P. D. Sturkie, P. Griminger. Pages PDF · Heart and Circulation: Anatomy , Hemodynamics, Blood Pressure, Blood Flow. P. D. Sturkie. Pages Request PDF on ResearchGate | Sturkie's Avian Physiology: Sixth Edition | Sturkies Avian Physiology is the classic comprehensive single volume on the. Get this from a library! Sturkie's avian physiology. [C G Scanes;] -- Sturkie's Avian Physiology is the classic comprehensive single volume on the physiology of.
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Do the pieces fit? If yes, are they the right pieces? Are they in the right place?
Does the puzzle have all the pieces? In biology, we never have all the pieces. Another challenge is that older work is often neglected or dismissed or even totally ignored. Human intellect and ingenuity has not changed in the last 10, years. Moreover, there was excellent science, 25 or 50 or years ago.
Conceptual challenges To assume that work on one species can be simply overlaid on to another is fallacious.
This is particularly problematic trying to overlay the physiology of laboratory rodents on to birds. Similarly, research on the physiology of one population of a wild bird species may not reflect the situation in other populations of the same species due to selection pressure for the particular locale. Similarly, the physiology of layer chickens selected for number of eggs produced is likely not be identical to that of broiler chickens selected to growth, feed efficiency and breast size.
This is not to say that research on one species does not inform research on another. Research on poultry is relevant research on wild birds and vice versa. Indeed, this is the raison d'etre for this new section.
There are other multiple conceptual challenges to avian physiology. Examples of these conceptual challenges include incorporation of seemingly disparate fields into avian physiology. These include evolutionary biology, systematics and ecology, genomics, transcriptional genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, animal behavior, neuroscience, toxicology and pathology. Examples of these will be considered below. It is argued that understanding the evolutionary, systematic and ecological background of a species is critically important to inform physiological research as can genomics.
Once a functioning gene is lost, it is very unlikely to be recovered Delfino et al. The well-being of birds is maintained without the products of the lost gene as is the case for cortistatin or neuropeptide B Delfino et al. Moreover, gene duplication is necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of new functions.
For instance, there has been duplication of the growth hormone gene in Passerine birds Yuri et al. Undoubtedly, genomics and the related fields of transcriptional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have brought about a revolution in biology.
These approaches are being utilized in avian physiology to various degrees. Proteins can undergo post-translational modification to generate peptides and either the protein or resultant peptide can be chemically and hence functionally modified, for instance phosphorylated or sulfated or acylated.
What is often not known is which product is the physiologically important and under what circumstance? Birds have been invaluable models in study of animal behavior e. Conceptual issues focusing on reproduction are the following. There is a markedly different ovarian and oviductal structures in birds than in mammals. There is a single ovary and single oviduct in chickens. One oviduct regresses under the influence of anti-mullerian hormone AMH with AMH also causing the regression of the Mullerian ducts in the male Johnson et al.
In addition, AMH is expressed in follicles Johnson et al. The ovary of chicken consists of primordial follicles, small white follicles, small yellow follicles, about six large yellow pre-ovulatory follicles and several post-ovulatory follicles.
The large follicles grow to maturity over about 6 days. When the mature follicle F1 is ovulated, an additional follicle s are recruited to the hierarchy. Recently, the role of epigenetic changes within the follicles has begun to be elucidated Zhu et al. What is still not completely clear is how the follicles are recruited, how the follicular hierarchy is maintained, whether there is cross-talk between the endocrine and nervous system and if there is a role for the post-ovulatory follicle.
Almost 70 years ago, Rothchild and Fraps demonstrated that progesterone can stimulate the pre-ovulatory LH surge in chickens. The changes in plasma concentrations of progesterone and LH during the ovulation cycle were reported almost 25 years later Furr et al.
Interestingly, both peaked about 6 h before ovulation. Progesterone stimulation of LH release varies during the ovulation cycle with strong responses either 4 h after and 12 h before an ovulation but there was a smaller response 12—8 h before ovulation Wilson and Sharp, , More recently, a role for androgens has been implicated as the androgen antagonist blocks the increases in estradiol, progesterone and LH Rangel et al.
Injections of neither estradiol nor testosterone evoke pre-ovulatory surges Wilson and Cunningham, So, what is testosterone doing and where is acting? However, we still do not have a comprehensive picture of the control of hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in the female.
Chickens lay eggs in a sequence or clutch followed by a missed day of oviposition. This is followed by resumption of egg laying and another clutch. The time of oviposition becomes progressively later during the clutch. The clutches of oviposition reflect a similar pattern for ovulation and hence of the ovulation-inducing LH surge. This open period follows a diurnal Fraps, , or circadian pattern.
The h periodicity of ovulation or LH surge is a circadian rhythm synchronizing the hen's ovulation cycle with environmental cues e.
If the time of night scotophase was advanced to occur 6—8 h after ovulation, there was a delay in the pre-ovulatory LH surge Wilson et al. Studies on ahemeral cycles are consistent with a circadian rhythm for ovulation with a periodicity of about 26 h Morris, Ahemeral cycles are light dark cycles hours of light plus hours of dark different from 24 h.
Studies have been performed in turkeys under continuous lighting such that the circadian rhythm s were free-running. The interval between pre-ovulatory LH surges periodicity was 26 h in early egg producing turkey hens Liu et al. In Magang geese, there is an interval of 48 h 2 days between ovipositions Qin et al. What is absent are comprehensive studies using today's techniques including the investigation the effects of ahemeral cycles of less than 24 h in modern laying hens.
Anatomy, Regulation of Feeding, and Motility. Carbohydrate Metabolism. Protein Metabolism. Lipid Metabolism.
Kidneys, Extrarenal Salt Excretion, and Urine. Pituitary Gland. Reproduction in the Female. Reproduction in the Male. Parathyroid and Ultimobranchial Glands.
Pancreas and Pineal. Back Matter Pages Contributors from previous editions ters. The fourth edition contains two new chapters, on The authors are indebted to various investigators, muscle and immunophysiology, the latter an area journals and books for the many illustrations used. The increase in size is due to the increase in information now available on analytical methods. The full set of volumes should be in all scientific libraries.
Antigens and Antibodies Volume Edited by H. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim. DM This volume has three main sections. The chapters give full practical details of the methods used and a bibliography for further information.
The book will be very useful both in the laboratory and also in the library.
Castegnaro and E. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Soft cover DM Many laboratory chemicals are dangerous 4-aminobiphenyl, azathioprine, benzene, benzidine, chlorethyl naphthylamine, chlor methyl methyl ether, myleran, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, diethyl stilboestrol, nitrosoamines, hydrazines, melphalan, vinyl chloride, aflatoxins, benzopyrene, diethylsulphate, phenacetin, o-toluidine, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, ethylene dibromide, formaldehyde gas, etc.
It deals with the hazards in handling chemical carcinogens, their storage, and methods for the disposal of chemical carcinogens and spillage treatment. Read this book and take suitable action. It is better to be safe than sorry.
Fourth EditionEdited by P. The first edition of Avian Physiology was published in and since then there has been a considerable increase in knowledge of bird physiology and this has been reflected in the growth in size and coverage of the editions of this book. There are now 21 authors contributing to the chapters providing specialized coverage.
The scope of the volume is greater than indicated by the word "physiology" since there are also chapters on energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, and lipid metabolism.