CLASS-READER SUPPORT PACK. The Snow Goose by Paul Gallico. Compiled by Brenda Marshall. Edited by Andrew Hammond. English IPS Code: / SG. The Snow Goose: A Story of Dunkirk is a novella by the American author Paul Gallico. It was first published in as a short story in The Saturday Evening. The snow goose, Chen caerulescens, is one of the world's most abundant waterfowl species. Snow geese breed in the arctic and subarctic regions of North .
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|ePub File Size:||29.88 MB|
|PDF File Size:||8.87 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
THE SNOW GOOSE. PAUL GALLICO. THE Great Marsh lies on the Essex coast between the village of Chelmbury and the ancient Saxon oyster-fishing hamlet. THE SNOW GOOSE. ILL US TRAT E D BY FLOYD DA V I S. T. HE Great Marsh lies on the Essex coast be- tween the village of Chelmbury and the an-. THE SNOW GOOSE Paul Gallico the Great Marsh lies on the Essex coast between the village of Chelmbury and the ancient Saxon oyster-fishing hamlet of .
Plot summary[ edit ] The Snow Goose is a simple, short written parable on the regenerative power of friendship and love, set against a backdrop of the horror of war. It documents the growth of a friendship between Philip Rhayader, an artist living a solitary life in an abandoned lighthouse in the marshlands of Essex because of his disabilities, and a young local girl, Fritha. The snow goose , symbolic of both Rhayader Gallico and the world itself, wounded by gunshot and many miles from home, is found by Fritha and, as the human friendship blossoms, the bird is nursed back to flight, and revisits the lighthouse in its migration for several years. As Fritha grows up, Rhayader and his small sailboat eventually are lost in the Dunkirk evacuation , having saved several hundred men. The bird, which was with Rhayader, returns briefly to the grown Fritha on the marshes. She interprets this as Rhayader's soul taking farewell of her and realizes she had come to love him. Afterwards, a German pilot destroys Rhayader's lighthouse and all of his work, except for one portrait Fritha saves after his death: a painting of her as Rhayader first saw her—a child, with the wounded snow goose in her arms.
Plot summary[ edit ] The Snow Goose is a simple, short written parable on the regenerative power of friendship and love, set against a backdrop of the horror of war.
It documents the growth of a friendship between Philip Rhayader, an artist living a solitary life in an abandoned lighthouse in the marshlands of Essex because of his disabilities, and a young local girl, Fritha. The snow goose , symbolic of both Rhayader Gallico and the world itself, wounded by gunshot and many miles from home, is found by Fritha and, as the human friendship blossoms, the bird is nursed back to flight, and revisits the lighthouse in its migration for several years.
As Fritha grows up, Rhayader and his small sailboat eventually are lost in the Dunkirk evacuation , having saved several hundred men. The bird, which was with Rhayader, returns briefly to the grown Fritha on the marshes.
She interprets this as Rhayader's soul taking farewell of her and realizes she had come to love him. Afterwards, a German pilot destroys Rhayader's lighthouse and all of his work, except for one portrait Fritha saves after his death: a painting of her as Rhayader first saw her—a child, with the wounded snow goose in her arms.
Reception[ edit ] The Snow Goose was one of the O. Henry Prize Winners in It is a timeless legend that makes use of every timeless appeal that could be crowded into it. Gallico made no apologies, saying that in the contest between sentiment and 'slime', "sentiment remains so far out in front, as it always has and always will among ordinary humans that the calamity-howlers and porn merchants have to increase the decibels of their lamentations, the hideousness of their violence and the mountainous piles of their filth to keep in the race at all.
In , William Fiennes published The Snow Geese — a travel book about the snow goose and its migrations. Fluctuations in annual above-ground live biomass mean 1 SE, dry mass of graminoids at the end of the growth season mid-August in polygon fens grazed and ungrazed by snow geese, Bylot Island 2-way ANOVA on log-transformed biomass excluding year effect: F11, 5 Hence, after 5 years of goose ex- clusion, Eriophorum had become the dominant plant Predator-herbivore interaction in exclosures.
Exclusion of large amplitude on Bylot Island. Lemming abundance geese also resulted in an increase of vascular plant peaked every 3 to 4 years during the period — litter, which almost doubled after 3 years Table 1.
Mean 6 SE. Data were log-transformed to mated with annual exclosures and the annual production of young respect normality and homogeneity of variance. Fluctuations in annual number of snowy owl nests and lem- FIG.
Fluctuations in annual mean 1 SE litter size of arctic fox ming abundance on Bylot Island. Effect of lemming abundance high, intermediate, low on fox litter size: F2,27 5 1.
It is note- worthy that the decline phase of the cycle was spread density can differ markedly between years. The total over 2 to 3 years and was longer than the increase number of goose eggs depredated i. The total response of predators on other vertebrate species in this community. Snowy goose eggs at the high-density site showed a 3-fold owls were observed nesting only in peak lemming variation and was closely associated with the phase of years Fig.
Breeding attempts were never recorded the lemming cycle Fig. The proportion of dens with in and , 2 or 3 years after the peak. The mini- tain species composition. Our results thus provide sup- mum number of pups per litter did not vary signifi- port for the prediction of the EEH that plant-herbivore cantly with the phase of the lemming cycle, but none- interactions should be strong in Arctic communities theless tended to be smallest during the low phase and that herbivores should reduce plant biomass Oks- Fig.
However, egg predation also had a large dance Fig. In geese, nest pre- according to the abundance of another prey, lemmings. However, the associ- EEH Oksanen, ; Oksanen and Oksanen, , ation between lemming abundance and nesting success our results also provide evidence for strong predator- was weaker for geese nesting at high density than herbivore interactions in this community.
However, other Arctic tundra sites Gauthier et al. This year also followed ing success and lemming abundance remained signif- a year of very high grazing impact due to a record icant for geese nesting at low density.
The increase in The proportion of goose nests destroyed by preda- production in subsequent years may represent the re- tors may not always be a good measure of the absolute covery of plants from these stresses, which may take predation pressure in this system because goose nest several years in the Arctic. For instance, Beaulieu et G. Fluctuations in annual goose nesting success at two study sites Site-1, low nesting density, n 5 ; Site-2, high nesting density, n 5 2, and lemming abundance on Bylot Island.
Association between mean annual nesting success and lemming abundance: Site-1, r 5 0.
High plant production goose population. The reproductive effort of geese is in recent years may also have been favored by warm strongly affected by climatic events at the onset of summers in , and G. When the data. Most non- breeders and early failed-breeders also leave Bylot Is- land to molt elsewhere during the summer Reed et al. Thus, large annual vari- ation in the size of the local population may explain why we see no increasing trend in grazing impact over the last 13 years despite the increase in the size of the total population Reed et al.
Permanent exclusion of geese from polygon fens nonetheless showed that goose grazing decreases vas- cular plant production, at least for Eriophorum.
The reduction in Eriophorum production leads to a shift in specific composition with a dominance of graminoids like Dupontia fisheri in areas chronically grazed by geese. The reduction in moss biomass in areas where geese had been permanently excluded is believed to FIG.
Fluctuations in annual mean 1 SE number of goose eggs be an indirect effect resulting from increased shading depredated total response of predators with respect to the phase of due to the increase in vascular plant production and the lemming population cycle on Bylot Island.
However, al. This prey switch partially explains the as- the system appears stable as shown by the absence of sociation between lemming abundance and goose nest- long-term decline in plant production in annual exclo- ing success.
This association was stronger for geese sures. In other arctic areas such as the west coast of nesting at low density Site-1 than those at high den- Hudson Bay, goose grazing can severely impact salt- sity Site-2 , suggesting that fox predation had a great- marsh plant communities when it becomes too intense, er impact on geese nesting at low density in low lem- and results in vegetation loss over large expanses Sri- ming years.
Inversely density-dependent predation rate vastava and Jefferies, ; Kotanen and Jefferies, is common in predators and explains why predation ; Jano et al. In colonial birds nesting at high density, pred- ing capacity of the ecosystem Gauthier et al.
Moreover, goose-plant interaction rate. Recent evidence nonetheless in- sess the impact of lemmings on plants. In Fennoscan- dicates that these cyclic oscillations may result mostly dia, the impact of grazing by Norwegian lemmings from trophic interactions: either an interaction between Lemmus lemmus in years of peak abundance is se- rodents and their predators, or between rodents and vere Moen et al. In lemmings are also common in polygon fens on Bylot voles, there is growing evidence that predator-prey in- Island.
However, visual comparison of long-term ex- teractions may cause population cycles but Turchin et closures where both lemmings and geese are excluded al.
Gauthier, personal observation. However, as indicated above, we have years following lemming peaks of and see no evidence of damage to the vegetation by lemmings Fig. On the grazed the vegetation the decrease that occurred after other hand, there is a rich community of specialist and the lemming peak in is confounded with other generalist predators arctic foxes, stoats, snowy owls, factors; see above.
Recently, Gilg et al. Oksanen and Oksanen suggested that arc- ; Elmhagen et al. Fox litter size tended to decrease and fox Arctic. Simplified schematic representation of direct full line and indirect stippled line interactions between predators arctic fox and snowy owl , herbivores snow goose and lemming and plants on Bylot Island. The strength of the interaction is proportional to line thickness and intermittent interactions are shown in gray. Strictly speaking, tro- Our results suggest that the strongest trophic inter- phic cascades are defined as a sustained perturbation actions on Bylot Island are between geese and wetland occurring at higher level of a food chain that cascades plants plant-herbivore and between lemmings and down to lower trophic levels, e.
The strength of etation biomass due to a dramatic increase in herbi- the interaction between geese and predators like foxes vores when predator control is removed Bazely and is variable but is definitely strong in low lemming Jefferies, The positive association between lem- years. Indeed, the positive associ- tundra. The goose-predator interaction is further com- ation between the proportion of biomass grazed by plicated by the presence of nesting snowy owls in peak geese and lemming abundance suggests the occurrence lemming years.
We thus sug- the Arctic for only three months of the year unlike gest that by focusing strictly on closed systems, the foxes and lemmings, it could be argued that our work EEH may provide an incomplete view of the reality overemphasizes the significance of predation on eggs of food web dynamics in arctic terrestrial ecosystems.
This may be partly due be essential during critical periods. Bantle and Ali- to allochthonous subsidies between spatially separated sauskas reported the use of cache eggs by foxes ecosystems. Future work should be aimed at quanti- in fall and winter, and Stickney observed foxes fying more precisely the energy input provided by al- eating cache eggs in early spring, well before the start lochthonous sources to arctic terrestrial ecosystems of egg laying by birds.
The role of food caching be- and to determine how essential these are for the main- havior in fox ecology clearly deserves more studies. We therefore hypothe- dian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Logistic support size that presence of geese in this system may enhance was generously provided by the Polar Continental the regulatory power of foxes on lemmings by allow- Shelf Project PCSP, Natural Resources Canada. We also thank Marie-Christine Cadieux from allochthonous energy input such as the winter for doing statistical analyses and editing the manu- foraging of foxes in the marine ecosystem and the win- script, and the Hunters and Trappers Association of ter and spring feeding of snow geese on southern farm- Pond Inlet, Nunavut Territory, for assistance and sup- lands.
Recent high goose populations at some arctic port. This is contribution no of PCSP. High goose populations: feries et al. Without this anthropogenic influ- causes, impacts and implication. Batt ed. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. Hersteinsson, and K. Oecologia — Tannerfeldt, and S. Predator-prey the influence of man. Some could nonetheless question relationships: Arctic foxes and lemmings.
However, Bazely, D. Trophic interactions in arctic ecosystems and the occurence of a terrestrial trophic cascade. Woodin and M. Marquiss eds. Blackwell Science, Oxford. In many parts of the Arctic, terrestrial pred- Bantle, J. Spatial and temporal pat- G. Arctic — predators reverses the crash phase of small-rodent cycles. Ecol- Beaulieu, J. Gauthier, and L. The growth re- Kotanen, P.
Long-term destruction of sponse of graminoid plants to goose grazing in a High Arctic sub-arctic wetland vegetation by lesser snow geese. Ecoscience environment. Gauthier, J. Giroux, and E.
Are Longton, R. Studies on growth, reproduction and popula- goose nesting success and lemming cycles linked? Interplay be- tion ecology in the bipolar moss Plytrichum alpestre Hoppe. Oikos — Bryologist — Gauthier, E. Shared Macpherson, A. The dynamics of canadian arctic fox pop- predators and indirect trophic interactions: lemming cycles and ulation. Report Series number 8. Mainguy, J.
Gauthier, and J. Rochefort, and G. Carrying capacity — Birkhead, T. Arctic fox influence on Wildl.
Wilson Menu, S. Gauthier, and A. Survival of juvenile Bull. Field Ornithol. Clarke, G. Greene, and D. Productiv- — Menu, S. The distribution of deer biomass in North America and population dynamics of greater snow geese over a year supports the hypothesis of exploitation ecosystems. Elmhagen, B. Tannerfeldt, P. Verucci, and A. Messier, F. Moose-wolf dynamics and the nat- The arctic fox Alopex lagopus : An opportunistic specialist.
Moen, J. Lundberg, and L. Lemming grazing Fretwell, S. Food chain dynamics: The central theory of on snowbed vegetation during a population peak, northern Nor- ecology? Arctic Alp. Fitzgerald, B.
Predatory birds and mammals. Negus, N.
Reproductive strategies of Di- Bliss, O. Heal, and J. Moore eds. Cambridge University tundra. Press, Cambridge. Oksanen, L. Trophic exploitation and arctic phytomass pat- Gauthier, G. Hughes, A. Reed, J. Beaulieu, and L. Effect of grazing by greater snow geese on the production Oksanen, L. Evolution of exploitation ecosystems. Gauthier, G. Rochefort, and A. The exploitation of Oksanen, L. Fretwell, J. Arruda, and P. Ex- wetland ecosystems by herbivores on Bylot Island. Giroux, and L. The impact of Oksanen, L.
The logic and realism of the goose grazing on arctic and temperate wetlands. Proceedings hypothesis of exploitation ecosystems. Oksanen, T.