Types of Chip Cards. CPU/MPU Microprocessor Multifunction Cards. pdf. Identifiers and authentication – Smart Credential Choices To Protect Digital. Smart card is an equipment that comprise of an embedded integrated circuit With an embedded microcontroller, smart card have the idiomatic capability to. A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC) is a physical electronic authorization "Known Attacks Against Smartcards" (PDF). Discretix Technologies.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||17.60 MB|
|PDF File Size:||18.18 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
PDF | The article focuses on the evolution of smart cards. Just about anything found in a person's wallet has the potential to be stored on a smart card, including. and Technology iwi. NIST Special Publication Smart Card Technology: New Methods for Computer. Access Control. Martha E. Haykin and Robert B. J. Smart Card. Handbook. Third Edition. Wolfgang Rankl and Wolfgang Effing. Giesecke & Devrient GmbH, Munich, Germany. Translated by. Kenneth Cox.
SafeSign Identity Client Flexible middleware for strong authentication with smart cards and USB tokens on any device This competent all-rounder in terms of strong authentication, integration and compatibility gives you complete freedom and flexibility. SafeSign IC offers the most comprehensive support available on the market for card operating systems, smart cards, USB tokens, languages and functions. This means you have sustainable and permanent freedom of choice when it comes to manufacturer independence. Authentication based on smart cards or USB tokens provides the highest degree of security. Multiplatform SafeSign IC is available for both fixed and mobile devices like desktops, servers, laptops, tablets and smart phones. Card and token management The SafeSign IC administration utility provides the program administrator with the ability to manage USB tokens, smart cards and the credentials they contain. The administrator can set the card PIN, unblock the card, import and delete digital certificates, keys and set root certificates.
The adaptation of EMV's increased significantly in when the liability shifts occurred in October by the credit card companies. Development of contactless systems[ edit ] See also: Contactless payment Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact between a card and reader. They are becoming more popular for payment and ticketing.
Typical uses include mass transit and motorway tolls.
Visa and MasterCard implemented a version deployed in — in the U. This has reduced media cost so it can be used for low cost tickets and short term transport passes up to 1 year typically. They are distributed through vending machines, ticket offices and agents.
Smart cards are also being introduced for identification and entitlement by regional, national, and international organizations. Contactless smart cards are part of ICAO biometric passports to enhance security for international travel. Design[ edit ] A smart card may have the following generic characteristics: Dimensions similar to those of a credit card. Another popular size is ID, which is nominally 25 by 15 millimetres 0.
Both are 0.
Contains a tamper-resistant security system for example a secure cryptoprocessor and a secure file system and provides security services e. Managed by an administration system, which securely interchanges information and configuration settings with the card, controlling card blacklisting and application-data updates. Smart cards are typically made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride , but sometimes polyethylene-terephthalate -based polyesters , acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polycarbonate.
Since April , a Japanese company has manufactured reusable financial smart cards made from paper. Note the thin gold bonding wires and the regular, rectangular digital-memory areas.
Smart-card reader on a laptop A smart-card pinout. VCC: Power supply. RST: Reset signal, used to reset the card's communications. CLK: Provides the card with a clock signal , from which data communications timing is derived. GND: Ground reference voltage.
Contact smart cards have a contact area of approximately 1 square centimetre 0. These pads provide electrical connectivity when inserted into a reader ,  which is used as a communications medium between the smart card and a host e.
Cards do not contain batteries ; power is supplied by the card reader. There are, however, several methods for recovering some of the algorithm's internal state. Differential power analysis involves measuring the precise time and electric current required for certain encryption or decryption operations. This can deduce the on-chip private key used by public key algorithms such as RSA.
Some implementations of symmetric ciphers can be vulnerable to timing or power attacks as well. Smart cards can be physically disassembled by using acid, abrasives, solvents, or some other technique to obtain unrestricted access to the on-board microprocessor. Although such techniques may involve a risk of permanent damage to the chip, they permit much more detailed information e.
The benefits of smart cards are directly related to the volume of information and applications that are programmed for use on a card.
Multi-factor and proximity authentication can and has been embedded into smart cards to increase the security of all services on the card. For example, a smart card can be programmed to only allow a contactless transaction if it is also within range of another device like a uniquely paired mobile phone. This can significantly increase the security of the smart card. Governments and regional authorities save money because of improved security, better data and reduced processing costs.
These savings help reduce public budgets or enhance public services. Individuals have better security and more convenience with using smart cards that perform multiple services. For example, they only need to replace one card if their wallet is lost or stolen.
The data storage on a card can reduce duplication, and even provide emergency medical information. The first main advantage of smart cards is their flexibility. Smart cards have multiple functions which simultaneously can be an ID, a credit card, a stored-value cash card, and a repository of personal information such as telephone numbers or medical history.
The card can be easily replaced if lost, and, the requirement for a PIN or other form of security provides additional security from unauthorised access to information by others. At the first attempt to use it illegally, the card would be deactivated by the card reader itself.
The second main advantage is security. Smart cards can be electronic key rings, giving the bearer ability to access information and physical places without need for online connections. They are encryption devices, so that the user can encrypt and decrypt information without relying on unknown, and therefore potentially untrustworthy, appliances such as ATMs. Smart cards are very flexible in providing authentication at different level of the bearer and the counterpart.
Finally, with the information about the user that smart cards can provide to the other parties, they are useful devices for customizing products and services. Smart cards can be used in electronic commerce , over the Internet, though the business model used in current electronic commerce applications still cannot use the full potential of the electronic medium. An advantage of smart cards for electronic commerce is their use customize services.
For example, in order for the service supplier to deliver the customized service, the user may need to provide each supplier with their profile, a boring and time-consuming activity.
A smart card can contain a non-encrypted profile of the bearer, so that the user can get customized services even without previous contacts with the supplier. The plastic or paper card in which the chip is embedded is fairly flexible.
The larger the chip, the higher the probability that normal use could damage it. Cards are often carried in wallets or pockets, a harsh environment for a chip and antenna in contactless cards. However, for large banking systems, failure-management costs can be more than offset by fraud reduction. The production, use and disposal of PVC plastic is known to be more harmful to the environment than other plastics. If the account holder's computer hosts malware , the smart card security model may be broken.
Malware can override the communication both input via keyboard and output via application screen between the user and the application. Man-in-the-browser malware e. Banks like Fortis and Belfius in Belgium and Rabobank " random reader " in the Netherlands combine a smart card with an unconnected card reader to avoid this problem.
The customer enters a challenge received from the bank's website, a PIN and the transaction amount into the reader. The reader returns an 8-digit signature. This signature is manually entered into the personal computer and verified by the bank, preventing point-of-sale-malware from changing the transaction amount.
Smart cards have also been the targets of security attacks.
These attacks range from physical invasion of the card's electronics, to non-invasive attacks that exploit weaknesses in the card's software or hardware. The usual goal is to expose private encryption keys and then read and manipulate secure data such as funds. Once an attacker develops a non-invasive attack for a particular smart card model, he or she is typically able to perform the attack on other cards of that model in seconds, often using equipment that can be disguised as a normal smart card reader.
Tamper-evident and audit features in a smart card system help manage the risks of compromised cards. Another problem is the lack of standards for functionality and security. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents.
Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. June Further information: See also: Contactless payment. Main article: Contactless smart card. Main articles: Contactless smart card and Credit card. List of smart cards. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Retrieved Cambridge University Press. Computerworld honors. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 29 July The Rakyat Post.
Toppan Printing Company. Archived from the original on Identification cards — Integrated circuit cards — Part 2: Cards with contacts — Dimensions and location of the contacts.
Secure Technology Alliance. Retrieved 7 August A las pruebas me remito in Spanish. The electronic DNI has died: January 3, Retrieved March 20, Retrieved August 6, Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 24 April The Age.
A systematic literature review". Journal of Biomedical Informatics. Elsevier BV. Recent years have witnessed the design of standards and the promulgation of directives concerning security and privacy in EHR systems. However, more work should be done to adopt these regulations and to deploy secure EHR systems. The smart card gives more protection than the other kind of data storing devices and smart card furnishes better solutions and increases the protecting feature of the system.
The smart card is the modern innovation to the world of information applied science, the memory cards are just capable of saving the information and plays the role of a tiny floppy disk but the microprocessor has the additional features like adding the data, deleting the data and manipulating the data in the memory that is present in the card.
History of the Smart Card: In the year of , two Germans namely Jurgen Dethloff and Helmet Grotrupp made the plastic to be the carrier of microchips. In the year of , Dr. Kunitaka Arimura from Japan filed the foremost and exclusive patent on the concept of a smart card. In the year of , Roland Moreno filed the genuine patent on the smart card.
In the year of , Motorola advanced the foremost chip microcontroller for the purpose of French banking.