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BASIC ELECTRICAL QUESTION AND ANSWER PDF

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You can join the red wire to another red wire or to a black wire Blue and Yellow wire: These wires are also used to carry power but are not wiring the outlets for common plug-in electrical devices. They are used for the live wire pulled through the conduct.

You will see yellow wire in the fan, structure lights, and switched outlets. White and Gray: This color wire is used as a neutral wire. It carries the current unbalanced load to the ground. You can join white and gray only to other white and gray wires Green: It is connected to the grounding terminal in an outlet box and run from the outlet box to the ground bus bar within an electric panel 7 Explain RLC circuit? An RLC circuit carries an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor R and inductor L and a capacitor C , connected in parallel or series.

This circuit is called a second order circuit as any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a second order differential equation. Wire is sized by American Wire Gauge system. Your installation of conductors will depend on a few factors like gauge of the wire, wire capacity, etc. For wires, smaller the wire gauge larger the ampacity or capacity of the wire to handle current. For example, low voltage lighting and lamp cords will have 18 gauge, electric furnaces or large electric heaters are of 6 gauge.

There are two types of semi-conductors intrinsic and extrinsic. Again in extrinsic semi-conductors you will have N-type semiconductors and P-type semiconductors. Transistors are comprised of several combination of n-type and p-type semi-conductors.

Transistor has the ability to amplify the current, due to the reason that output power can be higher than the input power. If the resistance total in a series circuit doubles the current will reduce to half. If the series current gets double then, the resistance is halved.

When a string of resistors in a series will divide the source voltage into proportion to their values. Reverse polarity is referred in a condition where one or more of your receptacles are connected incorrectly. To fix the reverse polarity, check the wire connection at the outlet and inspect your receptacle. Explain thin film resistors and wire-wound resistors Thin film resistors- It is constructed as a thin film of resistive material is deposited on an insulating substrate.

Desired results are obtained by either trimming the layer thickness or by cutting helical grooves of suitable pitch along its length.

During this process, the value of the resistance is monitored closely and cutting of grooves is stopped as soon as the desired value of resistance is obtained. Wire wound resistors — length of wire wound around an insulating cylindrical core are known as wire wound resistors. These wires are made of materials such as Constantan and Manganin because of their high resistivity, and low temperature coefficients.

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The complete wire wound resistor is coated with an insulating material such as baked enamel. What are the operation carried out in Thermal power station? The water is obtained in the boiler and the coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is allowed to hit the turbine, the turbine which is coupled with the generator generates the electricity. What is the difference between Electronic regulator and ordinary rheostat regulator for fans?

The difference between the electronic and ordinary regulator is the fact that in electronic reg. In electronic regulator triac is employed for speed control. A two phase motor is often a motor with the the starting winding and the running winding have a phase split. What does quality factor depend on in resonance? Quality factor q depends on frequency and bandwidth. What are the types of power in electrical power? There are normally three types of power are counted in electrical power.

They are,. What are the advantages of VSCF wind electrical system? Advantages of VSCF wind electrical system are:. What is slip in an induction motor? Slip can be defined as the distinction between the flux speed Ns and the rotor speed N. Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. State the difference between generator and alternator?

Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction, the only difference is that their construction. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other, hence it converts the induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and stationary magnetic field is used.

What is ACSR cable and where we use it? Why star delta starter is preferred with induction motor? Star delta starter is preferred with induction motor due to following reasons:. State the difference between generator and alternator Generator and alternator are two devices, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Why AC systems are preferred over DC systems? Due to following reasons, AC systems are preferred over DC systems: It is easy to maintain and change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and distribution.

Plant cost for AC transmission circuit breakers, transformers etc is much lower than the equivalent DC transmission c. When a large fault occurs in a network, it is easier to interrupt in an AC system, as the sine wave current will naturally tend to zero at some point making the current easier to interrupt.

How can you relate power engineering with electrical engineering? Power engineering is a sub division of electrical engineering. It deals with generation, transmission and distribution of energy in electrical form.

Design of all power equipments also comes under power engineering. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid i. What are the various kind of cables used for transmission? Cables, which are used for transmitting power, can be categorized in three forms:. Why back emf used for a dc motor?

The induced emf developed when the rotating conductors of the armature between the poles of magnet, in a DC motor, cut the magnetic flux, opposes the current flowing through the conductor, when the armature rotates, is called back emf. Its value depends upon the speed of rotation of the armature conductors. In starting, the value of back emf is zero. Slip can be defined as the difference between the flux speed Ns and the rotor speed N. Explain the application of storage batteries.

Storage batteries are used for various purposes, some of the applications are mentioned below:. Explain advantages of storage batteries Few advantages of storage batteries are mentioned below:.

What are the different methods for the starting of a synchronous motor. Starting methods: Synchronous motor can be started by the following two methods:. Name the types of motors used in vacuum cleaners, phonographic appliances, vending machines, refrigerators, rolling mills, lathes, power factor improvement and cranes. Following motors are used: State Maximum power transfer theorem The Maximum power transfer theorem explains about the load that a resistance will extract from the network.

This includes the maximum power from the network and in this case the load resistance is being is equal to the resistance of the network and it also allows the resistance to be equal to the resistance of the network.

This resistance can be viewed by the output terminals and the energy sources can be removed by leaving the internal resistance behind. Explain different losses in a transformer. There are two types of losses occurring in transformer:.

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Explain different types of D. C motors? Give their applications Different type of DC motors and their applications are as follows: Explain the process of commutation in a dc machine. Explain what are inter-poles and why they are required in a dc machine. It is phenomenon when an armature coil moves under the influence of one pole- pair; it carries constant current in one direction. As the coil moves into the influence of the next pole- pair, the current in it must reverse.

This reversal of current in a coil is called commutation. Several coils undergo commutation simultaneously. The reversal of current is opposed by the static coil emf and therefore must be aided in some fashion for smooth current reversal, which otherwise would result in sparking at the brushes.

The aiding emf is dynamically induced into the coils undergoing commutation by means of compoles or interpoles, which are series excited by the armature current.

These are located in the interpolar region of the main poles and therefore influence the armature coils only when these undergo commutation. Comment on the working principle of operation of a single-phase transformer.

Working principle of operation of a single-phase transformer can be explained as An AC supply passes through the primary winding, a current will start flowing in the primary winding. As a result, the flux is set. This flux is linked with primary and secondary windings. Hence, voltage is induced in both the windings. Now, when the load is connected to the secondary side, the current will start flowing in the load in the secondary winding, resulting in the flow of additional current in the secondary winding.

The voltage induced in secondary coil is known as mutually induced voltage. Hence, transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Define the following terms: It is the capacity of the power system to serve all power demands without failure over long periods.

Maximum Demand: It is maximum load demand required in a power station during a given period.

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Reserve generating capacity: Extra generation capacity installed to meet the need of scheduled downtimes for preventive maintenance is called reserve-generating capacity. As the percentage of the time a unit is available to produce power whether needed by the system or not. Mention the disadvantages of low power factor? How can it be improved? Disadvantages of low power factor:.

State the methods of improving power factor? Methods of improving power factor:. State the factors, for the choice of electrical system for an aero turbine.

The choice of electrical system for an aero turbine is guided by three factors:. Explain the terms real power, apparent power and reactive power for ac circuits and also the units used. Define the following: Average demand, Maximum demand, Demand factor, Load factor.

Explain forward resistance, static resistance and dynamic resistance of a pn junction diode. How does Zener phenomenon differ from Avalanche breakdown? The phenomenon when the depletion region expands and the potential barrier increases leading to a very high electric field across the junction, due to which suddenly the reverse current increases under a very high reverse voltage is called Zener effect. Zener-breakdown or Avalanche breakdown may occur independently or both of these may occur simultaneously.

Diode junctions that breakdown below 5v are caused by Zener Effect. Junctions that experience breakdown above 5v are caused by avalanche-effect. The Zener-breakdown occurs in heavily doped junctions, which produce narrow depletion layers. The avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly doped junctions, which produce wide depletion layers. Explain thin film resistors and wire-wound resistors a. Thin film resistors- It is constructed as a thin film of resistive material is deposited on an insulating substrate.

This reduces the amount of noise injected into the amplifier, because any noise appearing simultaneously on both the input-terminals as the amplifying circuitry rejects it being a common mode signal.

If a differential amplifier is perfect, CMRR would be infinite because in that case common mode voltage gain would be zero. What is the difference between electronic regulator and ordinary electrical rheostat regulator for fans? The difference between the electronic and ordinary electrical regulator is that in electronic regulator power losses are less because as we decrease the speed the electronic regulator gives the power needed for that particular speed but in case of ordinary rheostat type regulator, the power wastage is same for every speed and no power is saved.

In electronic regulator, triac is employed for speed control by varying the firing angle speed and it is controlled but in rheostatic ,control resistance is decreased by steps to achieve speed control. What does the KVAR means? The KVAR indicates the electrical power. Thank you sir. This is extremely helpful for those who appearing for interview. It contains most probable questions ,it will be very helpful to me if you will send me the pdf of above questions and answers. This is impressive for Electrical Engineers.

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Electric traction means use of the electricity for all the above machines. Now a days, magnetic traction is also used for bullet trains. Advantages of vvvf drives over non vvvf drives for EOT cranes?

Generators are classified into two types: The shunt connection in four point stater is provided separately form the line where as in three point stater it is connected with line which is the drawback in three point stater How many types of colling system it transformers? The different methods of starting an induction motor DOL: It reduces the harmonics and it also reduces sparking and arching across the mechanical switch so that it reduces the voltage spike seen in a inductive load The motor generator set can used in the following different ways: Switch mode power converter can be used in the following 5 different ways step down an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage using a circuit known as Buck Converter or Step-Down SMPS, step up an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage using a circuit known as Boost Converter or Step-Up SMPS, step up or step down an unregulated dc input voltage to produce a regulated dc output voltage, invert the input dc voltage using usually a circuit such as the Cuk converter, and produce multiple dc outputs using a circuit such as the fly-back converter.

So always transmission voltage is multiple of 11 The complete wire wound resistor is coated with an insulating material such as baked enamel The water is obtained in the boiler and the coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is allowed to hit the turbine, the turbine which is coupled with the generator generates the electricity They are, Apparent power Active power Reactive power Advantages of VSCF wind electrical system are: No complex pitch changing mechanism is needed.

Aero turbine always keeps going at maximum efficiency point.

Extra energy in the high wind speed region of the speed — duration curve can be extracted Significant reduction in aerodynamic stresses, which are associated with constant — speed operation. Star delta starter is preferred with induction motor due to following reasons: Starting current is reduced times of the direct current due to which voltage drops and hence it causes less losses.

Star delta starter circuit comes in circuit first during starting of motor, which reduces voltage 3 times, that is why current also reduces up to 3 times and hence less motor burning is caused.

In addition, starting torque is increased and it prevents the damage of motor winding. Cables, which are used for transmitting power, can be categorized in three forms: Low-tension cables, which can transmit voltage upto volts.

High-tension cables can transmit voltage upto volts. Super tension cables can transmit voltage 66 kV to kV. Storage batteries are used for various purposes, some of the applications are mentioned below: For the operation of protective devices and for emergency lighting at generating stations and substations. For starting, ignition and lighting of automobiles, aircrafts etc. For lighting on steam and diesel railways trains.

As a supply power source in telephone exchange, laboratories and broad casting stations. For emergency lighting at hospitals, banks, rural areas where electricity supplies are not possible.

Explain advantages of storage batteries Few advantages of storage batteries are mentioned below: Most efficient form of storing energy portably. Stored energy is available immediately because there is no lag of time for delivering the stored energy.

Reliable source for supply of energy. The energy can be drawn at a fairly constant rate. Synchronous motor can be started by the following two methods: By means of an auxiliary motor: The rotor of a synchronous motor is rotated by auxiliary motor. Then rotor poles are excited due to which the rotor field is locked with the stator-revolving field and continuous rotation is obtained.

By providing damper winding: Here, bar conductors are embedded in the outer periphery of the rotor poles and are short-circuited with the short-circuiting rings at both sides. The machine is started as a squirrel cage induction motor first. When it picks up speed, excitation is given to the rotor and the rotor starts rotating continuously as the rotor field is locked with stator revolving field.

Phonographic appliances — Hysteresis motor. Vending machines — Shaded pole motor. Refrigerators — Capacitor split phase motors. Rolling mills — Cumulative motors. Lathes — DC shunt motors. Power factor improvement — Synchronous motors. One is terminal active network containing voltage sources Another is the resistance that is viewed from the output terminals. The output terminals are equivalent to the constant source of current and it allows giving the parallel resistance.

The parallel resistance of the network can be viewed from the open circuit terminals when all the voltage and current sources are removed and replaced by the internal resistance. There are two types of losses occurring in transformer: Constant losses or Iron losses: The losses that occur in the core are known as core losses or iron losses. Two types of iron losses are: Hysteresis loss.

These losses depend upon the supply voltage, frequency, core material and its construction. As long as supply voltage and frequency is constant, these losses remain the same whether the transformer is loaded or not. These are also known as constant losses. Variable losses or copper losses: These losses depend upon the loading conditions of the transformers. Therefore, these losses are also called as variable losses. It has a constant speed though its starting torque is not very high.

Therefore, it is suitable for constant speed drive, where high starting torque is not required such as pumps, blowers, fan, lathe machines, tools, belt or chain conveyor etc. Service motors: Therefore, motor is used in lifts, cranes, traction work, coal loader and coal cutter in coalmines etc.

Compound motors: It also has high starting torque and variable speed. Its advantage is, it can run at NIL loads without any danger. This motor will therefore find its application in loads having high inertia load or requiring high intermittent torque such as elevators, conveyor, rolling mill, planes, presses, shears and punches, coal cutter and winding machines etc.

Disadvantages of low power factor: Line losses are 1.

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Larger generators and transformers are required. Low lagging power factor causes a large voltage drop, hence extra regulation equipment is required to keep voltage drop within prescribed limits.

Greater conductor size: To transmit or distribute a fixed amount of power at fixed voltage, the conductors will have to carry more current at low power factor. This requires a large conductor size. Methods of improving power factor: By connecting static capacitors in parallel with the load operating at lagging power factor.

A synchronous motor takes a leading current when over excited and therefore behaves like a capacitor. By using phase advancers to improve the power factor of induction motors.

It provides exciting ampere turns to the rotor circuit of the motor. By providing more ampere-turns than required, the induction motor can be made to operate on leading power factor like an overexcited synchronous motor. The choice of electrical system for an aero turbine is guided by three factors: Type of electrical output: Aero turbine rotational speed: Utilization of electrical energy output: Aero turbine always operates at maximum efficiency point.

Real Power: It is the product of voltage, current and power factor i. Expressed as W or kW. Apparent power: It is the product of voltage and current. Reactive Power: It is the product of voltage, current and sine of angle between the voltage and current i.

Average Demand: The maximum demand of an installation is defined as the greatest of all the demand, which have occurred during a given period. It is measured accordingly to specifications, over a prescribed time interval during a certain period. Demand Factor: It is defined as the ratio of actual maximum demand made by the load to the rating of the connected load. Load Factor: It is defined as the ratio of the average power to the maximum demand. Forward Resistance: Resistance offered in a diode circuit, when it is forward biased, is called forward resistance.

DC or Static Resistance: DC resistance can be explained as the ratio of the dc-voltage across the diode to the direct current flowing through it. AC or Dynamic Resistance: It can be defined as the reciprocal of the slope of the forward characteristic of the diode. It is the resistance offered by a diode to the changing forward current.

In a JFET, if the gate is forward-biased, excess-carrier injunction occurs and the gatecurrent is substantial. Thus is due to negligible small leakage current. What is the voltage gain or transfer function of amplifier? Thank you for providing this.

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