COM in simple step and you can Download Now it now. [Free DOWNLOAD] Alice The than , free tvnovellas.info library catalog is an Liposomas ultradeformables fotodinamicos contra leishmaniasis cutanea. Back to Top. ALICE THE. Leishmania amastigotes were also revealed by electron microscopy. Mazza, S : Leishmaniosis cutanea en el caballo y nueva observacion de la misma en el. such as Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, Toxocariasis, Brucellosis in Latin America. (Rodriguez-Morales .. Impacto de Los Eventos de El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) sobre la Leishmaniosis Cutánea .. Epub Apr 7. Liverman, D.
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Leishmaniasis is caused by an intracellular parasite transmitted to humans by the bite Albertos-Alpuche N: Vectores de la leishmaniasis cutánea en México. PAROLE CHIAVE: Leishmaniosi cutanea; Leishmania infantum; leishmaniosi correlata al lavoro; cambiamento climatico. SUMMARY. Background: Leishmaniasis is a widespread infectious disease, but there is not much .. Epub Malaria y leishmaniasis cutánea en Ecuador pdf epub ebooks download free, download more free pdf, epub ebooks of 0, pdf, epub ebooks free download.
Each potential breeding site was sampled only once at a specific time, i. Therefore, there is the possibility of differences in the search for immatures at each locality or the number of potential natural breeding sites examined. For this reason it is necessary to emphasize that the main purpose of this investigation was to detect and characterize natural breeding sites and inventory the species of immature phlebotomine sand flies present in a first attempt. Emergence traps were used only in the field in the Coraza reserve and in Sincelejo 10 traps were installed in each locality. The kind of emergence trap that was used is conical, covered with nylon and provided with one opening for the recovery of adults. These methodologies have been used and described previously [ 12 , 13 , 21 , 25 , 26 ]. The diet provided to the larvae was a mixture of ground-up bovine faeces, fish food, liver powder and fruit of the chontaduro palm Bactris gasipaes [ 34 ].
Cluster II comprised 24 isolates, with 21 from Rio de Janeiro and three from other states, equally distributed between R and NR patients. Additionally, we found that parasites sharing all common genetic characteristics acted differently in response to treatment.
Conclusions: These results are of clinical-epidemiological importance since they demonstrate that populations of L. Gagini et al. Introduction Leishmaniases are a group of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases caused by different species of the genus Leishmania.
The diseases occur in different environments and are endemic in 98 countries and three territories on five continents, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. Tegumentary leishmaniasis TL is widely distributed, with approximately 0. TL presents as two distinct clinical forms: cutaneous and mucosal, depending on the species of parasite involved in the infection and the immune response of the host. Cutaneous leishmaniasis CL comprises clinical manifestations occurring exclusively on the skin [ 2 ].
The efficacy of this regimen in regions where Leishmania Viannia braziliensis infections predominate varies between Therefore, of the patients who were originally treated with low-dose antimony and who were followed up after clinical failure, Some patients re-evaluated up to 14 years after treatment remained clinically cured [ 7 ]. High genetic diversity among Leishmania parasites, especially L. Different epidemiological patterns may influence the levels of genetic variability to as great a degree as the influence of parasitic population diversity on the evolution and distribution of virulence-related characteristics, drug resistance, and infectivity [ 10 ].
The technique involving a low-stringency single-specific primer polymerase chain reaction LSSP-PCR [ 11 ] used to detect sequence divergences in kinetoplast DNA kDNA minicircles has proven to be a valuable tool for distinguishing genetic heterogeneity in parasite populations at the intraspecific and interspecific levels [ 12 , 13 ].
Differences in prevalent classes of kDNA minicircles have been applied to define and associate specific Leishmania genotypes with biological attributes or clinical conditions in infected patients [ 8 , 12 , 14 ]. We carried out a pilot exploratory study to evaluate the genetic polymorphisms in L.
Research participants and samples An observational study was conducted in a cohort of CL patients monitored at INI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between and with reported infections acquired in several states of Brazil, including Rio de Janeiro.
Clinical data for the patients were accessed by examining their medical records. The inclusion criteria were treatment-naive patients with localized CL diagnosis primary involvement of the skin with one to fewer than 20 ulcerous lesions, usually with good response to treatment on the basis of clinical signs suggestive cutaneous lesions , immunological criteria Leishmania serology using indirect immunofluorescence reaction IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA , and parasitological criteria positive culture for Leishmania in suitable media , and patients whose samples were identified as L.
Exclusion criteria were patients with clinical forms other than localized CL, lack of post-treatment follow-up for at least 2 years, or those presenting comorbidities. Clinical and laboratory data Clinical and laboratory data were collected directly from the records of the selected patients. The populations being studied were classified by therapeutic outcome.
The R group included patients who presented clinical healing defined as complete epithelization of the cutaneous lesions up to 3 months after the conclusion of one course of treatment, and subsequent total regression of crusts, desquamation, infiltration, and erythema, without any sign of reactivation and absence of mucosal lesions over a 1 year observation period.
The NR group included patients experiencing therapeutic failure absence of complete skin-lesion epithelization up to 3 months after the end of one treatment or lesion recurrence reappearance of skin or mucosal lesions up to 1 year after clinical healing requiring new courses of treatment. Sample preparation Leishmania promastigotes isolated from biopsies of cutaneous lesions were immediately stored in liquid nitrogen and subsequently recovered after two passages in Schneider's Drosophila medium Sigma-Aldrich, St.
The L. The isolated parasites were previously characterized as Leishmania V. Patients affected by the diffuse form have no cellular immune response to Leishmania spp. Clinical characteristics of lesions and the Leishmania species involved in main clinical forms of TL.
Tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. A Atrophic scar post a successful treatment; B lesion reactivation post treatment. Photos kindly provided by Dr. Other less common clinical presentations are described.
As such, we can cite the a so-called leishmaniasis recidiva cutis LRC , which consists of repeated reactivation of lesions around or within the scar of the classic cutaneous form of leishmaniasis Bittencourt et al. The genesis of these different clinical presentations, ranging from single cutaneous lesions with self-limited evolution and tendency to spontaneous healing, to widespread forms that often evolve with difficult treatment and control, has been related to different factors such as parasite species, patient nutrition and health status, number and localization of lesions, as well as an individual host cellular immune response Silveira et al.
For example, some authors have shown that American tegumentary leishmaniasis ATL lesions located in the lower limbs need more time to heal Oliveira-Neto et al. It has also been described that early treatment of ATL does not prevent ulcer development Machado et al.
In this context, it has recently been verified that short evolution time and Montenegro skin test MST with low positivity were associated with cases of therapeutic failure Antonio et al. In Brazil, the most common treatment is an intramuscular or intravenous injection of pentavalent antimonials Brazil, In other world regions, amphotericin B, among other possibilities, is also designed to treat leishmaniasis Tuon et al.
However, in addition to the well documented potential harmful toxicity of all drugs already described, increased information about resistance to the first and second choice drugs has highlighted the need for new drugs to treat leishmaniasis.
But, until now it has not been possible to accomplish a new treatment with less toxicity and at least the same efficacy of the old available drugs. It is important to note that, in parallel to treatment failure, the literature has also evidenced the possibility of an early spontaneous healing without treatment Oliveira-Ribeiro et al.
In this context, understanding why leishmaniasis is becoming difficult to treat and control can help to develop new approaches to improve the healing of this infection. Unfortunately, despite an impressive amount of information, a conclusive understanding is still under construction.
Our objective is to introduce and discuss some of the information already published regarding the factors that could influence the treatment response in humans with TL.
Table 2 summarizes some findings regarding treatment response. Summary of the aspects involved in human TL treatment. The Healing Process in TL The presence of a balanced immune response mainly produced by cellular immunity is pointed out as necessary to control parasites and promote wound healing.
Due to difficulties in obtaining tissue smears, many studies have been focused on analyzing the peripheral blood immune response. It is important to note that relevant information has been described correlating the results of the evolution and severity of the lesions, as well as in the therapeutic response. Despite this, in the last years various results were obtained by the evaluation of tissue damages and the organization and activity of the inflammatory process, which brought valuable information.
The involvement of the in situ inflammatory response in the formation and maintenance of the lesions has previously been demonstrated in the murine model.
In this context, Belkaid et al. In addition, in patients, the balance between types 1 and 2 responses has been identified as a determinant in the evolution of TL to self-limited or severe forms Awasthi et al. It is known that an exaggerated Th1 response can lead to tissue damage and has been associated with the immunopathogenesis of mucosal lesions Ribeiro-de-Jesus et al. A summary of the main immunological features already described in the tegumentary leishmaniasis is represented in Figure 2.
Summary of the main immunological features described in mucosal lesions, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis and skin scars of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Predominant cell subtypes were indicated for each clinical form. The blue squares represent the intensity of the parameters indicated in the figure. Concerning the tissue microenvironment, it has also been shown that ATL lesions are characterized by a chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction, with intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration Quintella et al.
Lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils predominate in the lesions of typical LCL, defined as those with the presence of ulcers with infiltrated borders and granular bottoms Schubach et al. Morgado et al. These changes could be linked to decreased parasite load Morgado et al. On the other hand, the imbalanced response can both decrease and exacerbate type 1 response that can elicit tissue damage making difficult to control TL. In this context, Maspi et al. This uncontrolled response could be responsible for the significant tissue damage, explaining the appearance of extensive, destructive, and difficult-to-treat lesions.
The detailing of the immune response involved in the formation of TL lesions has been the subject of numerous revisions, but some details are important for understanding the mechanism of cure or therapeutic failure. In this context, other cells participate in the inflammatory process and may influence the progression of TL lesions and some have been implicated as involved in both, the control and the pathogenesis of the infection.
Neutrophils have also been involved in the decrease in parasite load or in the amplification of macrophage infection Tacchini-Cottier et al.
In this context, our group identified the presence of neutrophils in lesions with different time of evolution Morgado et al. It was also verified that Leishmania spp.
Other studies have shown the influence of different cytokines such as IL and enzymes such as arginase in the pathogenesis of TL Soong et al. Although in part these immunological mechanisms together can reduce the local parasite load, Leishmania is able to escape from immune effectors then persisting in the lesion site Makala et al.
For example, Leishmania spp. Skin inflammation also plays an important role during the healing of ATL and parasite antigens in ATL scars have already been reported Schubach et al.
In situ evaluation of LCL scars demonstrated that after 1 year from healing, the scars presented inflammatory nests surrounded by scar tissue as well as close to vessels and cutaneous glands. Inflammatory areas presented similar organization than that observed in active lesions from the same patient, including number and distribution of lymphocytes and macrophages, despite a reduction in the inflammatory areas. When scars were examined after 3 year evolution, it was still possible to verify that the inflammatory foci were still present and showing signs of inflammatory activity, including the detection of parasites, but presenting lower cellularity as compared with 1 year scars Morgado et al.
These results pointed out that the cellular composition of the skin inflammatory reaction changes steadily even after wound healing and, along with the presence of parasites suggests a dynamic balance between parasite multiplication and immune response that could be disrupted in some situations.
Thus, individuals with persistent parasites may present disease recurrences Saravia et al. In addition, the parasitic persistence may contribute to the continuous immune system stimulation, maintaining a pool of Leishmania -specific effector cells which can be detected in peripheral blood of healed patients Gaafar et al. The implications of parasite persistence on TL scars become important for the explanation of cases of reactivation of infection, years after clinical cure and will be discussed later in this review.
In the LCL, the cure criterion is clinical and can be defined as healing with complete re-epithelialization, disappearance of crusts, flattening of the borders of the lesions and absence of new lesions Lindoso et al.
The healing of the mucosal lesion must be confirmed by otorhinolaryngological examination, until 6 months after the end of the treatment Gontijo and Carvalho, In both situations, it is important to monitor the patient at least up to 12 months after clinical cure for early detection of signs of lesion reactivation.
In these cases, the Brazilian Health Ministry recommends a second treatment regimen Brazil, It is important to emphasize that, during monitoring, recurrence, therapeutic failure and disease reactivation can be observed. Thus, some authors believe that confirmation of clinical cure is not always satisfactory, due to the occurrence of numerous reports of recurrence even after therapy and total wound healing.
It would be interesting to be able to standardize healing criteria not only in relation to clinical parameters, but also parasitological and therapeutic. All over the years, an impressive amount of information has been collected.
Different factors such as Leishmania species Handler et al. In this sense, we would like to highlight some of the findings that may alter the course of Leishmania infection and modify the therapeutic response in leishmaniasis, with an emphasis on TL.
Parasite Variability The Leishmania sp. For example, in the New World the infection by Leishmania braziliensis produces localized ulcers whereas the infection by L. Mucosal manifestations occur in patients infected by L.
Co-infections with different Leishmania species have been described in patients from Manaus, Brazil Camara-Coelho et al. However, the impact of co-infections by different Leishmania species still needs to be elucidated. Molecular characterization of Leishmania isolates has been vastly carried out by four classical markers: the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 ITS-1 , kDNA minicircles, the heat shock protein 70 HSP70 and the mitochondrial cytochrome b Cyt-b through techniques based on the digestion by restriction endonuclease enzymes and sequencing of amplified gene followed by phylogenetic analysis Buitrago et al.
These studies have shown the existence of different genotypes and their relation with clinical manifestations and susceptibility to leishmanicidal drugs. As consequence, disease control could be severely compromised by the intrinsic variability of the circulating species that may limit the efficacy of the treatment while favoring the emergence of resistance.
For example, in a study of patients from Bolivia, L. The different zimodemes detected in Leishmania Viannia isolates from Colombia was associated with clinical and epidemiological characteristics Saravia et al. In another study using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique, polymorphisms were detected in isolates from Brazilian patients Schriefer et al.
All forms of ATL presented a statistically significant difference in their frequencies among the clades, suggesting that L. Marlow et al. The authors observed a significant association between the genetic cluster and the clinical forms of patients. Most strains isolated from patients presenting mucocutaneous form belonged to POP3.
Furthermore, LRV was associated to a variety of Leishmania species isolated from human patients such as L.
The increase of type 1 interferon in mice leads to an increase in pathogenicity. The blockade of akt or miR deficiency showed a drastic decrease in LRV1-induced disease severity Eren et al. The presence of LRV1 was also investigated in patients infected with L. The authors showed significant prediction of treatment failure in positive cases. However, the presence of Leishmania RNA virus 1 infection cannot be considered as exclusively factor inducing severity of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Brazil as observed by Pereira et al.
The authors studied patients from Rio de Janeiro-Brazil, where no LRV1 was detected despite the presence of mucosal patients suggesting that other factors may influence the exacerbation of the disease and mucosal development Pereira et al.
In this context, the inflammatory response generated by exogenous viruses in mice co-infected with Leishmania parasites was demonstrated Rossi and Fasel, Furthermore, differences in proteome, metabolome and virulence of isolates from cutaneous and mucosal sites in the same patients were previously observed Alves-Ferreira et al.