Cambridge Core - Asian Studies - A Manual of the Geology of India - by H. B. Medlicott / edited by Richard Dixon Oldham. Access. PDF; Export citation. The history of the geology of India reveals that the country's evolution began rocks in different parts of India, and these rocks belong to different geological. Krishnan, MS () Geology of India and Burma. Madras.
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in the teaching of the Geology of India, because of the a~sence of any adequate modern the one published by the Geological Survey of India in , by H. B. Geology of India as a subject of study in the colleges of India and as one of independent scientific inquiry. The object of the present volume is to remedy this . PDF | India is a country with oldest geological bodies and features. It has a very unique geological and structural conditions of almost all ages.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. An overview of the Palaeoproterozoic geology of Peninsular India, and key stratigraphic and tectonic issues. Dilip Saha. Downloaded from http: The Archaean—Proterozoic rock successions in India have the potential to enrich the global database on Precambrian stratigraphic development, and to offer valuable clues to global tectonic reconstructions. A major erosional unconformity separates the Archaean tonalite—trondjhemite gneiss basement in these cratons from the overlying volcano- sedimentary successions.
The Syringothyris limestone in Kashmir also belongs to the Lipak. The Po series overlies the Lipak series, and the Fenestella shales are interbedded within a sequence of quartzites and dark shales.
In many places Carboniferous strata are overlaid by grey agglomeratic slates, believed to be of volcanic origin. Many genera of productids are found in the limestones of the Permo-Triassic, which has led to these rocks being referred to as "productus limestone".
Mesozoic[ edit ] In the Triassic the Ceratite beds, named after the ammonite ceratite , consist of arenaceous limestones, calcerous sandstones and marls. The Jurassic consists of two distinct units. The upper Jurassic is represented by the Spiti black shales, and stretches from the Karakoram to Sikkim.
Cretaceous rocks cover an extensive area in India. In South India, the sedimentary rocks are divided into four stages; the Niniyur, the Ariyalur, the Trichinopoly a district in the Madras Presidency, covering present-day districts of Tiruchirappalli, Karur, Ariyalur and Perambalur , and the Utatur stages. In the Utatur stage the rocks host phosphatic nodules, which constitute an important source of phosphates in the country.
In the central provinces, the well developed beds of Lameta contain fossil records which are helpful in estimating the age of the Deccan Traps. This sequence of basaltic rocks was formed near the end of the Cretaceous period due to volcanic activity. These rocks are a source of high quality building stone and also provide a very fertile clayey loam , particularly suited to cotton cultivation.
Tertiary period[ edit ] In this period the Himalayan orogeny began, and the volcanism associated with the Deccan Traps continued.
The rocks of this era have valuable deposits of petroleum and coal. Sandstones of Eocene age are found in Punjab, which grade into chalky limestones with oil seepages.
Further north the rocks found in the Simla area are divided into three series, the Sabathu series consisting of grey and red shales, the Dagshai series comprising bright red clays and the Kasauli series comprising sandstones.
Towards the east in Assam, Nummulitic limestone is found in the Khasi hills. Oil is associated with these rocks of the Oligo-Miocene age. This rock system is well known for red sandstone, sandstone, durable stones, ornamental stones, raw materials for lime, glass, cement and chemical industries.
The Dravidian Rock system Cambrian to middle carboniferous These formations do not occur in the peninsular plateau as it was above the sea level at that time but are found in continuous sequence in the Himalayas. They contain abundant fossils in them Coal formation started in the Carboniferous age.
Carboniferous in geology means coal-bearing. K and Ruhr region is Carboniferous coal]. These depressions had countless terrestrial plants and animals, which were buried to from coal deposits in India known as the Gondwana Rocks. These rocks have also marks of climatic changes from arctic cold to tropical and desert conditions. These Rocks are found mainly in the Damodar, the Mahanadi and the Godavari valleys of the peninsula.
Gondwana coal is much younger than the Carboniferous coal and hence its carbon content is low. Jurassic System: The marine transgression in the latter part of the Jurassic gave rise to thick series of shallow water deposits in Rajasthan and in Kuchchh. Coral limestone, sandstone, conglomerates and shales occur in Kuchchh.
Another transgression on the east coast of the Peninsula is found between Guntur and Rajahmundry. The Deccan Trap: Towards the end of the Mesozoic era, intensive volcanic activity took place, which flooded with lava vast areas of Maharashtra and other parts of the Deccan known as the Deccan traps.
The volcanic rocks contain some thin fossiliferous sedimentary layers found between the lava flows. This indicates that the lava flows was not continuous. The volcanic activity led to two great events 1.
Breakup of the Gondwanaland masses 2. Uplift of the Himalayas out of the Tethys Sea. Present Deccan Trap covers about 5 lakh sq km mainly in parts of Kuchchh, Saurashtra, Maharashtra, the Malwa plateau and northern Karnataka. Tertiary System Eocene to Pliocene about 60 to 7 million years ago.
The Pleistocene and recent formations The quaternary period Quaternary is the name proposed for very recent deposits, which contains fossils of species with living representatives These include Satluj-Ganga-Brahmaputra plains and Karewa formations of the Kashmir valley.
Geological Divisions of India: Geologic divisions are marked by geologists as regions of similar rocks, structures and geologic history [Recall the brief geological history of India discussed above].
Geologically, India is divided into 3 major regions also called the Triple Tectonic division : The Peninsular Plateau region — It also includes the Shillong Plateau and the Kutchch Kathiawar region Outliers The Extra-peninsular region — the mountainous region of Himalayas. The Himalayas are young, weak and flexible in their geological structure, unlike the rigid and stable Peninsular Block.
Consequently, they are still subjected to the interplay of exogenic and endogenic forces, resulting in the development of faults, folds and thrust plains. These mountains are tectonic in origin, dissected by fast-flowing rivers which are in their youthful stage. Various landforms like gorges, V-shaped valleys, rapids, waterfalls, etc.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain between the above two. In addition to these, there are 2 minor divisions: The Coastal Plains Eastern and western The Islands Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Physiographic divisions of India Physiography deals with the study of surface features.