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Internet Technology. Data Warehousing. Geographical Information Systems. IPR and Cyber Laws. Software Project Management. This type of transmission requires minimum delay strategies and reservation of resources not provided in the IPv4 design. The Internet must accommodate encryption and authentication of data for some applications.
No encryption or authentication is provided by IPv4. Larger address space — An IPv6 address is bits long,Compared with the bit address of IPv4, this is a huge increase in the address space. Better header format — IPv6 uses a new header format in which options are separated from the base header and inserted, when needed, between the base header and the upper- layer data.
This simplifies and speeds up the routing process because most of the options do not need to be checked by routers. New options — IPv6 has new options to allow for additional functionalities. Allowance for extension — IPv6 is designed to allow the extension of the protocol if required by new technologies or applications.
Support for resource allocation — In IPv6, the type-of-service field has been removed, but a mechanism called Flow label has been added to enable the source to request special handling of the packet.
This mechanism can be used to support traffic such as real-time audio and video. Support for more security — The encryption and authentication options in IPv6 provide confidentiality and integrity of the packet. The base header occupies 40 bytes, whereas the extension headers and data from the upper layer contain up to 65, bytes of information.
Base Header — Figure — shows the base header with its eight fields.
These fields are as follows: Version — This 4-bit field defines the version number of the IP. For IPv6, the value is 6. Priority — The 4-bit priority field defines the priority of the packet with respect to traffic congestion. Flow label — The flow label is a 3-byte bit field that is designed to provide special handling for a particular flow of data. Payload length — The 2-byte payload length field defines the length of the IP datagram excluding the base header.
Next header — The next header is an 8-bit field defining the header that follows the base header in the datagram. Each extension header also contains this field. Table — shows the values of next headers. Note that this field in version 4 is called the protocol. Source address — The source address field is a byte bit Internet address that identifies the original source of the datagram.
Destination address — The destination address field is a byte bit Internet address that usually identifies the final destination of the datagram. A packet starting from a source host may pass through several different physical networks before finally reaching the destination host. However, packets pass through physical networks to reach these hosts and routers. At the physical level, the hosts and routers are recognized by their physical addresses.
It must be unique locally, but is not necessarily unique universally. It is called a physical address because it is usually but not always implemented in hardware. We need both because a physical network such as Ethernet can have two different protocols at the network layer such as IP and IPX Novell at the same time.
Static Mapping Static mapping means creating a table that associates a logical address with a physical address. This table is stored in each machine on the network. Each machine that knows, for example, the IP address of another machine but not its physical address can look it up in the table. This has some limitations because physical addresses may change in the following ways: A machine could change its NIC, resulting in a new physical address. A mobile computer can move from one physical network to another, resulting in a change in its physical address.
To implement these changes, a static mapping table must be updated periodically. This overhead could affect network performance. Dynamic Mapping In dynamic mapping, each time a machine knows the logical address of another machine, it can use a protocol to find the physical address.
Two protocols have been designed to perform dynamic mapping: Mapping Logical to Physical Address: But the IP datagram must be encapsulated in a frame to be able to pass through the physical network.
The host or the router sends an ARP query packet. The packet includes the physical and IP addresses of the sender and the IP address of the receiver. The packet is unicast directly to the inquirer by using the physical address received in the query packet. System A needs to pass the packet to its data link layer for the actual delivery, but it does not know the physical address of the recipient.
This packet is received by every system on the physical network, but only system B will answer it, as shown in Figure — b. Now system A can send all the packets it has for this destination by using the physical address it received.
The fields are as follows: Hardware type. This is a bit field defining the type of the network on which ARP is running. Each LAN has been assigned an integer based on its type. For example, Ethernet is given type 1.
ARP can be used on any physical network. Protocol type. This is a bit field defining the protocol. For example, the value of this field for the IPv4 protocol is , ARP can be used with any higher-level protocol. Hardware length. This is an 8-bit field defining the length of the physical address in bytes. For example, for Ethernet the value is 6. Protocol length. This is an 8-bit field defining the length of the logical address in bytes.
For example, for the IPv4 protocol the value is 4.
This is a bit field defining the type of packet. Two packet types are defined: Sender hardware address. This is a variable-length field defining the physical address of the sender.
For example, for Ethernet this field is 6 bytes long. Sender protocol address. This is a variable-length field defining the logical for example, IP address of the sender. For the IP protocol, this field is 4 bytes long. Target hardware address. This is a variable-length field defining the physical address of the target. For an ARP request Target protocol address. This is a variable-length field defining the logical for example, IP address of the target. For the IPv4 protocol, this field is 4 bytes long.
The sender knows the IP address of the target.
The target physical address field is filled with 0s. The message is passed to the data link layer where it is encapsulated in a frame by using the physical address of the sender as the source address and the physical broadcast address as the destination address.
Every host or router receives the frame. Because the frame contains a broadcast destination address, all stations remove the message and pass it to ARP. All machines except the one targeted drop the packet. The target machine recognizes its IP address. The target machine replies with an ARP reply message that contains its physical address. The message is unicast.
The sender receives the reply message. It now knows the physical address of the target machine. The IP datagram, which carries data for the target machine, is now encapsulated in a frame and is unicast to the destination. The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to another host on the same network. In this case, the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address is the destination IP address in the datagram header.
Case 2: The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to another host on another network. In this case, the host looks at its routing table and finds the IP address of the next hop router for this destination. If it does not have a routing table, it looks for the IP address of the default router.
The IP address of the router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address. The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host on another network. It checks its routing table and finds the IP address of the next router. The IP address of the next router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address.
Case 4: The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host in the same network. The destination IP address of the datagram becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address. Let us give an example.
One solution is to add a router running a proxy ARP. When it receives an ARP request with a target IP address that matches the address of one of its proteges An ATM network is not a broadcast network; another solution is needed to handle the task. Its value is for an ATM network. For IPv4 protocol the value is For an ATM network the value is Note that if the binding is done across an ATM network and two levels of hardware addressing are necessary, the neighboring 8-bit reserved field is used to define the length of the second address.
The bit OPER field defines the type of the packet. For IPv4 the value is 4 bytes. The variable-length SHA field defines the physical address of the sender. The variable-length SPA field defines the address of the sender. For IPv4 the length is 4 bytes.
The variable-length THA field defines the physical address of the receiver. This field is left empty for request messages and filled in for reply and NACK messages.
The variable-length TPA field defines the address of the receiver. We can say that this ARP package involves five components: If the ARP package finds this address, it delivers the IP packet and the physical address to the data link layer for transmission. This address can be used for the datagrams destined for the same receiver within the next few minutes. However, as space in the cache table is very limited, mappings in the cache are not retained for an unlimited time.
The cache table is implemented as an array of entries. In our package, each entry contains the following fields: This column shows the state of the entry. It can have one of three values: The FREE state means that the time-to-live for this entry has expired. The space can be used for a new entry. The entry now has the physical hardware address of the destination. The packets waiting to be sent to this destination can use the information in this entry.
This column is the same as the corresponding field in the ARP packet. A router or a multihomed host can be connected to different networks, each with a different interface number. Each network can have different hardware and protocol types. ARP uses numbered queues to enqueue the packets waiting for address resolution. Packets for the same destination are usually enqueued in the same queue. This column shows the number of times an ARP request is sent out for this entry.
This column shows the lifetime of an entry in seconds. This column shows the destination hardware address. It remains empty until resolved by an ARP reply. This column shows the destination IP address. The output module sends unresolved packets into the corresponding queue. The output module checks the cache table to find an entry corresponding to the destination IP address of this packet.
The destination IP address of the IP packet must match the protocol address of the entry. The module sends the packet to this queue. An ARP request packet is then broadcast. The input module checks the cache table to find an entry corresponding to this ARP packet.
The target protocol address should match the protocol address of the entry.
This is because the target hardware address could have been changed. The protocol requires that any information received is added to the table for future use. If it is, the module immediately creates an ARP reply message and sends it to the sender. The ARP reply packet is created by changing the value of the operation field from request to reply and filling in the target hardware address.
It periodically for example, every 5 s checks the cache table, entry by entry. If the state of the entry is FREE, it continues to the next entry. It then checks the value of the attempts field.
If this value is greater than the maximum number of attempts allowed, the state is changed to FREE and the corresponding queue is destroyed. If this value is less than or equal to zero, the state is changed to FREE and the queue is destroyed. However, its messages are not passed directly to the data link layer as would be expected. It was designed this way to make efficient use of network resources. However, it has two deficiencies: Also, hosts can discover and learn about routers on their network, and routers can help a node redirect its messages.
Although the general format of the header is different for each message type, the first 4 bytes are common to all. In query messages, the data section carries extra information based on the type of the query.
However, ICMP does not correct errors-it simply reports them. Error correction is left to the higher-level protocols. Error messages are always sent to the original source because the only information available in the datagram about the route is the source and destination IP addresses. The figure shows different types of error reporting — Type: This message has two purposes. First, it informs the source that the datagram has been discarded. Second, it warns the source that there is congestion somewhere in the path and that the source should slow down quench the sending process.
If there are errors in one or more routing tables, a packet can travel in a loop or a cycle, going from one router to the next or visiting a series of routers endlessly. When a datagram visits a router, the value of this field is decremented by 1.
When the time-to-live value reaches 0, after decrementing, the router discards the datagram. However, when the datagram is discarded, a time-exceeded message must be sent by the router to the original source. Parameter Problem — If a router or the destination host discovers an ambiguous or missing value in any field of the datagram, it discards the datagram and sends a parameter-problem message back to the source.
The hosts usually use static routing. When a host comes up, its routing table has a limited number of entries. It usually knows the IP address of only one router, the default router. In this case, the router that receives the datagram will forward the datagram to the correct router. However, to update the routing table of the host, it sends a redirection message to the host. The datagram goes to R1 instead. Router R1, after consulting its table, finds that the packet should have gone to R2.
Host A's routing table can now be updated. This is accomplished through the query messages, a group of four different pairs of messages, as shown in Figure — In this type of ICMP message, a node sends a message that is answered in a specific format by the destination node. The combination of echo-request and echo-reply messages determines whether two systems hosts or routers can communicate with each other. Because ICMP messages are encapsulated in IP datagrams, the receipt of an echo-reply message by the machine that sent the echo request is proof that the IP protocols in the sender and receiver are communicating with each other using the IP datagram.
Also, it is proof that the intermediate routers are receiving, processing, and forwarding IP datagrams. Timestamp Request and Reply — Two machines hosts or routers can use the timestamp request and timestamp reply messages to determine the round-trip time needed for an IP datagram to travel between them.
It can also be used to synchronize the clocks in two machines. For example, a host may know its IP address as To obtain its mask, a host sends an address-mask-request message to a router on the LAN. If it does not know, it broadcasts the message. The router receiving the address-mask-request message responds with an address-mask-reply message, providing the necessary mask for the host.
Also, the host must know if the routers are alive and functioning. The router-solicitation and router-advertisement messages can help in this situation.
The router or routers that receive the solicitation message broadcast their routing information using the router-advertisement message. A router can also periodically send router-advertisement messages even if no host has solicited.
Figure — shows these two modules. If the received packet is a redirection message, the module uses the information to update the routing table. If the received packet is an error message, the module informs the protocol about the situation that caused the error. Remember, an ICMP message cannot be created for four situations: The output module may also receive a demand from an application program to send one of the ICMP request messages.
MobileIP — Mobile communication has received a lot of attention in the last decade. The interest in mobile communication on the Internet means that the IP protocol, originally designed for stationary devices, must be enhanced to allow the use of mobile computers, computers that move from one network to another.
Stationary Hosts The original IP addressing was based on the assumption that a host is stationary, attached to one specific network.
A router uses an IP address to route an IP datagram. This implies that a host in the Internet does not have an address that it can carry with itself from one place to another. The address is valid only when the host is attached to the network. If the network changes, the address is no longer valid.