PDF | 30+ minutes read | On Jan 1, , Poole and others published Erikson's Stages of the Life Cycle. Erik H. Erikson's () theory reflects in part bis psychoanalytic training, but., it embraces society's influence and the social aspects of development to a. –Erik Erikson “I have nothing to offer except a way of looking at things.” –Erik Erikson “Identity formation neither begins nor ends with adolescence: it is a lifelong.
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C. George Boeree: Personality Theories Erik Erikson By the time the Oglala Lakota were visited by Erik Erikson, things had changed quite a bit. They had. Trust vs. mistrust is the first stage in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage begins at .. Costa, ). Download this article as a PDF. Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man by David Elkind. One man in his time plays many psychosocial parts. At a recent faculty reception I happened to join a small .
Trust vs. Mistrust Trust vs. This stage begins at birth continues to approximately 18 months of age. During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live, and looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened. If these needs are not consistently met, mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety may develop. If the care has been inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant may develop a sense of mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety.
Each confrontation with our environment is called a crisis.
Evaluation Although, Erikson theory developed out of psychoanalysis, it offers a much wider and more comprehensive view of humanity. Erikson does seem to have captured many of the central issues in life in his eight psychological stages. In fact, we see just how stimulating his ideas have been as the emotional development of infants, the growth of self concept in childhood and identity crisis facing adolescents and the influence of friends and playmates on social and personality development Shaffer, Erikson noted the potentially strong impact of peer groups on the development of ego identity in adolescence.
We are capable of resolving each situation in a way that is adaptive and strengthening. During the first four stages, the experiences to which we are exposed through parents, teachers, peer groups, and various opportunities are largely beyond our control. Psychosocial Approach In general, Erikson believed that personality is affected more by learning and experience than by heredity. Psychosocial experiences, not instinctual biological forces, are the greater determinant.
However, Erikson proposed that personality development also begins with three social drives: A need for social attention 2. The idea that thought was social in origin and not removed from social and cultural conditions has made an important contribution to the study of nature of mental health Greene, Third, Erikson recognized the impact on personality of cultural and historical forces.
He argued that we are not governed entirely by innate biological factors at work in childhood. A second critical difference between Erikson and Freud is that Erikson places much less emphasis on sexual urges and far more emphasis on social and cultural influences that Freud did. Empirical research on socialization has convincingly demonstrated that 1 there are many external factors which determine human development, 2 these factors qualitatively and decisevely influence the direction and course of development, 3 they affect all aspects of personality, 4 they are in effect throughout the entire life span, and 5 they are contingent, that is they depend upon parameters of the social system and are subject to historical change Geulen, In couching his theory in terms of these identity crises, he provided a broad framework for viewing development throughout the lifespan.
Table 1: Consequently it does not deal with other developmental aspects at all. For instance, no attention is given to cognitive development, and very little to emotional development Louw, What kinds of experiences must a child have to develop autonomy as a toddler, initiate as a preschool child, or a stable identity during adolescents?
Why exactly, is a sense of trust so important for the development of autonomy, initiative and identity?
Not Scientific Erikson built his theory largely on ethical principles and not necessarily on scientific data. But beyond that, Carol Gilligan believed that he also portrayed a masculine psychology in his stages of development. She noted that Erikson recognized a somewhat different pattern of development for girls and women — one that depends more on intimacy and relationships with others and less on autonomy, separateness, and independence — but that Erikson failed to update his stage descriptions accordingly Fleming, Unfortunately, he did not give great detail on what this process looks like.
Research shows that identity development continues to be an ongoing process throughout adulthood. Just as in adolescence, vocations, ideologies, and relationships continue to remain important identity issues. Several studies have been presented to support this notion. As a result, he has been criticized for extending his theory beyond adolescence without providing much detail.
To complicate matters further, Erikson conveys contradictory messages speaking on identity development beyond adolescence Sokol, He suggests that identity concerns fade as issues of intimacy followed by generativity and ego integrity become the main focus Erikson, Clearly these two statements appear contradictory; this is why it is difficult to assess identity development beyond adolescence from his perspective Sokol, Reflection on Erikson theory 1.
Ethnic identity Among minority group members, the formation of ethnic identity in adolescence may affect the development of ego identity and influence subsequent behavior. The Cross Racial Identity Model describes four stages in the development of a psychologically healthy adolescent Black identity. The influence of globalization, particularly of American cultural values, on adolescents in other countries can result in identity confusion.
Gender preference identity may also affect characteristics of ego identity. A study of Black and White college students did find a significant positive relationship between self-esteem and level of ethnic identity; the higher the identity, the higher the self- esteem. Thus, the issue of how self-esteem varies as a function of ethnic identity remains unclear. What he saw as biologically based differences in personality for boys and girls, emerging from the presence or absence of a penis, could as well be cultural differences or the result of sex-role training.
Ego integrity Also, some psychologists question whether personality development after age 55 is likely to be as positive as Erikson suggested with his concept of ego integrity.
For many people, this stage of life is characterized by pain, loss, and depression, even for people who develop the basic strength of wisdom.
Then, how the development can be positive? Gail Sheehy, on the other hand, studied the effects of the mid-life crisis on women. A woman who is unable to achieve status in a career field may become stagnant during this phase, but those who are capable of finding careers suitable to their educational credentials are able to generate more, thus resolving the conflict in a more positive manner.
Identity Crisis Erikson predicted that people who are close to achieving or who have achieved an integrated ego identity will have greater ego strength than those who are farther from resolving their identity dilemma.
That prediction was supported by research on college men Bourne, Other studies support and extend that finding, showing that male identity focuses on individual competence and knowledge whereas female identity is more centered on relating to others. In other words, when women establish an identity, they depend heavily on social relationships.
Men focus more on self and individual skills and abilities Curry, Some research has focused on the timing of the identity crisis. Erikson suggested that it began around age 12 and was resolved, one way or another, by approximately age However, for some people the identity crisis may not occur until later. In one study, up to 30 percent of the research participants were still searching for an identity as late as age 24 Archer, Maturity Erikson believed that people in the maturity and old age stage of psychosocial development spend time recalling and examining their life, accepting or regretting past choices.
His research relied on case studies. There is considerable research support for the first six stages of psychosocial development and for the concept of ego identity. However, the identity crisis may occur later than Erikson believed, and attending college may delay resolution of the crisis.
Erikson was a pioneer in the use of psychohistorical analysis to increase our understanding of the lives of important historical figures. Erikson developed the procedure because he was interested in building a bridge between psychoanalysis and history. Erikson used the framework of his lifespan theory of personality to describe the crises and the ways of coping of significant political, religious, and literary figures, such as Gandhi, Martin Luther, and George Bernard Shaw.
Especially different is his view of dreams and their meanings. Erikson created a theory that is indeed comprehensive. It addresses itself to a wide variety of phenomena, both normal and abnormal, and seeks to account for the biological, social, cultural, and historical factors that jointly determine personality development and functioning.
His theories on development have inspired countless research studies making him an especially relevant figure in the field Schwartz, The lower age boundaries of identity development.
Child Development, 53, — Bourne, E. The state of research on ego identity: A review and appraisal. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 7, — Butler, A.
Dysfunctional beliefs discriminate personality disorders. Behavior Research and Therapy, 39, — Curry, C. Kremer Eds. Mistrust From birth to 12 months of age, infants must learn that adults can be trusted. If infants are treated cruelly or their needs are not met appropriately, they will likely grow up with a sense of mistrust for people in the world.
Autonomy vs. They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. For example, we might observe a budding sense of autonomy in a 2-year-old child who wants to choose her clothes and dress herself. Although her outfits might not be appropriate for the situation, her input in such basic decisions has an effect on her sense of independence.
Initiative vs. Guilt Once children reach the preschool stage ages 3—6 years , they are capable of initiating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play.
By learning to plan and achieve goals while interacting with others, preschool children can master this task. These children will develop self-confidence and feel a sense of purpose.
Those who are unsuccessful at this stage—with their initiative misfiring or stifled by over-controlling parents—may develop feelings of guilt. Industry vs. Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up.
Identity vs. They will be unsure of their identity and confused about the future. Intimacy vs. After we have developed a sense of self in adolescence, we are ready to share our life with others.
However, if other stages have not been successfully resolved, young adults may have trouble developing and maintaining successful relationships with others.