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Fundamental neuroscience / edited by Larry Squire. visit our Web site at www. tvnovellas.info Fundamentals of Neuroscience 3. 2. Supplements to Accompany NEUROSCIENCE xviii .. included in every copy of the textbook, is an interactive CD reference guide to the. AN INTRODUCTION FOR YOUNG STUDENTS. British Neuroscience Association . European Dana Alliance for the Brain. PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software.
Main article: History of neuroscience Illustration from Gray's Anatomy of a lateral view of the human brain , featuring the hippocampus among other neuroanatomical features The earliest study of the nervous system dates to ancient Egypt. Trepanation , the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull for the purpose of curing head injuries or mental disorders , or relieving cranial pressure, was first recorded during the Neolithic period. In Egypt , from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, the brain was regularly removed in preparation for mummification. It was believed at the time that the heart was the seat of intelligence. According to Herodotus , the first step of mummification was to "take a crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out the brain through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs. He believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation—since most specialized organs e. Plato also speculated that the brain was the seat of the rational part of the soul.
Beginning in , Eric Kandel and collaborators examined biochemical changes in neurons associated with learning and memory storage in Aplysia.
Such increasingly quantitative work gave rise to numerous biological neuron models and models of neural computation. As a result of the increasing interest about the nervous system, several prominent neuroscience organizations have been formed to provide a forum to all neuroscientist during the 20th century.
For example, the International Brain Research Organization was founded in ,  the International Society for Neurochemistry in ,  the European Brain and Behaviour Society in ,  and the Society for Neuroscience in This has allowed neuroscientists to study the nervous system in all its aspects: how it is structured, how it works, how it develops, how it malfunctions, and how it can be changed.
For example, it has become possible to understand, in much detail, the complex processes occurring within a single neuron. Neurons are cells specialized for communication. They are able to communicate with neurons and other cell types through specialized junctions called synapses , at which electrical or electrochemical signals can be transmitted from one cell to another.
Many neurons extrude a long thin filament of axoplasm called an axon , which may extend to distant parts of the body and are capable of rapidly carrying electrical signals, influencing the activity of other neurons, muscles, or glands at their termination points. A nervous system emerges from the assemblage of neurons that are connected to each other. The vertebrate nervous system can be split into two parts: the central nervous system defined as the brain and spinal cord , and the peripheral nervous system.
In many species — including all vertebrates — the nervous system is the most complex organ system in the body, with most of the complexity residing in the brain. The human brain alone contains around one hundred billion neurons and one hundred trillion synapses; it consists of thousands of distinguishable substructures, connected to each other in synaptic networks whose intricacies have only begun to be unraveled.
At least one out of three of the approximately 20, genes belonging to the human genome is expressed mainly in the brain.
Ultimately, neuroscientists would like to understand every aspect of the nervous system, including how it works, how it develops, how it malfunctions, and how it can be altered or repaired. Analysis of the nervous system is therefore performed at multiple levels, ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems and cognitive levels.
The specific topics that form the main foci of research change over time, driven by an ever-expanding base of knowledge and the availability of increasingly sophisticated technical methods.
Improvements in technology have been the primary drivers of progress. Developments in electron microscopy , computer science , electronics , functional neuroimaging , and genetics and genomics have all been major drivers of progress.
Molecular and cellular neuroscience[ edit ] Main articles: Molecular neuroscience and Cellular neuroscience Photograph of a stained neuron in a chicken embryo Basic questions addressed in molecular neuroscience include the mechanisms by which neurons express and respond to molecular signals and how axons form complex connectivity patterns. At this level, tools from molecular biology and genetics are used to understand how neurons develop and how genetic changes affect biological functions.
The morphology , molecular identity, and physiological characteristics of neurons and how they relate to different types of behavior are also of considerable interest. Questions addressed in cellular neuroscience include the mechanisms of how neurons process signals physiologically and electrochemically.
These questions include how signals are processed by neurites and somas and how neurotransmitters and electrical signals are used to process information in a neuron. Neurites are thin extensions from a neuronal cell body , consisting of dendrites specialized to receive synaptic inputs from other neurons and axons specialized to conduct nerve impulses called action potentials.
Somas are the cell bodies of the neurons and contain the nucleus. Another major area of cellular neuroscience is the investigation of the development of the nervous system. Username Password I forgot my password. Track accepted paper Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article.
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Experience-Dependent Neuroplasticity Across the Lifespan: From Risk to Resilience Erica R. Neigh Frontiers Media SA. Science Neuroscience Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Science Neuroscience Neurodegeneration Keywords: