Feb 23, Dead Wake The Last Crossing of the Lusitania PDF, EPUB Free Download. On May 1, , with WWI entering its 10th month, a luxury ocean liner as richly appointed as an English country house sailed out of New York. On May 1, , with WWI entering its tenth month, a luxury ocean liner as richly appointed as an English country house sailed out of New York.
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Dead wake: the last crossing of the. Lusitania / by Erik Larson.—First edition. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Lusitania (Steamship) 2. World. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share. Editorial Reviews. tvnovellas.info Review. An site Best Book of the Month for March On May 1st, the Lusitania set sail on its final voyage. That it.
It may also be deliberately induced by pharmaceutical agents during major neurosurgery , to preserve higher brain functions following brain trauma , or to save the patient from extreme pain during healing of injuries or diseases. Given that drug poisoning is the cause for a large portion of patients in a coma, hospitals first test all comatose patients by observing pupil size and eye movement, through the vestibular-ocular reflex. Oxygen deprivation in the brain , also known as hypoxia , causes sodium and calcium from outside of the neurons to decrease and intracellular calcium to increase, which harms neuron communication.
Twenty percent of comatose states result from the side effects of a stroke. An ischemic stroke , brain hemorrhage , or tumor may cause restriction of blood flow. Lack of blood to cells in the brain prevent oxygen from getting to the neurons, and consequently causes cells to become disrupted and die. As brain cells die, brain tissue continues to deteriorate, which may affect the functioning of the ARAS.
Effect on cerebral cortex and reticular activating system[ edit ] Injury to either or both of the cerebral cortex or the Reticular Activating System RAS is sufficient to cause a patient to experience a coma.
The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain , in humans and other mammals. White matter is responsible for perception , relay of the sensory input via the thalamic pathway, and many other neurological functions, including complex thinking. The RAS, on the other hand, is a more primitive structure in the brainstem which includes the reticular formation RF. The RAS has two tracts, the ascending and descending tract.
The ascending track, or ascending reticular activating system ARAS , is made up of a system of acetylcholine-producing neurons, and works to arouse and wake up the brain. Arousal of the brain begins from the RF, through the thalamus , and then finally to the cerebral cortex. Mode of onset[ edit ] The severity and mode of onset of coma depends on the underlying cause. For instance, severe hypoglycemia low blood sugar or hypercapnia increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood initially cause mild agitation and confusion, but progress to obtundation , stupor, and finally, complete unconsciousness.
In contrast, coma resulting from a severe traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage can be instantaneous.
The mode of onset may therefore be indicative of the underlying cause. As such, after gaining stabilization of the patient's airways, breathing and circulation the basic ABC s various diagnostic tests, such as physical examinations and imaging tools CAT scan , MRI , etc.
Overview of diagnostic steps[ edit ] When an unconscious patient enters a hospital, the hospital utilizes a series of diagnostic steps to identify the cause of unconsciousness. According to Young,  the following steps should be taken when dealing with a patient possibly in a coma: Perform a general examination and medical history check Make sure the patient is in an actual comatose state and is not in locked-in state or experiencing psychogenic unresponsiveness.
Patients with locked-in syndrome present with voluntary movement their eyes, whereas patients suffering from psychogenic comas , demonstrate active resistance to passive opening of the eyelids, with the eyelids closing abruptly and completely when the lifted upper eyelid is released rather than slowly, asymmetrically and incompletely as seen in comas due to organic causes. More elaborate scales, such as the Glasgow Coma Scale , quantify an individual's reactions such as eye opening, movement and verbal response in order to indicate their extent of brain injury.
The patient's score can vary from a score of 3 indicating severe brain injury and death to 15 indicating mild or no brain injury. In those with deep unconsciousness, there is a risk of asphyxiation as the control over the muscles in the face and throat is diminished. As a result, those presenting to a hospital with coma are typically assessed for this risk " airway management ".
Large vitrified organs tend to develop fractures during cooling,  a problem worsened by the large tissue masses and very low temperatures of cryonics. Eric Drexler proposed a technique called fixation and vitrification, anticipating reversal by molecular nanotechnology.
Actual cryonics organizations use vitrification without a chemical fixation step,  sacrificing some structural preservation quality for less damage at the molecular level.
Some scientists, like Joao Pedro Magalhaes, have questioned whether using a deadly chemical for fixation eliminates the possibility of biological revival, making chemical fixation unsuitable for cryonics. In absence of a revived brain, or brain simulation from somehow scanning a preserved brain, the adequacy of present vitrification technology with or without fixation for preserving the anatomical and molecular basis of long-term memory as required by cryonics is still unproven.
Outside the cryonics community, many scientists have a blanket skepticism toward existing preservation methods. Cryobiologist Dayong Gao states that "we simply don't know if subjects have been damaged to the point where they've 'died' during vitrification because the subjects are now inside liquid nitrogen canisters.
Revival would require repairing damage from lack of oxygen, cryoprotectant toxicity, thermal stress fracturing , freezing in tissues that do not successfully vitrify, and reversing the cause of death.
In many cases extensive tissue regeneration would be necessary. People cryopreserved in the future, with better technology, may require less advanced technology to be revived because they will have been cryopreserved with better technology that caused less damage to tissue.
In this view, preservation methods would get progressively better until eventually they are demonstrably reversible, after which medicine would begin to reach back and revive people cryopreserved by more primitive methods. However, bodies may legally be shipped to other countries for cryonic freezing. The decision was made on the basis that the case represented a conventional dispute over the disposal of the girl's body, although the judge urged ministers to seek "proper regulation" for the future of cryonic preservation following concerns raised by the hospital about the competence and professionalism of the team that conducted the preservation procedures.
Richardson, the Iowa Court of Appeals ordered for the disinterment of Richardson, who was buried against his wishes for cryopreservation. The arguments against it include changing the concept of death, the expense of preservation and revival, lack of scientific advancement to permit revival, temptation to use premature euthanasia, and failure due to catastrophe.
Arguments in favor of cryonics include the potential benefit to society, the prospect of immortality, and the benefits associated with avoiding death. Shaw explores the expense and the potential payoff, and applies an adapted version of Pascal's Wager to the question.
Later he went on to found the Cryonics Institute where he is cryopreserved today. It was placed in liquid nitrogen and stored at just above freezing. The middle-aged woman from Los Angeles, whose name is unknown, was soon thawed out and buried by relatives. Cryonics gained a poor reputation in the U. The method is fatal, performed as euthanasia under general anethesia, but the hope is that future technology would allow the brain to be physically scanned into a computer simulation, neuron by neuron.