Kent State University at Stark. Ten Principles of. Servant. Leadership. Page 2. The ideas behind servant leadership are ancient, but Robert K. Greenleaf is the. The Essentials of Servant Leadership: Principles in Practice by Ann McGee- Cooper, Ed. D., Duane Trammell, tvnovellas.info (revised, by Matthew Kosec, M.A.). in a Microsoft Word, Adobe PDF, or similar word processor based format. Servant Leadership, Followership, and Organizational Citizenship.
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PDF | Purpose of this research paper is to understand the deeper nuances & benefits of servant -leadership style vis-à-vis other leadership styles & its. PDF | Definition The servant leader is the actor that accomplishes the mission of organisation in consonance with a sustainable vision and who helps people to. Ten Principles of Servant Leadership. By Robert Greenleaf. 1. Listening - Traditionally, leaders have been valued for their communication and.
There is a clear trend towards emphasizing positive aspects of organizational behaviour: transparency, corporate responsibility, spirituality and management, servant leadership. Popular press accounts show that CEOs with servant leadership qualities are able to lead their corporations to prosperity through practising high levels of corporate and individual morality and empowering employees. Yet evidence of the servant leader phenomenon is still largely anecdotal. After examining the general literature on ethical leadership in organizations, we focused on ethical and other components of corporate servant leadership, based on our detailed empirical study of servant leaders in Australian organizations. The model of servant leadership is derived from styles of leadership practised historically by notable leaders and is used here to evaluate the empirical evidence on corporate servant leaders in Australia. We then compare this body of data with anecdotal writings about servant leadership largely derived from U. Ethical behaviour by business leaders is crucial for the long-term welfare of the community.
A Message for College and University. External forces and factors can either lift your spirits or give a knock on the head. It all depends on how well the colleges prepare its students for the challenges that are lurking ahead. Your position grants you the right to seek a better status in the business world. Invest in broadening your perspective; in such situation, everything around you will become more meaningful and life-altering.
Much of what has been said about leadership is tightly related to the influence a person has over its subordinates. Heading a department or a company gives you the right to pursue authority and provide excellent care for your employees or associates.
Attending seminars is vital for becoming a real indispensable leader, who is prepared to serve as well. Organizations organizing these gatherings must teach its participants about the value of servant-leadership.
Writer E. The ability to stand for broadness and the use of language in which you share your ideas. Push yourself to the limits and grow as individuals. Like this summary? For those of you who want to learn something new daily, 12min App takes you on a personal development journey with the key takeaways from the greatest bestsellers.
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Seven of the 18 participants perceived leadership as first service. One among them was Dr. Joshua Okumbe, who perceived service as the main function of leadership.
Five of the 18 participants expressed that leadership is futile and meaningless if service is not there. The following excerpt from Godwin Mzenge, executive director of Family Planning Association of Kenya emphasizes the fact that leadership and service cannot be divorced from one another: Servant Leadership Research Roundtable — August 11 In the absence of service or poor quality service, then leadership has no meaning.
In our case, for example, if it transpires that the services we are offering in our clinics and the field offices are not meeting the expectations of the communities out there that have a reflection directly to the leadership of the organization.
If we are able to anticipate properly, correctly the needs of the community members, the poor people out there and satisfy that need through offering our services that has a reflection on leadership. For instance, Kangethe Wagathigi, director of Biselex Kenya Limited asserted that modeling keeps a leader from accumulating extra work because his or her employees look at him or her as a role model and emulate his or her behavior.
Four of the 18 participants indicated that they identify service with certain fundamental leadership principles. These include integrity and excellence, which are described as the utmost qualities of a leader.
Saruni Sena, director of Compassion International mentioned these principles while discussing service and leadership. Hence, leadership and service cannot be divorced from one another. In other words, leaders are simply out to serve others their constituents or followers selflessly by giving their time and even resources. Recognizing and Rewarding Employees The participants said that recognizing and rewarding employees for their contributions takes center stage in their organizations.
These include putting measures and systems in place to affirm them, using verbal and written messages when addressing them, hosting parties and get-togethers for them, and promotion of divergent views as part of a learning process.
A total of 16 out of the 25 participants interviewed offered the necessary buttress to recognizing and rewarding employees. Four of the 16 participants said that they already have some measures and systems in place to affirm the employees in their organizations.
These measures and systems provide a way of granting awards and promotions to the outstanding workers while putting pressure on the perfidious employees. For example, Ole Ndere, finance director of Ewuaso Ngiro South Development Authority expressed that performance appraisal is used as a means of praising and promoting employees. For instance, Dr. Isaac Bekalu, director of International Rural for Reconstruction, believes that people get even more energized when they are appreciated in public, something not many leaders do.
I also try to appreciate people, praising them in front of others, acknowledging that this was done by so and so; I think it was an excellent job. Occasionally, I send them a note to appreciate that they have done a good job.
One of them was Dr. Saruni Sena, who said that employees are rewarded and recognized through various celebrations. Also, every now and then we come together for parties just to say thank you to the employees.
Our leaders truly appreciate the employees and the employees reciprocate by giving excellent topnotch service.
Application of the Construct of Service in the Context of Kenyan Leaders and Managers - Koshal Four of the 16 participants stated that they promote divergent views from their employees in order to encourage and motivate them. An example is Mohez Kamarli, director of Concorde Car Hire, who expressed that divergent views are not necessarily negative. Thus, participants do a variety of things as part of recognizing and encouraging their employees. This encourages and motivates them a great deal.
Treating Employees with Respect Humility According to the participants, leaders who adopt humility exercise great respect for others. As practitioners of this virtue, the participants expressed seeing and regarding everybody as equal and important, taking the time to listen to others open door policy , and handling corrections and criticisms in a manner that does not destroy the individual but that builds up the individual.
A total of 17 out of the 25 participants interviewed gave splendid and detailed support to treating others with respect as a sign of humility. Twelve of the 17 leaders and managers showed renditions of valuing all and seeing them as equal and important. Isaac Bekalu who said that people should be regarded equally even though they play different roles and functions.
I would like to see everybody as a person who is created equally. To me, it does not matter if it is my deputy or a janitor; they have got the same value, they are human beings and I try to treat them equally.
They do different jobs, they have different roles, but they have a human value that is equal. Phillip Kitui, dean of the faculty of arts at Daystar University put emphasis on the importance of humility. Nine of the 17 participants stated that they take the open door policy as a very cardinal element of leadership. They stressed that they leave their doors wide opened so that their employees and customers can access them without much difficulty.
For instance, Kangethe Wagathigi indicated that they operate more or less in an open system. Waruingi also observed that great ideas have come from his employees as a result of him listening to them. The participants, however, observed that humility is a bit of a challenge to those who work for the government, where orders and directives must be followed to the letter.
According to Joseph Nkadayo, working for the government calls for endurance and great sacrifice. We are a hard industry, whereby when orders are given they must be followed to the latter. You see government operate by orders and directives, some of which do not necessarily require humility. But I always endeavor to communicate and I always try to put a human face and touch.
He stated that humility is important but government traditions encumber it. He further explained: And what I have been trying to do where I work is that I try to make them feel comfortable and I discourage them from referring to me as sir when they are addressing me. We are on first name basis. Waruinge said that he never allows for his employees to be reprimanded publicly. Because I treat them and I listen to them and I have time for them and nobody is allowed, even my supervisors to reprimand anybody in public.
I tell them to take them aside and tell them slowly, quietly what they have done wrong. They said that they consult with their staff in form of departmental meetings, offer them training on teamwork, accept and respect their views and opinions, and generally view consensual decisions as having a motivating impact.
A total of 22 out of the 25 participants interviewed offered a paragon of support to involving others in decision making. Eleven of the 22 participants said they consult with their deputies and other staff members before taking most of their decisions. An example is Joseph Mpaa who stressed on seeking individual views and then matching them together in order to get the best solution to any problem. Similarly, Joseph Nkadayo said they usually build consensus before taking collective decisions on many issues.
One of the most common ways of building consensus in our organization is to meet as heads of branches to discuss various problems affecting the organization. This way we are able to take collective decisions on issues dealing with description, service and ability to meet goals, and generally to plan and assess completed projects. They argued that unlike in the past, where leadership was more or less by intimidation, employees are now receiving training on team spirit.
For instance, Ole Pere, head of supervisory division at the Central Bank of Kenya, indicated that his organization is inculcating the culture of teamwork in its employees. Five of the 22 participants proffered that they always take into account the opinions of others whenever they make decisions.
The following excerpt from Dr. James Kombo, dean of faculty of post-graduate studies at Daystar University shows the pinnacle of this idea: In meetings, the procedures are: They said that when decisions are reached by consensus, people get highly motivated and they will make sure that the decisions or solutions reached are fully implemented.
An example is Dr. Joshua Okumbe who stated: What we are noticing is that through consensus-building, through participation and through a review of different view points, then we are likely to build the consensus and the most important thing about consensus-building is that it has a motivating impact when everybody feels they participated in the decisions then they download in the momentum with which they will implement it and see to it that it is not the portion of the greater.
A brief discussion on the following themes is presented: Role Modeling The participants in this study stated that one of their major ways of demonstrating and practicing service is by modeling their behavior and actions.
They said that role modeling signals to their followers what is important and expected of them. The Kenyan harambee philosophy became a success because the leaders modeled and lived it. It is the leaders, along with the help of their communities who spearheaded harambee as an undertaking for collective good Bailey, Sacrificing for Others The participants in this study expressed strong feelings about sacrificing for the sake of others.
Their view of sacrificing is embedded in the way they give their time, their resources, and even themselves for the work of others. Those participants working for the government especially indicated that circumstances e. The idea of sacrificing for others borders on the Kenyan harambee philosophy, which is guided by the principle of collective good rather than individual gain.
The harambee philosophy for the most part embodies mutual assistance, joint effort, mutual social responsibility, and community reliance. In other words, the end product benefits the public as opposed to an individual Chieni, According to Hill , it is such African traditions of community cooperation and mutual aid that spiral the harambee philosophy.
Meeting the Needs of Others Employees and Developing Them Like the proponents of the harambee philosophy, the participants indicated a willingness to invest their own time, energies, and personal resources for the benefit of the employees. The participants also indicated training as a way of guiding their followers in order to identify and develop their personal as well as professional goals. According to Mibigi and Maree , some of the prevalent African values e. Service as a Primary Function of Leadership The participants indicated service as a fundamental goal in their careers.
As a matter of fact, they did not find a dichotomy between leadership and service. They expressed that leadership is all about providing a service. In other words, a leader is simply out there to serve and be selfless. Such exuberance and enthusiasm about service is not a strange viewpoint, given that some of the prevalent African values e. The harambee philosophy calls on Kenyan leaders to serve their constituents by being a part of the self-help projects that are aimed at promoting the common good of everyone Chieni, Recognizing and Rewarding Employees According to the participants in this study, recognizing and rewarding employees, takes center stage.
The participants have put certain measures and systems in place e. They use both verbal and written messages to appreciate and recognize excellent performance. Divergent views are also promoted as part of encouraging and motivating them. Since individual achievements are much less valued than are interpersonal relations in African traditions Dia, , not much emphasis is given in terms of recognition or rewarding for those who do well.
It is rather taken as an obligation that has to be fulfilled. Thus, even those who take part in harambee efforts are seen as fulfilling what society requires and expects of them and not anything special or extraordinary. This is not to say that recognizing and rewarding those who do well is unheard of in African values and traditions, it is just that it is not overemphasized. It is more implicit than explicit. Treating Employees with Respect Humility According to the participants in this study, every employee has a right, a voice, and the same human value even though each performs different functions and responsibilities.
They indicated that they adopt an open door policy so that their employees and customers can access them without much difficulty. Corrections and criticisms are also handled in a manner that builds the individual up instead of destroying them. It is, however, important to note that leaders in government acknowledged that strict adherence to orders and the public service tradition of elevating the boss above everybody else hamper humility. They indicated that the government still operates by orders and directives, some of which do not necessarily require humility.
This is not a strange occurrence since government officials still tend to adopt the colonial mentality of controlling employees and intimidating them instead of being humble. Since the harambee philosophy is a product of government legislation, we should see more government officials embrace humility in their dealings with others. Involving Others in Decision Making Like the harambee philosophy, which calls for leaders and their people to pull their resources together in order to build and strengthen themselves and their nation at large Chieni, ; Wilson, , the participants in this study strongly believed in consensus building in nearly all their decisions.
They indicated that they usually get in collective talks as heads of departments before making any key decisions. The participants stated that organizations are now inculcating a culture of teamwork and team spirit, and many of their people are receiving training in such areas. According to Ayittey , plurality decisions extrapolate a crucial pattern of traditional African leadership, which inexorably puts the community interest service ahead of its own.
For instance, the chief did not rule but rather served and led by consensus. Mersha also noted that a study based on Kenyan industries showed that both workers and managers preferred a modern democratic style of leadership to build consensus and trust. However, it raises several issues that need to be explored in future research: While being interviewed on the construct of service, most of the leaders and managers indicated that the researcher should also talk to their subordinates on the same issues in order to ascertain and solidify their discussions.
This study found that humility caused government leaders some challenges. So because government leaders struggled with humility, future studies should ascertain the candid reason for this.
This study focused on 25 leaders and managers from government, business, NGOs, and academic institutions, meaning that generalization is limited to the few that were interviewed.
In order to evince more implications of the construct of service, future studies should enlarge the sample size. The study focused mostly on the top stratum of the organizations. Therefore, it is recommended that future studies should target even those who hold non-management positions to see if they will offer a different perspective.
The literature supporting the harambee philosophy emanates from the broader literature on traditional African leadership and communalism. Therefore, future studies should target the existing traditional chiefs and kings to see if their view will be different. In other words, to see if Kenyan leaders and managers of varied organizational settings understand and apply the construct of service. These characteristics help leaders to serve their employees.
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