about 96 per cent of India's more than 5. This is the largest experiment in decentralisation of governance in the history of humanity.
What is Grama Sabha? Grama Sabha means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village legel. Article A provides that the Grama Sabha may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the Legislature of a State may by law provide. The Grama Sabha has atleast two meetings in a year, the first after the harvesting of the Kharif summer crop and the second after The President and the Vice President of the Grama Sabha are the ex-officio members of te Grama Panchayat.
What are the powers and functions of the Grama Panchayats? Under Articles GH of Schedule XI of the Constitution the Panchayats have been entrusted with many responsibilities in regard to matters listed in the XIth Schedule which contains 29 items inserted by 73rd Amendment.
Their main functions are as followsi. Obligatory Functions They include a provision of safe drinking water which involves construction and maintenance of public wells and tanks; b for health care facilities, Panchayats must set up dispensaries and health centres; c arrangements for primary education; d upkeep of roads, foot paths and culverts; e good drainage; and f street lights. Discretionary Functions If their resources permit the Panchayats can undertake the following activities plantation of trees; levelling the ground by filling up the pits; setting up the insemination centres for cattle; helping villagers at the time of famines; maintaining libraries and the reading rooms.
Developmental Functions The Eleventh Schedule speaks of a number of developmental activities, such as minor irrigation schemes; preparation and execution of agricultural plans; rural electrification anti non-conventional energy programmes; vocational education; e cottage and small scale industries including food processing industries; f rural housing g poverty alleviation programmes; and h welfare schemes for weaker and handicapped sections of society.
Regulatory and General Administrative Functions The Panchayats perform a number of administrative functions as well. These are registration of births, deaths and marriages maintenance of watch and ward service collection of records and statistics; maintenance of the common property of the villages; and helping the government in maintaining law and order.
Judicial Functions An important function of the Panchayats is to secure speedy and inexpensive justice to the villagers. At some places, Panchayat itself acts as a court, whereas in other States Nyaya Panchayat is a separate institution which only administers justice. The jurisdiction of nyaya panchayats or Panchayats varies from State to State. However, a Panchayat tries only petty civil suits relating to movable property and minor offences.
Offences such as petty thefts, trespass, unauthorised occupation of public places, cheating and assault fall within the jurisdiction of a panchayat.
It is a form of democratic decentralization where the participation of even the grass root level of the society is ensured in the process of administration. History of local administration The village panchayat, as a system of administration, began in the British days, as their offer to satisfy the demands for local autonomy. They opened up the governance of the lowest levels to the citizens. The GoI act, also authorizes the provinces to enact legislations.
How did the concept of local self-government evolve in India? It will be helpful if we take a look at the committee and the important recommendations put forward by them. The important recommendations are: Establishment of a three-tier Panchayati Raj system — gram panchayat at village level direct election , panchayat Samiti at the block level and Zila Parishad at the district level indirect election.
District Collector to be the chairman of Zila Parishad. Transfer of resources and power to these bodies to be ensured. The existent National Development Council accepted the recommendations.
However, it did not insist on a single, definite pattern to be followed in the establishment of these institutions. Rather, it allowed the states to devise their own patterns, while the broad fundamentals were to be the same throughout the country. Rajasthan adopted the system first, followed by Andhra Pradesh in the same year. Some states even went ahead to create four-tier systems and Nyaya panchayats, which served as judicial bodies.
Ashok Mehta Committee The committee was constituted by the Janata government of the time to study Panchayati Raj institutions. State governments and District Collectors retain supervisory powers over them.
Urban areas also have city development agencies or urban improvement trusts set up by state governments, with nominated chairpersons or boards that undertake development projects. A plethora of state government and quasi-government agencies coordinate responsibilities with the municipalities. The number of agencies increases in metropolitan areas, where one or more municipal bodies may be operating.
The District Collector coordinates rural and urban issues wherever state officials or local urban and rural bodies are involved. The state government maintains separate departments of rural development, panchayati raj, urban local self-government and urban development. The Union Government has corresponding ministries, and the Union Territories also have local selfgovernment institutions.
Some states have also set up regional development councils, which by and large are creatures of the state governments and do not have links with urban or rural local bodies. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments of gave constitutional status to PRIs and municipal bodies.
Elections must be held every five years. States may not postpone elections of local governments by appointing administrators instead. State level Election Commissions must be set up to independently conduct local government elections. One-third of municipalities and panchayats at all levels are to be headed by women though reserved and unreserved seats change with each election.
State governments must also set up financial commissions to suggest methods for devolution of funds. Nor have constitutional amendments done much to change the mindset of the population regarding local bodies.