Contents About the series 4 About the authoi 5 Foreword 6 Introduction 7 Key grammatical terminology 14 The sounds of British English 18 1. Learning Teaching. - i. Jim Scrivener. Macmillan Books for Teachers. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Teaching English Grammar book. Read 5 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The perfect companion for both trainees and teacher trainer.
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Jim Scrivener Teaching English Grammar. Nicole Ambresi. книга выложена группой tvnovellas.info Contents About the series 4 About the authoi. Teaching English Grammar. What to Teach and How to Teach it. Jim Scrivener. MACMILLAN BOOKS FOR TEACHERS. Series Editor: Adrian Underhill. Instant Lessons tvnovellas.info МБ . English teaching resources- Timsaver project wor.. МБ .. Jim Scrivener - Teaching English tvnovellas.info
The book provides a wide range of activities connected with Geography, Math, Science, History, Life-skills and other school subjects. Step-by-step teacher's notes with Answer Key accompany each activity and give useful ideas for further exploitation. ESOL Activities. Adapting traditional materials to make them relevant for your ESOL lessons takes precious time and considerable effort. Each of the activities is free-standing, and comprehensive teachers notes give a clear indication of the preparation required, as well as suggestions for adapting the tasks for different learning abilities. There are also self-study exercises linked to every activity, which are perfect for use as ready-made homework tasks. Instant Lessons
Each new section has a selection of the following elements: A blue grammar box. The boxes contain rules and examples. Example sentences. There are plenty of these, usually accompanied by eye-catching and relevant photos, which help demonstrate the meaning. These show how the language works — for example, where word order changes. They include the timelines for showing the meaning of tenses. A range of different exercise types give the students a chance to practise using the language and encourage them to be creative in their use of it.
Exercises with this heading require a personal response from the students, using the target language. The tough one. Teachers with less experience often struggle with providing contexts for the new language they are presenting, and the activities here aim to provide simple and effective situational contexts for such language at this point in the lesson.
At this point the teacher faces a second challenge: More experienced teachers will be able to use the material here to review7and overhaul the texture and elegance of their repertoire of presentation activities and approaches, streamlining their approach and developing their confidence and effectiveness. Adrian Underhill Series Editor 6.
Introduction This book gathers together practical teaching ideas and key information about language in order to help you prepare and teach grammar lessons. I hope that it will save you time, energy and stress and help you to feel more confident, well- informed and one step ahead of the students.
Modern coursebooks are generally excellent but sometimes we and our students feel the need to step away from their texts and exercises. You will find lots of ideas here to help you present and practise grammar points.
Presentation The Presentation ideas in this book usually involve the teacher upfront, introducing and modelling language items, possibly using the board. They are particularly suitable for working with language items your class has not met or studied before. Many of them involve creating a context or situation which will help to exemplify the meaning and use of the target items.
Practice The Practice ideas are based around students using the language themselves. These sections list a range of possible ideas you could use to practise various features of meaning and form. They are not intended as a sequence of activities to be used in a single lesson.
Select the idea most relevant for your lesson and your class. Many teachers prefer to introduce newritems through activities that involve lots of student language use and less teacher modelling or explanation.
Depending on your own teaching approach, you may find that you prefer to use ideas from the practice sections to introduce new language. All the teaching ideas are given as quite brief notes. There are many steps that I do not mention and I have to assume that you will fill in missing details yourself - and in doing so you can start to make the ideas your own and more relevant for your class.
The Presentation sections mainly describe situations or contexts to help you present the meaning and use of the language. However, you will invariably also need to focus on the way that the item is structured, even if that is not explicitly stated. You may find that some ideas seem unsuitable for your class as they stand - but I hope that they can still inspire you to think of other related activities that are suitable.
Some key notions in presentation and practice Contexts Many of the presentations in this book make use of a context. These are simple, easy-to-convey situations, scenes or stories that will help to clarify the meaning or use of a language item. You can create the context by drawing pictures on the board, holding up flashcards of photos or sketches or by creating a mini-situation in class using students to act out simple roles following your instructions. A really good context will seem to lead inevitably to natural use of the target language.
Typically, after creating a context, you might elicit language from the students to see if they already have any idea about the target language. Eliciting You elicit by giving cues asking a question, miming, showing a picture, giving a keyword, etc that encourage the students to say something themselves - perhaps in order to draw out their ideas or to see what they know of the target language you are wTorking on.
This may help to involve students in a lesson, as they will be doing more than simply listening to you speaking. They can also show7wrhat they already know7and this can help you to adjust the level of the work. Eliciting can help to reduce the amount of unnecessary teacher talk in class.
Modelling You model by saying something aloud once or a number of times because you want the class to hear a well-pronounced example of a language item. You should take care to speak as naturally as possible and not artificially exaggerate any features.
Drilling You drill by modelling a sentence perhaps to exemplify a specific grammatical item then getting the students to repeat - often chorally ie as a whole class.
Alternatively, you could also ask different individuals to repeat - or pairs to say the sentence s to each other. Drilling is a very restricted use of language to help students notice, focus on and improve things like verb endings, word order, pronunciation etc.
If a student repeats incorrectly during a drill it is usually helpful to correct. This type of controlled manipulation of language items is very useful. Introduction Pair work Students do pair work when each student in class works with one partner. Often the students in each pair are referred to as A and B. Pair work allows lots of students to speak and work simultaneously, maximising interaction time in class. Mingling In a mingling activity, each student in class stands up and walks around the room, meeting and talking to a number of other people - and perhaps after completing a task, moving on to meet others.
Students will learn little or nothing if they do not find the work interesting and involving. It needs to attract them, fill their minds and hold their attention. This may be because the topic is relevant, the task is stimulating, the end result appeals to them - or for many other reasons. One key factor to bear in mind is to pitch the level of challenge appropriately - neither too high nor too low - and of course this level will vary for different people in your class and at different times.
Creating the right challenge level may, for example, involve the teacher varying the difficulty of questions as they ask different people around the class.
What are timelines - and how can I use them? Timelines are a simple visual aid that you or a student can quickly draw on the board.
Past Now Future Timelines are valuable both as a a teaching tool to introduce the meaning and use of verb tenses and b as a checking tool like concept questions to find out how much learners have understood. Use timelines as an aid when explaining the meaning and use of a tense. Ask concept questions based on the timelines. Try using incomplete timelines as a way of eliciting ideas from students When doyou think it happened?
Invite students to come to the board to draw their suggested timelines - and let other students agree or disagree - and make alternative suggestions.
Draw wrong timelines and invite students to correct you. Timelines are a great way 9 9. Introduction of clarifying and checking meaning. But just remember that their meaning may not be immediately transparent to everyone - and there may be different interpretations. Many students seem to find timelines very helpful but others may remain puzzled.
Example sentences Where possible and appropriate, example sentences in the main text are real samples of language in use, taken from the Macmillan English Dictionary corpus. Most are exactly as listed in the corpus, but in some cases, they have been edited slightly in order to help focus on the language point being exemplified by removing or changing words that seem potentially confusing or distracting for the levels in which the lessons are likely to be taught.
Even so, you may find some of the samples unusual - and may consider them unsuitable for their classes. For example, the present perfect examples include Someone has just waltzed off with my drink.
Feedback and correction In order to get better at grammar, students need more than input and practice. They also need to get lots of feedback on how well they are doing. We can distinguish some important ways of responding to errors. Introduction There are many different ways of offering feedback or correction. Here is one way that some teachers have found very useful to help students who never use contractions. This technique works a treat - but it needs to be introduced and used a few times on different occasions before its power and simplicity becomes clear.
From your perspective, behind the fingers, the sentence will seem to go right to left! Repeat the action and words a few times. Get the student s to repeat the whole sentence. This will have become a very quick and wordless way of reminding students that they need to contract the pronoun and auxiliary verb. What are concept questions - and how can I use them?
But finding out if they understand the meaning of something is much harder. Traditional teacher techniques such as asking Doyou understand? Concept questions CQs are questions that you can ask students in order to check if they have understood the meaning of language items they are learning. Well-made CQs check understanding by asking questions that: CQs are often used as an integral part of presentations, especially when working on verb tenses, and especially for checking if students understand what time is referred to, but they are valuable for a number of other grammatical items.
However, not everything can be easily or usefully concept checked. In class, you can ask CQs to several students, listening to their answers and evaluating whether they have understood the meaning of the language item well or not, perhaps not confirming a student answer until you have heard from a number of them.
While asking individual students, you also hope that all the other students in class are thinking through the question and preparing their own answers. An exam ple In this book, I have included some concept questions for a number of grammatical items. These are ready-to-use in class - but please make sure you are clear how the entries work. Here is an example for comparatives: Are Harry and Bill the same height?
No One of them is 1. Which one is 1. Harry Make a sentence about Harry and Bill using shorter. This is an example sentence you to read out to students. The concept questions to ask students about that example sentence then follow, with sample correct student answers in brackets.
Introduction How m ight this exam ple be used in class? Then ask the same question to one or more other students. In fact, it is vital that to check a range of learner levels within class. You are aiming to see if students understand well enough to answrer confidently and, perhaps, quickly. What if students give wrong answers to concept questions? If, at any stage, one or more students give a wrong answer to a CQ, it may be best to avoid launching straight into an explanation or correction.
Wrong answers give you feedback that there is some teaching that still needs to be done to help clarify the problems! In contrast, the sentence asked for here a is clearly set within the context that has already been established b has a specific challenge to form a sentence for which the meaning is known.
Little is left to chance; only a small number of sentences would answer the challenge. But we can count a subdivisions or containers - even if they are not stated two grains of rice, five bags of rice, three teas,four sugars b types twenty cheeses.
Noun phrase A number of words that act as a noun and could be substituted by a pronoun. The man I met at the cafe is going to phone me tonight. The underlined words are a noun phrase which could be substituted by he. Strictly speaking, a noun is a one-word noun phrase! Pronoun A word that can replace a noun or noun phrase. They take different forms with regard to tense present, past , aspect progressive, perfect , person first, second, third , number singular, plural and voice active, passive.
State verbs are not usually used in progressive -ing tenses. The subject and object of the verb are the same I cut myselfshaving. It is made up of two or three words that act as if they were a single verb get over, make do with, look after. She walksfor halfan hour every morning.
The walking happens but is not being done to something. He hit his boss. The action is done to the boss. In these sentences the underlined words are verb phrases: Fm going to swim. Next June we will have been living here for ten vears.
She ought to be able to guess the answer. Confusingly, there are different definitions of the term verb phrase but this seems to be the most widely accepted one. Typically column 1 of 3 in a coursebook verb table. Typically not listed in a coursebook verb table but easy enough to make from column l.
The gerund has the same form - but refers to the noun: Swimming is mv favourite sport. Typically column 2 of 3 in a coursebook verb table. Typically column 3 of 3 in a coursebook verb table. Key grammatical terminology Conditional Conditionals express what happens if something else happens.
Coursebooks often focus on: Adjective A word which describes or tells us more about a noun green, tall',bad. Adverb A word which tells us more about a verb, adjective or adverb. Although widely taught at lower levels, they may be classified under other headings eg time expressions. Preposition A word or words that help us understand the relationships between things in terms of place, movement, time or ideas. Key grammatical terminology Collocation Words that have a tendency to co-occur ie be found together.
For example, many nouns, verbs and adjectives have a strong link to a specific preposition. This category includes: Conjunctions can work as part of a pair neither red nor white wine, both Jurgen and me.
She gave him a karate chop to the neck. She is the subject because she did the action. A karate chop is the direct object because it is the thing given. Him is the indirect object because he was affected by the karate chop.
The sounds of British English Vowels A vowel is a voiced sound made without any closure or friction so that there is no restriction to the flowTof air from the lungs. Diphthongs A diphthong is the result of a glide from one vowel sound to another within a single syllable.
Consonants In the production of a consonant sound, the air flow is restricted by closure or partial closure, which may result in friction. Consonants can be voiced or voiceless. Consonant sounds you can recognise from the normal alphabet: Consonant sounds that have special symbols: Voiced consonants are: A voiceless consonant is one made without the voice-box vibration. Unvoiced consonants are: Contraction A reduced, combined form of a sequence of two function words, represented by a spelling with an apostrophe: Uncontracted form A possible contraction wThich is nevertheless pronounced and written as two separate words: Strong form When a word we normally pronounce with a weak form is said with its rarer full pronunciation, often for emphasis: Check that students know w7hat your drawing shows!
Add in Federico, the farmer and a visitor, Isabella. Write a year from the past at the top of the board. Explain that Federico has been very successful. Practice If you are teaching at very low levels, you will need to adjust your classroom language to suit the level.
Many of these ideas can be introduced by gesturing rather than giving instructions.
Counting Bring a number of different toys, objects and pictures into the room - including more than one of many items. Now7tell me about some numbers in your home. On four large pieces o f paper write the following in big, clear letters: Place the four signs at different places on the walls of the room around the open space.
The signs should not be too close to each other - but they should all be easily accessible for all students no chairs or tables in the way. Choose some singular nouns.
When you say a noun, every student must decide individually how the plural is made - and move to stand in front of the correct sign.
Students are allowed to change their minds wThen they see w7here other students are going! When everyone has made their final decision and stopped moving, announce the real answer - and award one point a token to each student in the right place. Gather everyone back in the middle again - and go on to the next noun. How many people are in the room? One Is there one person in the room? More than one Is there one person in the room? X womens X peoples Of course, students will have heard words such as women's and people's and may have wrongly assumed them to be plurals rather than possessives.
X The children was. Help them by pointing out that words like cooks and walks are one syllable but they are using two. Teaching tip: However, while communicative practice is essential, there are some things that are probably best learnt by fairly traditional techniques involving simple input, memorisation, reminders and recall.
Plurals is one area where some memory practice helping students to know what the plural of child is can be helpful - alongside chances to actually use language with lots of singulars and plurals in realistic tasks, dialogues and situations.
These include space, food, glass, cake, sauce, sugar, light, Coke, bread, curry, class,yoghurt, lamb, wine, business,perfume,football, glue, cheese, deodorant,juice, paint, salad, whisky. Sometimes, the countable and uncountable nouns have very different meanings.
Explain that she is going to the supermarket. Point at the two boxes on the board and ask students wrhat wrord they think should go in the space. When they agree, draw an icon representing rice into the some column.
She needs to get some petrol. In the shop she asksfor some information about special offers. Explain briefly about countable and uncountables. In English it is possible to count some nouns.
Others cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns have no plural form. You always use a singular verb with uncountable nouns There is some snow on the upper slopes. Check if students can correctly recall the sentences about Anna. Practice Countable and uncountable nouns are often introduced alongside a focus on some and any. What do they need to think about example uncountable nouns: Tired househusband A man at home struggles to do the housework example uncountable nouns: Countable or uncountable?
Invite students to work in groups to decide which words go into which box. After some time, invite students to come up one by one and write words into boxes.
Other students can agree or disagree with their decisions. Can you count. An even simpler teaching and checking activity is to ask questions to see if students can distinguish between nouns that can be counted and those which can't. Ask them cCan you count rain? Picture differences On one sheet of paper sheet A draw sketches of about fifteen countable and uncountable food items apples, loose rice, milk in a bottle, potatoes.
On another sheet of paper sheet B draw many of the same items - but with a few variations flour instead of apples. Make photocopies of sheet A and B. In class, make pairs, A and B. Give sheet A to As and sheet B to Bs.
So have I etc. I went to the market If your students need a reminder, start by writing the alphabet on the board. Say 'I went to the market and I bought an apple. Continue with other students trying to remember the list so far and then correctly adding their own item.
As the list gets longer it will get harder and students will make more errors which results in more laughter. Make sure you encourage students to use a mix of both countable and uncountable nouns.
What does Hiro w7ant to download? Some books Do we know7how7many? Yes, three Can w7e count books? What does Sara want to download? Some rice Do we know7how much? No Watch out for these problems.. Countability is a separate issue from whether a word has a different plural or not. For example, sheep is the same word for singular and plural - but sheep are countable. Be careful. Some uncountable nouns have an 5 ending and may look as if they are a plural countable noun eg tennis, news, politics, chess, physics, snakes and ladders, linguistics, athletics, measles, billiards, aerobics, economics, diabetes.
Here are some words that often cause problems: We can count suitcases but not luggage or baggage, rooms but not accommodation, cars but not traffic. X I saw an interesting news tonight. X You have beautiful hairs. X Have you got any informations about the concert? X I forgot my homeworks.
X Can you give me some advices? Make a second set of cards of uncountable foodstuffs toothpaste, wine, cheese, rice, tea, shampoo, ketchup, chocolate. Stick up the container cards on the left in a list going down the board. Stick up the food cards in the middle column to make a separate list. When someone makes a suggestion, move the cards together in the right-hand column.
Elicit the phrase a bottle of cheese and ask the class if they think it is a good combination or not. If you and the class agree that it is wrong, replace the cards to their original lists.
If you agree that it is good a box of matches , leave them there.
This task might be a useful preparation for the Shopping lists activity. Practice In my cupboard Make pairs, A and B. Students start sentences for their partner to complete. B has to reply with a suitable item 28 Partners continue to challenge each other in this w7ay. Shopping lists Shopping lists are always good for this language point. Students can prepare for a party, first discussing and agreeing what they w7ill need We must get eight bottles of lemonade , then writing a shopping list, then role-playing going to the shop Two kilos offlour, please.
Shopping phonecalls Prepare a set of flashcards showing foods and other shopping items. Give five or six to each student. What do I need? Ask students to wrrite a list of ingredients for a dish they know pizza but leave out the quantities. They then meet up with other students and orally explain how to make the dish, adding in quantities Take half a kilo offlour.
You need ten slices of pepperoni. Add a pinch of salt. What did Fernando drink? Some applejuice Do we know how much? What did Faisal eat? Bread Do we know how7much? Yes - two slices Did he eat the wThole loaf? No Teaching tip: They have learnt that milk is uncountable and believe that this must be wTrong.
Like many foodstuffs, milk can be both countable and uncountable. The same is true of many other nouns although food and drink are probably the most common. When it is countable we are usually counting the container or quantity two glasses of milk, or two packets of milk or two litres of milk - but we are not actually saying the container or quantity. The container is implied rather than stated.
I bought two teas means I bought two cups of tea. Ordering two teas is only possible if the listener will unambiguously understand what container is referred to.
Similarly, you can count collections, pieces, parts, bits, quantities or weights of things ten packs ofpaper,five bundles of wheat, two kilos of rice, three pieces of information,four news items, afew drops of whisky, a bit ofgood luck, a little rain, enough pasta.
Countable U ncountable Two coffees, please. We use them to avoid repetition. The machine's broken. It isn't working properly. Subject pronouns The subject of a sentence is the person or thing that does the action of a verb.
I woke up at about 3 am. You need a dictionary. It isn't working. We lived in the room above the shop. They offered her ajob. Object pronouns Direct objects The direct object of a sentence is the person or thing that the action of a verb is done to. It often comes directly after the verb. I called him Iher. We bought it. They saw us. Let's ask them. Indirect objects The indirect object of a sentence is a person or thing that the action of the verb is done for or given to - but not the person or thing.
Bring m e the towel. I gave you the book. She bought him an MP3 player. I showed her the rules. We threw it a biscuit. They sang us a new song. Give them a chance. For example, Bring me a towel. What did he bring? A towel - this is the direct object. Who did he bring it to for?
Me - this is the indirect object. Give an instruction using a direct object drop it, throw it, hide it,punch it. Do a little mime to help the student follow the instruction if they have a problem. Indirect objects In the same lesson. Indicate student B and give an instruction to student A using an indirect object Give her the pen.
Student A must follow the instruction and hand the pen on to Student B. B then throws the pen to C. When possible, encourage students to use the instructions themselves without prompts. Jobs and roles Subject pronouns 1 Hand flashcards showing various locations a hospital, Moscow to different students.
Explain that the pictures show their lives. They live in Moscow. Get students to repeat sentences. They live in Vienna. Pm Anna. Reference At higher levels, the biggest problems tend to come with recognising wiiat a particular pronoun especially it refers to in a complex sentence or text. To tackle this, get students to go through a text, drawing boxes around all instances of a pronoun every it - and then drawing lines back to the word or words that the pronoun refers to.
Concept questions Subject pronouns Write these notes on the board. Object pronouns Write these notes on the board. They are cooking a meal.
Meaning and use Backward reference Pronouns generally refer backwards to things that have already been mentioned. The word him refers back to Jack. Forward reference Pronouns can also more rarely refer forwards to things that have not yet been mentioned.
He refers forward to Tony, which has not been given before this point. Pronouns are only useful if it is absolutely clear what they refer to. In the following short text, the referent ie the person or thing that is referred to of the pronoun is not entirely clear. Is it the snake, the bedcover or the arm? The snake slid over the bedcover and curled round his arm.
I carefully lifted it up. Other uses Apart from the standard meanings, pronouns have some other important uses.
It's raining Isn't it a pity? I really like it in this cafe. It would be hard to say precisely what the it referred to in these sentences. You never see men at these conferences any more. They knocked it down in When the interviewee comes in, give them a copy of the test. This may be to avoid saying things that might seem personally embarrassing but this use of one is a little old-fashioned.
This use is unlikely to be encountered by beginners. Watch out for these problems. X I saw Eva and he told me. Place two silhouette images on the classroom wall - a male and a female figure. When students use the wrong pronoun, simply point at the wrong image, look worried and w7ait for them to correct themselves!
X Mr Salmon he gave it to me. X The picture it is very nice. In the sentence She gives the man some cash the direct object is some cash - the thing immediately affected by the action of giving.
I rewired the house myself. Make yourself comfortable! He repaired the window himself. My brother does all the paperwork him self She locked herself in. The door opens by itself.