Firewall Media, - Engineering ethics - pages plz inform where we can download this book QR code for Professional Ethics and Human Values. This book is based on the syllabus of Anna University prescribed for young A separate section on human values is included to help understand ethics better. User Review - Flag as inappropriate. yes, i get read good very interested.i should more read good important's learned. so thank you this book good useful.
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Preface. 'Professional ethics and Human values' is a very relevant subject of today's environment of .. A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values. Preview this book» QR code for Human Values & Professional Ethics. Title, Human Values & Professional Ethics. Publisher, Krishna Prakashan Media. Engineering enables life and Ethics ennobles life Anon This book is the fruition of four decades of teaching Mechanical Engineering subjects including Quality.
This book is the fruition of four decades of teaching Mechanical Engineering subjects including Quality Engineering, Total Quality Management, and Principles of Management for the Bachelor and Master degree courses in Engineering at Annamalai University, and then in Arunai Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai, by the author. Frank and continual feedback from the distinguished students and esteemed colleagues of the author obtained during teaching, enthused him in shaping this book into a valuable present to the scholars pursuing engineering. This book amply covers the updated syllabus of Professional Ethics by Anna University. Besides the basic human values, Codes of ethics of major Indian professional societies, detailed risk analysis with illustrative examples are included. Further, twenty four crisp case studies covering a wide spectrum of topics in Professional Ethics, short-answer questions, long-answer questions with hints have been appended to sustain the interest of the engineering students. The student community as well as the teaching fraternity is certain to enjoy using this book, not only from the teaching-learning point of view, but also for their professional career and advancement. About the Author Dr.
Product details Paperback Publisher: Kalyani Publishers Language: English ISBN Be the first to review this item site Bestsellers Rank: No customer reviews.
Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a product review. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Audible Download Audio Books. DPReview Digital Photography. To vote the local or state government. To contest in the elections to the local or state government. To seek a public welfare facility such as a school, hospital or a community hall or transport or communication facility, for the residents.
To establish a green and safe environment, pollution free, corruption free, and to follow ethical principles. People are said to have the right to breathe in fresh air, by not allowing smoking in public.
People have inalienable right to accept or reject a project in their area. One has the right to seek legal remedy, in this respect, through public interest petition. George Washington4 embodied the civic virtues as indispensable for a self-governing administration.
These virtues are divided into four categories: Civic Knowledge Citizens must understand what the Constitution says about how the government is working, and what the government is supposed to do and what not to do.
We must understand the basis of our responsibilities as citizens, besides duties and rights. We must be able to recognize when the government or another citizen infringes upon our rights. It implies that the government requires the participation of the enlightened citizens, to serve and survive.
Human Values 9 2. Self-Restraint For citizens to live in a free society with limited government each citizen must be able to control or restrain himself; otherwise, we would need a police state—that is, a dictatorial government to maintain safety and order. He advocated for morality and declared that happiness is achieved and sustained through virtues and morals.
He advocated and demonstrated self-restraint several times in his private and public life, and naturally he was a great leader. Self-Assertion Self-assertion means that citizens must be proud of their rights, and have the courage to stand up in public and defend their rights.
Sometimes, a government may usurp the very rights that it was created to protect.
In such cases, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish that government e. Self-Reliance Citizens who cannot provide for themselves will need a large government to take care of them.
Once citizens become dependent on government for their basic needs, the people are no longer in a position to demand that government act within the confines of the Constitution. Self-reliant citizens are free citizens in the sense that they are not dependent on others for their basic needs.
They do not need a large provider-government, which has the potential to become an oppressive government, to meet those needs. Only a strong self-reliant citizenry will be able to enjoy fully the blessings of liberty. These civic virtues, applicable to local, state, and central governments, nourish freedom and civil liberty at the root of democracy.
The principles enunciated in this regard are: Recognize and accept the existence of other persons as human beings, because they have a right to live, just as you have. One need not accept or approve or award them, but shall listen to them first. One can correct or warn, if they commit mistakes. Appreciate colleagues and subordinates on their positive actions. Criticize constructively and encourage them. They are bound to improve their performance, by learning properly and by putting more efforts.
Love others. Allow others to grow. Basically, the goodwill reflects on the originator and multiplies itself on everybody. This will facilitate collinearity, focus, coherence, and strength to achieve the goals. Charity begins at home. Then one can spread peace to family, organisation where one works, and then to the world, including the environment.
Only who are at peace can spread peace. You can not gift an article which you do not possess. The It is oxymoron. War or peace can be won only by peace, and not by wars! One should adopt the following means to live peacefully, in the world: Nurture 1. Get 5. Act 6. Help the needy with head, heart, and hands charity. Service to the poor is considered holier than the service to God.
Not hurting and torturing others either physically, verbally, or mentally. The following are the factors that promote living, with internal and external peace: Conducive environment safe, ventilated, illuminated and comfortable.
Absence of threat or tension by pressure due to limitations of money or time. Absence of unnecessary interference or disturbance, except as guidelines. Healthy labor relations and family situations. Service to the needy physically and mentally-challenged with love and sympathy.
It is a process which exhibits the interest in, and support for, the welfare of others with fairness, impartiality and justice in all activities, among the employees, in the context of professional ethics. It includes showing respect to the feelings of others, and also respecting and preserving the interests of all others concerned.
Caring is reflected in activities such as friendship, membership in social clubs and professional societies, and through various transactions in the family, fraternity, community, country and in international councils. In the present day context, caring for the environment including the fauna and flora has become a necessity for our very survival.
If we do not care for the environment, the environment will scare us. Sharing is a process that describes the transfer of knowledge teaching, learning, and information , experience training , commodities material possession and facilities with others. The transfer should be genuine, legal, positive, voluntary, and without any expectation in return. However, the proprietary information it should not be shared with outsiders.
Through this process of sharing, experience, expertise, wisdom and other benefits reach more people faster. Sharing is voluntary and it can not be driven by force, but motivated successfully through ethical principles. It paves the way for peace and obviates militancy. Philosophically, the sharing maximizes the happiness for all the human beings. Sharing not only paves the way to prosperity, early and easily, and sustains it. Commercially speaking, the profit is maximized.
Technologically, the productivity and utilization are maximized by sharing. In the industrial arena, code-sharing in airlines for bookings on air travels and the common Effluent Treatment Plant constructed for small-scale industries in the industrial estates, are some of the examples of sharing.
The co-operative societies for producers as well as consumers are typical examples of sharing of the goods, profit and other social benefits. Here is an anecdote that illustrates the benefits of sharing, for the young minds!
The shouting That was the breaking point for me as I poured out my woes to my mother. Laughter was her reply. Yes, I did remember that box. But my mother was consistent. No matter what the reason for the struggle was, the toy disappeared into the box for one week.
No questions asked, and no chance of parole. My siblings and I soon learned that sharing a toy was better than losing it. Often, one person would decide to just wait for a time when no one else was playing with the toy, rather than fight and lose it.
It was not a perfect system, but I tried it anyway That box was a shock to my kids and it was close to full, within a few days….. As the weeks progressed, I noticed the box was emptier and the arguing was less. Truthfulness is to face the responsibilities upon telling truth. But trustworthiness is maintaining integrity and taking responsibility for personal performance. People abide by law and live by mutual trust.
They play the right way to win, according to the laws or rules legally and morally. They build trust through reliability and authenticity.
They admit their own mistakes and confront unethical actions in others and take tough and principled stand, even if unpopular. Honesty is mirrored in many ways. The common reflections are: As against this, some of the actions of an engineer that leads to dishonesty are: Honesty implies avoidance of lying.
An engineer may communicate wrong or distorted test results intentionally or otherwise. It is giving wrong information to the right people. Deliberate deception: An engineer may judge or decide on matters one is not familiar or with insufficient data or proof, to impress upon the customers or employers.
This is a self deceit. Withholding the information: Not seeking the truth: Some engineers accept the information or data, without applying their mind and seeking the truth. Not maintaining confidentiality: It is giving right information to wrong people. Giving professional judgment under the influence of extraneous factors such as personal benefits and prejudice.
The laws, experience, social welfare, and even conscience are given a go-bye by such actions. Certainly this is a higher-order crime. Self-confidence is the basic requirement to nurture courage.
Courage is classified into three types, based on the types of risks, namely a Physical courage, b Social courage, and c Intellectual courage. In physical courage, the thrust is on the adequacy of the physical strength, including the muscle power and armaments. The social courage involves the decisions and actions to change the order, based on the conviction for or against certain social behaviors.
This requires leadership abilities, including empathy and sacrifice, to mobilize and motivate the followers, for the social cause. The intellectual courage is inculcated in people through acquired knowledge, experience, games, tactics, education, and training. In professional ethics, courage is applicable to the employers, employees, public, and the press.
Look before you leap. Learning from the past helps. Human Values 13 with self-confidence, succeed in achieving the desired ethical goals through ethical means. Opportunities and threat existing and likely to exist in future are also to be studied and measures to be planned. This anticipatory management will help any one to face the future with courage. Facing the criticism, owning responsibility, and accepting the mistakes or errors when committed and exposed are the expressions of courage.
In fact, this sets their mind to be vigilant against the past mistakes, and creative in finding the alternate means to achieve the desired objectives. Sathish Dhawan, Chief of ISRO, was reported to have exhibited his courage and owned responsibility, when the previous space mission failed, but credited Prof.
Abdul Kalam now our revered President , when the subsequent mission succeeded. The courageous people own and have shown the following characteristics, in their professions: Once it is spent, it is lost for ever. It can not be either stored or recovered. Hence, time is the most perishable and most valuable resource too. This resource is continuously spent, whether any decision or action is taken or not.
The history of great reformers and innovators have stressed the importance of time and valuing time. To realize the value of one year, ask the student who has failed in the examinations;. To realize the value of one month, ask the mother who has delivered a premature baby; to realize the value of one week, ask the editor of weekly; to realize the value of one day, ask the daily-wage laborer; to realize now the value of one hour, ask the lovers longing to meet; to realize the value of one minute, ask a person who has missed the train; to realize the value of one second, ask the person who has survived an accident; to realize the value one milli second, ask the person who has won the bronze medal in Olympics; to realize the value of one micro second, ask the NASA team of scientists; to realize the value of one nano-second, ask a Hardware engineer!
Co-operation is activity between two persons or sectors that aims at integration of operations synergy , while not sacrificing the autonomy of either party. Further, working together ensures, coherence, i. Willingness to understand others, think and act together and putting this into practice, is cooperation.
Cooperation promotes collinearity, coherence blend , co-ordination activities linked in sequence or The whole is more than the sum of the individuals. It helps in minimizing the input resources including time and maximizes the outputs, which include quantity, quality, effectiveness, and efficiency.
According to professional ethics, cooperation should exist or be developed, and maintained, at several levels; between the employers and employees, between the superiors and subordinates, among the colleagues, between the producers and the suppliers spare parts , and between the organisation and its customers.
The codes of ethics of various professional societies insist on appropriate cooperation to nourish the industry. The absence of cooperation leads to lack of communication, misinformation, void in communication, and undue delay between supply, production, marketing, and consumption.
This is likely to demoralize and frustrate the employees, leading to collapse of the industry over time and an economic loss to the society. The impediments to successful cooperation are: Clash of ego of individuals. Lack of leadership and motivation. Conflicts of interests, based on region, religion, language, and caste. Ignorance and lack of interest.
It means one should have the conviction without an iota of doubt that one will succeed. Holding sustained interest and firmness, in whatever ethical means one follows, with the fervent attitude and hope that one will achieve the goals, is commitment. It is the driving force to realize success.
This is a basic requirement for any profession. For example, a design engineer shall exhibit a sense of commitment, to make his product or project designed a beneficial contribution to the society.
The commitment of top management will naturally lead to committed employees, whatever may be their position or emoluments. Sensing what others feel about, without their open talk, is the essence of empathy. This is an essential ingredient for good human relations and transactions.
Understanding others: It means sensing others feelings and perspectives, and taking active interest in their welfare. Service orientation: It is anticipation, recognition and meeting the needs of the clients or customers. Developing others: This means identification of their needs and bolstering their abilities.
Leveraging diversity opportunities through diverse people: This leads to enhanced organizational learning, flexibility, and profitability. Political awareness: It is the ability to read political and social currents in an organization. The benefits of empathy include: Good customer relations in sales and service, in partnering. Harmonious labor relations in manufacturing. Good vendor-producer relationship in partnering. Through the above three, we can maximize the output and profit, as well as minimizing the loss.
According to Peter Drucker, purpose of the business is not to make a sale, but to make and keep a customer.
Empathy assists one in developing courage leading to success! These people are usually positive thinking, flexible and willing to change. They respect others so much as they respect themselves.
Self-confidence is positive attitude, wherein the individual has some positive and realistic view of himself, with respect to the situations in which one gets involved. The people with self-confidence exhibit courage to get into action and unshakable faith in their abilities, whatever may be their positions. They are not influenced by threats or challenges and are prepared to face them and the natural or unexpected consequences.
The self-confidence in a person develops a sense of partnership, respect, and accountability, and this helps the organization to obtain maximum ideas, efforts, and guidelines from its employees. The people with self-confidence have the following characteristics: A self-assured standing, 2.
Willing to listen to learn from others and adopt flexibility , 3. Frank to speak the truth, and 4. The factors that shape self-confidence in a person are: Heredity attitudes of parents and family environment elders , 2. Training in the organization e.
The following methodologies are effective in developing self-confidence in a person: Encouraging SWOT analysis.
By evaluating their strength and weakness, they can anticipate and be prepared to face the results. Training to evaluate risks and face them self-acceptance. It is conditioning the mind for preparing the self to act, without any doubt on his capabilities. This make one accepts himself while still striving for improvement. Study and group discussion, on the history of leaders and innovators e.
This situation demands inculcation of good character in the workplace by employees. It is the pattern of virtues morally-desirable features. It is also the ground on which morals and values blossom. People are divided into several categories, according to common tendencies such as ruthless, aggressiveness, and ambition, constricting selfishness, stinginess, or cheerfulness, generosity and goodwill.
Individuals vary not only in the type of their character but also in the degree. Those whose lives are determined and directed by the prevailing habits, fashions, beliefs, attitudes, opinions and values of the society in which they live have at best a developed social as opposed to an individual character. The character is exhibited through conduct. Character is determined by the expectations of society.
Many act and live within its norms, refusing to fall below the required social minimum, failing to rise above the maximum expected of a normal member of the group. On one extreme are those that do not even conform to the minimum standards, and fail to acquire the socially-required behaviors, attitudes and values.
These individuals have an unformed social character. At the other extreme are those whose beliefs, attitudes and values are determined internally by the strength of their own convictions. These are individuals with developed minds and formed characters of their own. Individuals do not live or act in a vacuum. They exist and act in a human social environment of other people that constantly act on them and react to their actions.
They also live in a natural environment of physical objects and material forces such as the winds and rains. And those with occult and spiritual Human Values 17 traditions recognize that there is also a subtle environment of other planes of existence, both higher planes of spiritual influence and lower planes of negative forces in universal nature seeking to act on the lives.
All of the social, material and the occult planes constitute the field of human activity. Each of them functions according to its own laws or principles. Each of them has its own characteristic modes of action and influence on human life. In this sense every human has a character. At the same time only human beings, not animals have character: In this connotation, character implies certain unity of qualities with a recognizable degree of constancy in mode of action.
Psychology analyzes the elements of character to trace the laws of its growth, to distinguish the chief agencies which contribute to the formation of different types of character, and to classify them. Many psychologists world over, during the last 40 years have given a large quantity of acute observations on the topic of character.
Still these contributions do not constitute a science. From the times of Hippocrates, they distinguished four main types of temperaments: The modern speculation accepts the same classification, but under other names. These different types of temperaments are accounted for differences in physiological conditions of the tissues of the body, by diverse rates of activities in the processes of nutrition and waste, in the changes of nerve-energy, or in circulation, and by differences of tonicity in the nerves.
Irrespective of the physiological explanation, the four-fold classification seems to be fair. Moreover, though scientists are still far from agreeing upon the precise elements in the organism on which temperament depends, the fact that different forms of temperaments have an organic basis such as hormones seems certain. Although our original temperament is given to us independently of our will by heredity, we play an important part in moulding our character, and we thus become responsible for certain ethical qualities in it.
It is, in fact, a resultant of our acquired habits with our original disposition. The regular use of the intellect, the controlled activity of the imagination, the practice of judgment and reflection, all contribute to the formation and refinement of habits of mind.
But finally, the exercise of the will plays the predominant role in moulding the type of character. The manner and degree in which currents of thought and waves of emotion are initiated, guided, and controlled by the will, or allowed to follow the course of spontaneous impulse, has more effect in determining the resultant type of character than the quality of the thoughts or emotions themselves. The life of the animal is entirely ruled by instinct from within, and by accidental circumstances from without.
It is therefore incapable of acquiring a character. A human, through reasoning and the growth of reflection, by the exercise of choice against the impulse, gradually develops self-control; and it is by the exercise of this power that moral character is formed and reformed. Character is in fact The intellectual, the emotional, and the volitional or energetic are the chief types with A.
The problem of the true moral ideal is a question of the relative value of different types of character. Different systems of ethics emphasize different virtues in constituting the ideal moral character.
With the utilitarian, who places the ethical end in the maximum happiness for the whole community, benevolence will form the primary element in the ideal character. For the stoic, fortitude and self-control are the chief excellences. In all conceptions of ideal character, firmness of will, fortitude, constancy in adhering to principle or in pursuit of a noble aim are held important.
A man of character is frequently equivalent to being capable of adhering to a fixed purpose. Another essential is the virtue of justice, the recognition of the rights, duties, and claims of others. The richer the culture of the mind, the larger the intellectual horizon, the broader the sympathies, the more will the character approximate to the ideal of human perfection. Increased intelligence or physical skill may as easily be employed to the detriment or benefit of the community, if not accompanied by improved will.
It is the function of ethics to determine the ideals of human character. The theory and science of education are to study the processes by which that end may be attained. Employee Hiring, Training, and Promotion Activities a Institute and adopt an organization policy statement to positive character in the workplace. For example, commitment to civility pledges. This may be communicated through printing on the back of the business cards of the employees. Human Values 19 b Prominently and explicitly include character considerations in recruiting procedures, during interviews and in the hiring deliberations.
The six pillars of character are the ethical values, such as: Respect means showing high regard for self, others, authority, property and country. It includes showing appreciation for cultural diversity by valuing all people as human beings.
Integrity or fairness means showing the inner strength and courage to be truthful, trustworthy, fair and honest in all things. It includes acting justly and honorably.
Caring means being kind, considerate, courteous, helpful, friendly and generous to others, and being compassionate by treating others as you would like to be treated.
Citizenship means accepting and adopting civic rights and duties as a citizen of the country. Internal Communication Use internal communication channels to create a friendly environment that praises positive role modeling at the workplace and in the community by encouraging voluntarism, and mentoring, e.
Offer incentives such as paying employees for the time they contribute at a local youth-service organization. Community Outreach a Use public outreach structures to encourage mentoring and other character-building programs. This is said to be the great virtue of Indian philosophy and for Indians.
Spirituality includes creativity, communication, recognition of the individual as human being as opposed to a life-less machine , respect to others, acceptance stop finding faults with colleagues and accept them the way they are , vision looking beyond the obvious and not believing anyone blindly , and partnership not being too authoritative, and always sharing responsibility with others, for better returns.
Spirituality is motivation as it encourages the colleagues to perform better. Remember, lack of motivation leads to isolation. Spirituality is also energy: Be energetic and flexible to adapt to challenging and changing situations. Spirituality is flexibility as well. One should not be too dominating. Make space for everyone and learn to recognize and accept people the way they are. Variety is the order of the day. But one can influence their mind to think and act together.
Spirituality is also fun. Working is okay, but you also need to have fun in office to keep yourself charged up. Tolerance and empathy are the reflections of spirituality. Blue and saffron colors are said to be associated with spirituality. Creativity in spirituality means conscious efforts to see things differently, to break out of habits and outdated beliefs to find new ways of thinking, doing and being. Suppression of creativity leads to violence. People are naturally creative.
When they are forced to crush their creativity, its energy turns to destructive release and actions. Creativity includes the use of color, humor and freedom to enhance productivity. Creativity is fun. When people enjoy what they do, it is involvement. They work much harder. Spirituality is promoted in the workplace by adhering to the following activities: Verbally respect the individuals as humans and recognize their values in all decisions and actions. Human Values 21 2.
Get to know the people with whom you work and know what is important to them. Know their goals, desires, and dreams too. State your personal ethics and your beliefs clearly. Support causes outside the business. Encourage leaders to use value-based discretion in making decisions. Demonstrate your own self-knowledge and spirituality in all your actions. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
Self-awareness — Realization of self-potential. A human has immense capability but it needs to be developed. Alertness in observation and quickness in decision making, i. Being visionary and value based — This includes an attitude towards future of the organization and the society, with clear objectives. Holism — Whole system or comprehensive views and interconnected with different aspects. Holistic thinking, which means the welfare of the self, family, organization and the society including all other living beings and environment.
Compassion — Sympathy, empathy and concern for others. These are essential for not only building the team but also for its effective functioning.
Respect for diversity — It means search for unity in diversity i. Moral Autonomy — It means action based on rational and moral judgment. One need not follow the crowd or majority i. Creative thinking and constant reasoning — Think if we can do something new and if we can improve further? Ability to analyze and synthesize — Refrain from doing something only traditional. Every threat is converted into opportunity. Humility — The attitude to accept criticism it requires courage! It includes modesty and acknowledging the work of colleagues.
Sense of vocation — Treat the duty as a service to society, besides your organization. Engineering EthicsChapter — 2 2. It deals with set of moral problems and issues connected with engineering. Engineering ethics is defined by the codes and standards of conduct endorsed by engineering professional societies with respect to the particular set of beliefs, attitudes and habits displayed by the individual or group.
Another important goal of engineering ethics is the discovery of the set of justified moral principles of obligation, rights and ideals that ought to be endorsed by the engineers and apply them to concrete situations. Engineering is the largest profession and the decisions and actions of engineers affect all of us in almost all areas of our lives, namely public safety, health, and welfare.
Ethics of the workplace which involves the co-workers and employees in an organization. Ethics related to the product or work which involves the transportation, warehousing, and use, besides the safety of the end product and the environment outside the factory. Micro-ethics which deals with decisions and problems of individuals, professionals, and companies. For example, global issues, collective responsibilities of groups such as professional societies and consumer groups.
Engineering Ethics 23 2. The normative sense include: The descriptive sense refers to what specific individual or group of engineers believe and act, without justifying their beliefs or actions. The reasons for people including the employer and employees, behaving unethically may be classified into three categories: Resource Crunch Due to pressure, through time limits, availability of money or budgetary constraints, and technology decay or obsolescence.
Pressure from the government to complete the project in time e.
Involving individuals in the development of goals and values and developing policies that allow for individual diversity, dissent, and input to decision-making will prevent unethical results. Opportunity a Double standards or behavior of the employers towards the employees and the public.
The unethical behaviors of World Com in USA , Enron in USA as well as India executives in resulted in bankruptcy for those companies, b Management projecting their own interests more than that of their employees. Some organizations over-emphasize short-term gains and results at the expense of themselves and others, c Emphasis on results and gains at the expense of the employees, and d Management by objectives, without focus on empowerment and improvement of the infrastructure.
Attitude Poor attitude of the employees set in due to a Low morale of the employees because of dissatisfaction and downsizing, Giving ethics training for all, recognizing ethical conduct in work place, including ethics in performance appraisal, and encouraging open discussion on ethical issues, are some of the directions to promote positive attitudes among the employees9.
To get firm and positive effect, ethical standards must be set and adopted by the senior management, with input from all personnel. The three types of inquiries are discussed below to illustrate the differences and preference.
Normative Inquiry It seeks to identify and justify the morally-desirable norms or standards that should guide individuals and groups. It also has the theoretical goal of justifying particular moral judgments.
Normative questions are about what ought to be and what is good, based on moral values. For example, 1. How far does the obligation of engineers to protect public safety extend in any given situation? When, if ever, should engineers be expected to blow whistle on dangerous practices of their employers? Whose values ought to be primary in making judgment about acceptable risks in design for a public transport system or a nuclear plant?
Is it of management, senior engineers, government, voters or all of them? When and why is the government justified in interfering with the organisations? What are the reasons on which the engineers show their obligations to their employees or clients or the public? Conceptual Inquiry It is directed to clarify the meaning of concepts or ideas or principles that are expressed by words or by questions and statements.
For example, a What is meant by safety? When moral concepts are discussed, normative and conceptual issues are closely interconnected.
Engineering Ethics 25 3. Factual or Descriptive Inquiry It is aimed to obtain facts needed for understanding and resolving value issues. Researchers conduct factual inquiries using mathematical or statistical techniques. The inquiry provide important information on business realities, engineering practice, and the effectiveness of professional societies in fostering moral conduct, the procedures used in risk assessment, and psychological profiles of engineers.