PDF | A wide range of tools and techniques are used in ornithology and innovations are constantly made. The broad competence of geospatial analysis. GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS. “A Comprehensive Guide to Principles, Techniques and Software Tools”.pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read. geographic base (like a map of the municipalities), and the GIS is capable of presenting All of these problems are part of spatial analysis of geographical data.
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web or special PDF versions for color images. Disclaimer: This publication is designed to offer accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject. and Geospatial Analysis, in de Smith M J, Goodchild M F, and Longley P A tvnovellas.info . It covers the principal concepts of geospatial analysis and their origins and eBook HTML and PDF; Language: English; ISBN ; ISBN -.
Fifth Edition. Issue version: The moral right of the authors has been asserted. Copies of this edition are available in electronic book and web-accessible formats only. This publication is designed to offer accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter. It is provided on the understanding that it is not supplied as a form of professional or advisory service. References to software products, datasets or publications are purely made for information purposes and the inclusion or exclusion of any such item does not imply recommendation or otherwise of the product or material in question.
Includes a chapter on Geocomputational Methods. Geospatial analysis concepts Core components of geospatial analysis, including distance and directional analysis, geometrical processing, map algebra, and grid models Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis ESDA and spatial statistics, including spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression Surface analysis, including surface form analysis, gridding and interpolation methods Network and locational analysis, including shortest path calculation, travelling salesman problems, facility location and arc routing Geocomputational methods, including agent-based modelling, artifical neural networks and evolutionary computing.
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Title Geospatial Analysis: English ISBN Book Description This book addresses the full spectrum of analytical techniques that are provided within modern Geographic Information Systems and related geospatial software products. site Related Book Categories: Web Programming Read and Download Links: Similar Books: All Categories. Recent Books. Prof Mike Goodchild. GIS and software tools 14 1. Framing the question 3. Data acquisition 3. Formulating the approach 3. Delivering the results 3.
Analytical methods and tools 3.
Interpolation and Contouring 6. Optimal Routes and Optimal Tours 7. Mike de Smith. Mike Goodchild. Once several of the chapters had been written: These include: Foreword This 5th edition includes the following principal changes from the previous edition: As such. Geospatial Analysis: A Comprehensive Guide to Principles. Dr Mike de Smith.
As is often the case. We remain convinced that there is a need for guidance on where to find and how to apply selected tools. The formats in which this Guide has been published have proved to be extremely popular. The project was discussed with Professors Longley and Goodchild. Other topics. To our knowledge. Paul Longley. They kindly agreed to contribute to the contents of the Guide itself. A unique. Techniques and Software Tools originated as material to accompany the spatial analysis module of MSc programmes at University College London delivered by the principal author.
East Africa. Every effort has been made to ensure the information provided is up-to-date. Italy and Japan. This has enabled the time between producing the text and delivery in electronic web.
This approach does come with some minor disadvantages. Workshops based on these materials have been run in Ireland. Maguire and Rhind. We would like to thank all those users of the book. Accordingly the Guide has been prepared without intermediary typesetting.
It also enables the work to be updated on a regular basis. Many academics and industry professionals have provided helpful comments on previous editions. Hyperlinks embedded within the document enable users of the web and PDF versions of this document to navigate around the Guide and to external sources of information.
Amongst these are a series of sector-specific case studies drawing on recent work in and around London UK. These are then further subdivided. Collectively such techniques and tools are often now described as geospatial analysis. GIS applications must by definition be sensitive to context.
Not only are there wide differences in the volume and remit of data that the public sector collects about population characteristics in different parts of the world. Some organizations. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to spatial thinking. In order to cover such a wide range of topics. A timeline of many of the formative influences upon the field up to the year is available via: The history of the field has been charted in an edited volume by Foresman containing contributions by many of its early protagonists.
Each of these sources makes the unassailable point that the success of GIS as an area of activity has fundamentally been driven by the success of its applications in solving real world problems. This initial discussion is followed in Chapter 3 by an examination of the methodological background to GIS analysis.
Initially we examine a number of formal methodologies and then apply ideas drawn from these to the specific case of spatial analysis. Analysts may already be aware of these contextual considerations through local knowledge. Many applications are illustrated in Longley et al. In a similar vein the web site for this Guide provides companion material focusing on applications.
In practice. There are also differences in the ways in which different data holdings can legally be merged and the purposes for which data may be used — particularly with regard to health and law enforcement data. A process known by its initials.
Chapter 2. Just as all datasets and software packages contain errors. As noted above. The majority of the methods described in Chapter 4 Building blocks of spatial analysis and many of those in Chapter 6 Surface and field analysis are implemented as standard facilities in modern commercial GIS packages such as ArcGIS. Subsequent Chapters present the various analytical methods supported within widely available software tools.
We conclude Chapter 3 with a discussion on model-building. In all instances we provide detailed examples and commentary on software tools that are readily available. Introduction and terminology 13 spatial analysis problems and projects. These tables are designed to provide a quick reference to the various topics covered and are. Inevitably with respect to the latter. Chapter 5. In both cases the information is regularly updated.
Many are also provided in more specialized GIS products such as Idrisi. Some may be genuine errors or misprints. The web version of this Guide may be accessed via the associated Internet site: The contents and sample sections of the PDF version may also be accessed from this site. In addition we discuss a number of more specialized tools. We provide limited discussion of novel 2D and 3D mapping facilities. TNTMips and Geomedia. In all cases the user should review the documentation provided with the software version they plan to use.
Extensive use has also been made of tabulated information. These developments confirm the trend towards integration of geospatial data and presentation layers into mainstream software systems and services. Our objective for such users is to provide an independent. Source code greatly aids understanding.
They provide an illustration of the direction that many toolset and service providers are taking. Given the vast range of spatial analysis techniques that have been developed over the past half century many topics can only be covered to a limited depth. Commercial software products rarely provide access to source code or full details of the algorithms employed.
Flash-based mapping. There are many reasons for these inconsistencies including: In addition. In many instances such facilities are provided by the original software suppliers commercial vendors or collaborative non-commercial development teams whilst in other cases facilities have been developed and are provided by third parties.
This is a rapidly changing field and increasingly GIS packages are including analytical tools as standard built-in facilities or as optional toolsets. Such software will often also provide details of known bugs and restrictions associated with functions — although this information may also be provided with commercial products it is generally less transparent.
GIS and software tools Our objective in producing this Guide is to be comprehensive in terms of concepts and techniques but not necessarily exhaustive. In this respect non-commercial software may meet the requirements of scientific rigor more fully than many commercial offerings. These tools include the widespread use of Java applets.
This means that results produced using one package on a given dataset can rarely be exactly matched to those produced using any other package or through hand-crafted coding. Non-commercial packages sometimes provide source code and test data for some or all of the analytical functions provided.
Throughout this Guide there are numerous examples of the use of software tools that facilitate geospatial analysis. AJAX and Web 2. Typically they provide references to books and articles on which procedures are based.
Many products offer software development kits SDKs. For our purposes we focus principally on products that claim to provide geographic information systems capabilities.
The process of selecting software tools encourages us to ask: To this initial set must be added a large variety of statistical techniques descriptive. For raster-based GIS.
The results of geospatial analysis will change if the location or extent of the frame changes. In the case of vector- based GIS this typically means operations such as: In conceptual terms. In many instances open source and similar not-for- profit GIS software may also be less generic.
These techniques involve processing one or more raster layers according to simple rules resulting in a new map layer. This leads us beyond the realm of pure GIS. Like some commercial software. Many GIS products apply the term geo spatial analysis in a very narrow context.
Descriptive statistics. Introduction and terminology 15 demanding on the users and system administrators. We concentrate our review on a number of the products most widely used or with the most readily accessible analytical facilities. For example: Aqua mission. This latter class of tools has been.
In many instances location problems relate to networks and as such are often best addressed with tools designed for this purpose. GIS packages and web-based services increasingly incorporate a range of such tools. For further insights into how some of these developments may be applied. Limiting the definition of geospatial analysis to 2D mapping operations and spatial statistics remains too restrictive for our purposes.
Terra mission. Dodge et al. It is also to be noted that spatial statistics is largely an observational science like astronomy rather than an experimental science like agronomy or pharmaceutical research. Slocum et al. Commission on Geovisualization. A further important aspect of geospatial analysis is visualization or geovisualization — the use.
Longley et al. Problems that are not specifically network constrained. GIS-based network analysis may be used to address a wide range of practical problems such as route selection and facility location.
This aspect of geospatial science has important implications for analysis. There are other very important areas to be considered. As datasets. Other examples readers may wish to explore include: These novel visualization tools and facilities augment the core tools utilized in spatial analysis throughout many parts of the analytical process: Another example is the 3D visualizations provided as part of the web-accessible London Air Quality network see example at the front of this Guide.
These are designed to enable:. To create large landscape models multiple individual prints, which are typically only around 20cm x 20cm x 5cm, are made, in much the same manner as raster file mosaics. GIS software, notably in the commercial sphere, is driven primarily by demand and applicability, as manifest in willingness to pay.
Hence, to an extent, the facilities available often reflect commercial and resourcing realities including the development of improvements in processing and display hardware, and the ready availability of high quality datasets rather than the status of development in geospatial science.
Indeed, there may be many capabilities available in software packages that are provided simply because it is extremely easy for the designers and programmers to implement them, especially those employing object-oriented programming and data models. For example, a given operation may be provided for polygonal features in response to a well-understood application requirement, which is then easily enabled for other features e.
Despite this cautionary note, for specific well-defined or core problems, software developers will frequently utilize the most up-to-date research on algorithms in order to improve the quality accuracy, optimality and efficiency speed, memory usage of their products. For further information on algorithms.
Furthermore, the quality, variety and efficiency of spatial analysis facilities provide an important discriminator between commercial offerings in an increasingly competitive and open market for software. However, the ready availability of analysis tools does not imply that one product is necessarily better or more complete than another — it is the selection and application of appropriate tools in a manner that is fit for purpose that is important.
Guidance documents exist in some disciplines that assist users in this process, e. Perry et al. Approaches that are both data-driven exploration of geospatial data and model-driven testing hypotheses and creating models are included.
The goal of model- driven analysis is to create and test geospatial process models. Wherever possible. Data-driven techniques derive summary descriptions of data. It is intended to be much more than a cookbook of formulas. Analytical Methods and GC: Data analysis seeks to understand both first-order environmental effects and second-order interaction effects.
In general. Conceptual Foundations. In the general introduction to the AM knowledge area the authors of the BoK summarize this component as follows: It stops short.
A substantial range of application examples are provided. Introduction and terminology 21 1. The spectrum of products that may be described as a GIS includes amongst others: In this Guide we do not provide a separate chapter on image processing. For this reason. In many cases such systems fulfill specific operational needs. There is an enormous difference between the requirements of academic researchers and educators.
Whatever their origins. For most GIS professionals. Even for those whose job focuses on analysis the range of techniques employed tends to be quite narrow and application focused. GIS consultants. A number of GIS packages and related toolsets have particularly strong facilities for processing and analyzing binary. Many of the capabilities may be found in generic GIS products.
In other instances a specialized package may utilize a GIS engine for the display and in some cases processing of spatial data directly. We have adopted a similar position with respect to other forms of data capture. They may have been designed originally for the processing of remote sensed data from satellite and aerial surveys. For the first group and for consultants. This certainly applies to large-scale Monte Carlo simulation models. Many optimization tasks.
In the context of this Guide we do not believe these selections affect our discussions in any substantial manner. Some analytical tasks are very processor. Others are licensed at varying per user prices. Increasingly these make use of non-commercial wide-ranging spatial analysis software libraries. For example. For the second group of users it is common to make use of a variety of tools. Introduction and terminology 23 exploring and developing analytical techniques.
Similar problems exist with the processing and display of raster files. Geocomputational methods. Many of these products are free whilst others are available at least in some form for a small fee for all or selected groups of users.
Different versions that support Unix-based operating systems and more sophisticated back-end database engines have not been utilized. This increase is generally at least linear with the number of layers and features.
To quote from the OGC: In some instances analytical applications may be well-suited to parallel or grid-enabled processing — as for example is the case with GWR see Harris et al. At present there are no standardized tests for the quality. Such criticisms are often valid and for many problems it may prove simpler.
Numeric Python Numpy and other libraries from Enthought. A number of trade magazines and websites such as Geoplace and Geocommunity provide ad hoc reviews of GIS software offerings. Details of how to obtain these products are provided on the software page of the website that accompanies this book. The list maintained on Wikipedia is also a useful source of information and links.
Example approaches include: The advantage of these approaches is control and transparency. Python — many add-ins are developed in this way. Valuable guidance on the relationship between spatial process and spatial modeling may be found in Cliff and Ord and Bailey and Gatrell GISSc seeks to provide a comprehensive and highly accessible introduction to the subject as a whole.
Some of the basic mathematics and statistics of relevance to GIS analysis is covered in Dale and Allan This work is best suited to advanced undergraduates and first year postgraduate students.
Useful online resources for those involved in data analysis. Undergraduates and MSc programme students will find Burrough and McDonnell provides excellent coverage of many aspects of geospatial analysis. For more specific sources on geostatistics and associated software packages.
A relatively new development has been the increasing availability of out-of-print published books.
These sites. The more informally produced set of articles on statistical topics provided under the Wikipedia umbrella are also an extremely useful resource. For detailed information on datums and map projections. This book is strongly recommended as a companion to the present Guide for postgraduate researchers and professional analysts involved in using GIS in conjunction with statistical analysis.
Introduction and terminology 25 1.
The latter provides an excellent introduction to the application of statistical methods to spatial data analysis. For those who find mathematics and statistics something of a mystery. Hypertext links are provided here.
A second category of companion materials to the present work is the extensive product-specific documentation available from software suppliers. In parallel with the increasing range and sophistication of spatial analysis facilities to be found within GIS packages. Some of the online help files and product manuals are excellent. Both these volumes covers many topics. Those considering using Open Source software should investigate the recent books by Neteler and Mitasova In addition some suppliers.
The latter is particularly common where these works are selections from sector. This is a basic introduction to GIS Analysis. Many recent books described as covering geo spatial analysis are essentially edited collections of papers or brief articles. Ahuja et al. Tyler Mitchell and Sherman As companion reading on these topics for the present Guide we suggest the two volumes from the Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science series by Ball et al.
Batty and Goodchild This is challenging material and many readers may prefer to seek out more approachable material. As such most do not seek to provide comprehensive coverage of the field. These rather expensive volumes provide collections of reviews covering many classes of network problems. In many instances we utilize these to illustrate the capabilities of specific pieces of software and to enable readers to replicate our results using readily available materials.
A number of the topics covered in his Volume 2 also appear in this Guide. More general shifts can be seen in the move towards local rather than simply global analysis.
These trends are addressed at many points throughout this Guide. One aspect of this has been noted already — the move towards network-based location modeling where in the past this would have been unfeasible. Introduction and terminology 27 about as a result of technological developments and the related availability of software tools and detailed publicly available datasets.
For a large number of commonly used terms online dictionaries have been developed. The University of California maintains an online dictionary of abbreviations and acronyms used in GIS. Web site details for each of these are provided at the end of this Guide.
The latter includes many terms and definitions that are particular to specific products. The result that the same terms may mean entirely different things depending on their context and in many cases. Gradient and Slope Attribute A data item associated with an individual object record in a spatial database. The term autocorrelation is usually applied to ordered datasets. The existence of such a relationship suggests but does not definitely establish causality Cartogram A cartogram is a form of map in which some variable such as Population Size or Gross National Product typically is substituted for land area.
Artifacts may be generated by the way in which data have been collected. Attributes may be explicit. Introduction and terminology 29 1. Arcs may include segments or circles. All points on this projection keep their true compass bearing AGI Spatial The degree of relationship that exists between two or more spatial variables. In most instances terms used in this Guide are defined on the first occasion they are used. Table In connection with graphs and networks.
Note that adjacency may also apply to features that lie either side of a common boundary where these features are not necessarily polygons Arc Commonly used to refer to a straight line segment connecting two nodes or vertices of a polyline or polygon.
Artifact A result observation or set of observations that appears to show something unusual e. This change can either be in the same direction. Contiguity data can be stored in a table. Curve A one-dimensional geometric object stored as a sequence of points. Such localized classifications have been shown to be powerful discriminators of consumer behavior and related social and behavioral patterns Geospatial Referring to location relative to the Earth's surface. Area symbols on a choropleth map usually represent categorized classes of the mapped phenomenon AGI Conflation A term used to describe the process of combining merging information from two data sources into a single source.
Cartograms use a variety of approaches to map distortion. In the context of terrestrial geodesy datum is usually defined by a model of the Earth or section of the Earth. The term cartogram or linear cartogram is also used on occasion to refer to maps that distort distance for particular display purposes. A curve is simple if it does not pass through the same point twice OGC. The term is distinct from concatenation which refers to combinations of data sources e.
Contiguity is not concerned with the exact locations of polygons. In GIS the word datum usually relates to a reference level surface applying on a nationally or internationally defined basis from which elevation is to be calculated.
The term is also used for horizontal referencing of measurements. A LineString or polyline — see below is a subtype of a curve Datum Strictly speaking. Often used in computer science to refer to the central part of an operating system.
Introduction and terminology 31 Term Definition Geostatistics Statistical methods developed for and applied to geographic data.
Gradient is a vector field comprised of the aspect direction of maximum slope and slope computed in this direction magnitude of rise over run at each point of the surface. Spatial statistics is a term more commonly applied to the analysis of discrete objects e.
Used in statistical analysis in connection with the distribution of errors or residuals Invariance In the context of GIS invariance refers to properties of features that remain unchanged under one or more spatial transformations Kernel Literally.
Differential global positioning system — DGPS provides improved accuracy over standard GPS by the use of one or more fixed reference stations that provide corrections to GPS data Gradient Used in spatial analysis with reference to surfaces scalar fields. The magnitude of the gradient the slope or inclination is sometimes itself referred to as the gradient see also.
In the context of optimization heuristic algorithms are systematic procedures that seek a good or near optimal solution to a well-defined problem.
Slope and Aspect Graph A collection of vertices and edges links between vertices constitutes a graph. The mathematical study of the properties of graphs and paths through graphs is known as graph theory Heuristic A term derived from the same Greek root as Eureka.
The term is widely used to refer to a family of tools used in connection with spatial interpolation prediction of piecewise continuous datasets and is widely applied in the environmental sciences. These statistical methods are required because geographic data do not usually conform to the requirements of standard statistical procedures.
See also. The vertex v is referred to as the start of the polyline and 1 v as the end of the polyline. If every pair of points inside a polygon can be joined by a straight line that also lies inside the polygon then the polygon is described as being convex i. A graph or network with edges crossing e. A point is inside a simple polygon if traversing the boundary in a clockwise direction the point is always on the right of the observer. A single grid is essentially the same as a two-dimensional matrix.
If 1 2 n-1 n 1 the sequence of edges is not self-crossing it is called a simple polygon. Image files can be regarded as a particular form of raster or grid file Polygon A closed figure in the plane.
A polygon set is said to be planar enforced if planar enforced every point in the set lies in exactly one polygon. Unless the surface is flat the slope at a given point on a surface will typically have a maximum value in a particular direction depending on the surface and the way in which the calculations are carried out.
Rubber sheeting … preserves the interconnectivity or topology. The vector consisting of the slope and aspect is the gradient of the surface at that point see also. These Query Language support queries that are based on spatial relationships rather than simply attribute values Surface A 2D geometric object. Rubber-sheeting techniques are widely used in the production of Cartograms op. These models can be built into hierarchical structures. Slope The amount of rise of a surface change in elevation divided by the distance over which this rise is computed the run.