Ohanian, Hans C., and John T. Markert. Physics for Engineers and Scientists. Vol . 1. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Norton, ISBN: (Available Fall. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Hans C. Ohanian received his B.S. from the University of California, Berkeley, and his Ph.D. from Princeton University. tvnovellas.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. We adapted the core of Ohanian's earlier Physics (Second Edition. wave motion.
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Full text of "Physics For Engineers And Scientists Edition 3 Ohanian, Market Part The downloadable PDF version is available for download from PoweUsxonu . PHYSICS. Hans C. Ohanian, John T. Markert. THIRD EDITION .. We adapted the core of Ohanian's earlier Physics (Second. Edition .. The downloadable PDF. Preface. Our aim in Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Third Edition, is to present a modern Physics for Scientists & Engineers, with Modern Physics, 4.
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References Bardeen, J. Astrophysical Journal Google Scholar Born, M. Principles of Optics. Pergamon Press, Oxford. Google Scholar Campbell, G. Journal of Mathematical Physics 14 1. Google Scholar Chiu, H. Stellar Physics. Blaisdell Publishing Co.
Google Scholar Isaacson, R. No need to wait for office hours or assignments to be graded to find out where you took a wrong turn. You can check your reasoning as you tackle a problem using our interactive solutions viewer. Plus, we regularly update and improve textbook solutions based on student ratings and feedback, so you can be sure you're getting the latest information available.
How is Chegg Study better than a printed Physics for Engineers and Scientists student solution manual from the bookstore? Our interactive player makes it easy to find solutions to Physics for Engineers and Scientists problems you're working on - just go to the chapter for your book. Hit a particularly tricky question? Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam. Another conflict between our intuition and the rigorous definition of work arises when we consider a body in motion.
Suppose that the man with the bowling ball in his hand rides in an elevator moving upward at constant velocity Fig. For two arbitrary vectors A and B.
This example illustrates that the amount of work done on a body depends on the reference frame. This means that work is done. If the motion of the particle and the force are not along the same line.
In reference frame of the Earth. Both F and s in Eq. Our intuition suggests that the man does work—yet Eq. The standard notation for the dot product consists of the two vector symbols separated by a dot: A roller-coaster car of mass m glides down to the bottom of a straight section of inclined track from a height h. Treat the motion as particle motion.
The three terms on the right are merely three terms in a sum. Work is a single-component. The normal force N acting on any body rolling or sliding on any kind of fixed surface never does work on the body. The roller-coaster car moves down the full length of this track.
By inspection of the right triangle formed by the incline and the ground. Does the normal force of the tracks perform work on the car? Does the weight? While cutting a log with a saw. The forces on the car are its weight and the normal force of the tracks.
Do you do positive or negative work on the saw while pushing it forward? While pulling it backward? While walking her large dog on a leash. To evaluate the work done by this variable force on the automobile. The reason why you sometimes push harder is irrelevant—maybe the automobile passes through a muddy portion of the road and requires more of a push.
The beginnings and ends of these intervals are located at x0. For which of these is the work positive? For which of these is the work largest? To calculate the work performed by a known constant force F acting on a particle. Such a variable force can be expressed as a function of position: Does the tension of the string do any work on the stone?
Do you do positive or negative work on the cart? What if you pull on the rear end?
You are whirling a stone tied to a string around a circle. But many forces are not constant. Within each of the small intervals. For now. More generally. By Eq. In order to improve this approximation. To evaluate Eq. We will also need to consider arbitrarily small contributions to the work. From Eq. The quantity 7.
The following are some theorems for integrals that we will frequently use. In a similar compact notation. Fx This area is reckoned as negative. The work done by the force as the particle moves from a to b equals the colored quadrilateral area aQPb under this plot. The integral of a constant times a function is the constant times the integral of the function: In tables of integrals.
Taking into account that areas below the x axis must be 2 2 reckoned as negative. The tip of the arrow then performs work on the wood. A high-speed arrow has a deeper penetration and delivers a larger amount of work to the target than a low-speed arrow. An amount of work W is performed to stretch a spring by a distance d from equilibrium. If this straight line coincides with the x axis. A body in motion has energy of motion. The arrow continues to perform work and to penetrate the wood for a few centimeters.
We can establish an important identity between the work done by the net force and the change of speed it produces. When the force Fnet acts on the particle. For clarity. How much work is performed to further stretch the spring from d to 2d?
We now examine how work performed by or on a particle is related to changes of the speed of the particle. Which of these forces will perform more work during a displacement from a to b?
Let us do this for the simple case of a particle moving along a straight line see Fig. The particle then has a capacity to do work: Water does work on wheel. When a force does positive work on a particle initially at rest. The motion of the water particles is essentially that of particles sliding down an inclined plane. Keep in mind that the work in Eqs. The total amount of work the particle can deliver to the obstacle is equal to its kinetic energy.
The acquisition of kinetic energy through work and the subsequent production of work by this kinetic energy are neatly illustrated in the operation of a waterwheel driven by falling water. When the particle does work. Although we have here obtained the result 7. We represent the kinetic energy by the symbol K: Gravity does work on water… …which gains a large kinetic energy.
If we Water has a small kinetic energy. In a flour mill of an old Spanish Colonial design. The work—energy theorem gives us the answer directly. During a baseball game. What is the kinetic energy of the ball when it leaves his hand? How much work did his hand do on the ball during the throw?
The final speed of the ball. The mass of the ball is 0. The water pushes on the wheel. This work is positive. The stream of water emerges from this channel with high kinetic energy and hits the blades of the waterwheel.
The unit of kinetic energy is the joule. Table 7. Can they have equal kinetic energies? How much kinetic energy does the automobile lose to friction during this skid? If you find skid marks of 30 m on the pavement. During skid. The mass of the automobile is kg.
He skids for 30 m with all wheels locked. Hence its initial speed must have been at least large enough to provide this kinetic energy. F Skid ends. With the x axis along the direction of motion. Two automobiles of equal masses travel in opposite directions. We will now become acquainted with another form of energy that represents the capacity of the particle to do work by virtue of its position in space.
Can these vehicles have the same kinetic energy? If so. When we lift a particle to some height above the surface. In calculations of the work done by a force acting on a body. In this section. In the next chapter we will examine other cases of potential energy and formulate the General Law of Conservation of Energy.
The horse does work on the sled.
Does this contradict the work—energy theorem? If you increase the speed of your car by a factor of 3. Consider a golf ball launched into the air. The ball rises from the ground to a highest point. The gravitational potential energy represents the capacity of the particle to do work by virtue of its height above the surface of the Earth.
When two of the three quantities work done. At what point is the kinetic energy largest? Is the kinetic energy ever zero? A horse is dragging a sled at steady speed along a rough surface. This is the potential energy. Each such small segment can be regarded as a small inclined plane. The net amount of work for all the small segments taken together is then mg times the net change of height.
The weight does work on the wheel. To obtain a general expression for the gravitational potential energy of a particle moving on a straight or a curving path. For each small segment. If the vertical coordinate of the starting point is y1 and the vertical coordinate of the endpoint is y2 see Fig. A good example of such an exploitation of gravitational potential energy is found in a grandfather clock.
To recognize this. In terms of the gravitational potential energy. We will adopt the notation U for the gravitational potential energy: Gravitational potential energy increases linearly with height. If we measure the y coordinate from the ground level. Hence the gravitational potential energy is really a joint property of the particle and the Earth.
Hence the change in kinetic energy must equal the negative of the change in potential energy: Huygens investigated the theory of collisions of elastic bodies and the theory of oscillations of the pendulum.
When the baseball reaches its maximum height. As the baseball rises. If the only force acting on the particle is gravity. Apart from its practical significance in terms of work. It is usually designated by the symbol E: He invented the pendulum clock. Of course. Since the sum of the potential and kinetic energies must remain constant during the motion.
If we make use of the formulas for K and U. As the baseball falls. What speed will the car attain at the lowest point? The next example illustrates how these results can be applied to simplify the study of fairly complicated motions. An important aspect of Eq. This shows explicitly how the baseball. E U During rise. This example gives us a glimpse of the elegance and power of the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy.
U increases and K decreases. Suppose that the car. We recognize Eq. K t During fall. If we consider the vertical positions y1 and y2 and speeds v1 and v2 at two different times. U decreases and K increases. This example illustrates how energy conservation can be exploited to answer a question about motion.
The roller-coaster car descends from P1 to P2. To obtain the final speed by direct computation of forces and accelerations would have been extremely difficult—it would have required detailed knowledge of the shape of the path down the hill.
This yields one equation. As illustrated by the preceding example. With the Law of Conservation of Energy we can bypass these complications. You will usually find it convenient to place the zero level for the y coordinate either at the final position of the particle as in the preceding example.
A skidding truck slides down a mountain road. Cars are released at the top of each. Describe the changes in the gravitational potential energy of the piano during this move. Neglect friction. By what factor will the speed of the first bicyclist be larger than that of the second.
Who reaches the pool with the higher speed? Who reaches the pool first? A bicyclist rolls down a hill without braking. At an amusement park. A second bicyclist rolls down the same hill. A piano is being moved from the second floor of one house to the second floor of another. The two plots have the same vertical scale. Ignore friction. Can the friction force increase the kinetic energy of one block?
Of both? Does there exist a reference frame in which the friction force decreases the kinetic energy of both blocks? A child drags a kg box across a lawn for 10 m and along a sidewalk for 30 m. It requires J of work to lift a kg bucket of water from the bottom of a well to the top.
During what part of the motion does the weight do positive work? Negative work? Where does the ball suffer a loss of mechanical energy? What force gives the body of the automobile energy? Where does this energy come from? Consider the force that the rear axle exerts against its bearings. Consider the two ramps described in the preceding question. Can you whirl this stone in a vertical circle with constant speed? Can you whirl this stone with constant energy? For each of these two cases.
Consider a pendulum swinging back and forth. If you release a tennis ball at some height above a hard floor. Does the work of a force on a body depend on the frame of reference in which it is calculated? Give some examples.
Suppose that the force required to push a saw back and forth through a piece of wood is 35 N. What is the force of her legs against the upper part of her body? Does this force do work? Does this mean that the kinetic energy has x.
How deep is the well? During the climb. A stone is tied to a string. Two ramps. A man moves a vacuum cleaner 1. Why do elevators have counterweights?
See Fig. It takes more force to push a frictionless box up the steeper ramp. In an overhead lift. How much work does he do? If it takes a horizontal force of N to push a stalled automobile along a level road at constant speed. How much work does the man do on the vacuum cleaner? For help. Consider a woman steadily climbing a flight of stairs. Is the mechanical energy for this motion conserved? Taking friction into account. If the child always pulls horizontally.
Does this mean it takes more work to raise the box from the floor to the platform? A parachutist jumps out of an airplane. Under these conditions how can the kinetic energy of the woman remain constant? The entire woman cannot be regarded as a particle. Two blocks in contact slide past one another and exert friction forces on one another. What is the percentage of increase in kinetic energy?
What is the percentage of reduction of travel time for a given distance? If you push this saw back and forth 30 times. Does your body do work external or internal when standing at rest? When walking steadily along a level road? The external forces on the woman are her weight and the normal force of the stairs against her feet. When an automobile with rear-wheel drive is accelerating on. The automobile in Example 6 of Chapter 6 is traveling on a flat road.
A strong. How much work must the man do to push the box to a height of 2. If his average mass was 75 kg. An elevator consists of an elevator cage and a counterweight attached to the ends of a cable that runs over a pulley Fig.
Problems 7. If the pedestrian walks first m north and then m east. What is the work you do on the block while the block moves a distance of 1. Driving an automobile down a slippery. The mass of the cage with its load is kg. The pull of the first tugboat is 2. A man pulls a cart along a level road by means of a short rope stretched over his shoulder and attached to the front end of the cart. The force does J of work on the body. What is the work done by gravity during this displacement?
What is the total work done by both tugboats on the barge? What is the magnitude of the friction force on the automobile under these conditions? What is the work done by the friction force while the automobile travels 1. The mass of the box is 60 kg. What is the angle between the force and the path of the body?
A record for stair climbing was achieved by a man who raced up the steps of the Empire State Building to a height of m in 10 min 59 s. What is the work done by each tugboat on the barge while the barge moves m forward in the direction of the x axis in Fig.
The elevator is driven by an electric motor attached to the pulley. Assume that the man pushes on the box in a direction parallel to the surface of the ramp. How much work does this force do on the particle during this motion? The distances are measured in meters and the force in newtons. The driver of a kg automobile notices that. Suppose you push on a block sliding on a table.
A constant force of 25 N is applied to a body while it moves along a straight path for 12 m. How much work must the man now do to pull the cart 50 m? Assume that enough mass was added so the friction force is unchanged. What is the total amount of work that the motor has done up to this point?
What is the tension in the part of the cable attached to the counterweight? How much work has the electric motor done in this interval? Ignore friction forces and ignore the mass of the pulley.
The friction force that opposes the motion of the cart is N. For a trip of length km. Consider the barge being pulled by two tugboats. Suppose that the elevator is initially at rest on the first floor of the building and the motor makes the elevator accelerate upward at the rate of 1. How much work does friction do on the car?
How much work must you do to compress this spring by 0. How much work does it take to stretch the spring from d to 2d from equilibrium?
A particular spring is not ideal. How much work must the girl do on the sled to pull it 1. What is the tension in the rope? The wind pushes against the boat with a steady horizontal force of N. From this plot. By means of a towrope. How much work was done by gravity on the object?
By the spring? When an ideal. Calculate the work done by the force Fx x during this motion. A particle moving along the x axis is subjected to a force Fx that depends on position as shown in the plot in Fig. The ends of a relaxed spring of length l and force constant k are attached to two points on two walls separated by a distance l. To stretch a spring a distance d from equilibrium takes an amount W0 of work. During a storm. How much work is done to set the trap. A g object is hung from a vertical spring.
What is the tension in the rope when the boat is in this new position? How much more work must you do to compress the spring a further 0. When the spring is relaxed. What was its kinetic energy? How many kilograms of TNT would we have to explode to release the same amount of energy? One kilogram of TNT releases 4. What is the kinetic energy of the ball? For the motion from the release position to the equilibrium position.
The mass of the ball is 60 g. How much energy does the projectile lose to friction in 3. The fastest runner is Robert Hayes.
As it passes through equilibrium. Suppose that the force acting on a particle is a function of position. How does this compare with the amount of work required to pull the sled from the same starting point to the same height along a straight ramp inclined at Calculate the kinetic energy that the Earth has owing to its motion around the Sun. The mass of the sled is m. The pull of the horse is always parallel to this surface. What is the work done by the spring moving the ball from its compressed point to its relaxed position.
A kg hockey player gets moving by pushing on the rink wall with a force of N. The fastest skier is Graham Wilkie. Assume that the skier and the runner each have a mass of 75 kg. For the projectile described in Problem 47 of Chapter 2. What was the initial displacement? The Skylab satellite disintegrated when it reentered the atmosphere.
What is the kinetic energy of the ball at launch? What is the speed of the ball? Answer in terms of A and B. According to statistical data. The force is in effect while the skater extends his arms 0. What is the kinetic energy of this electron? It is displaced from its equilibrium position and released from rest. Seen from the side. Among the pieces that crashed down on the surface of the Earth. What is the kinetic energy of each? By what factor is the kinetic energy of the skier larger than that of the runner?
A horse pulls a sled along a snow-covered curved ramp. The electron in a hydrogen atom has a speed of 2.
In a serve. It has been reported that at Cherbourg. The pole plays an intermediate role in this process. A kg communication satellite has a speed of 3. How much work does he do against gravity? Compare your answer with the food energy he acquires by eating an apple see Table 8. What is the velocity of the second bullet? The tip is initially displaced away from equilibrium by 3. Because of brake failure. When the jumper reaches her highest point. What is its kinetic energy?
In pole vaulting.