Project Gutenberg's The Divine Comedy, Complete, by Dante Alighieri This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page The Divine Comedy. Alighieri, Dante. (Translator: Henry His central work, the Commedia (The Divine Com- Note: This book is brought to you by Feedbooks.
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Bit earlier than promised, I’ve finished the Paradiso, so I bring you complete Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy in PDF for free download, as 3 separate eBooks – Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy – Inferno (MB) This entry was posted in. JOSEF NYGRIN. PDF PREPARATION AND TYPESETTING 3Bunyan, in his Pilgrim's Progress, which is a kind of Divine Comedy in prose, says: “I . write in this book, rather than elsewhere, because it comes often under my eye.” In the. The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is an epic poem written between and his death in The Divine Comedy is not a comedy at all, the title Commedia refers to the fact that the journey starts from hell and ends with Dante’s visit to heaven and meeting with God and.
Midway upon the journey of our life I found myself within a forest dark, For the straightforward pathway had been lost. Ah me! So bitter is it, death is little more; But of the good to treat, which there I found, Speak will I of the other things I saw there. I cannot well repeat how there I entered, So full was I of slumber at the moment In which I had abandoned the true way. But after I had reached a mountain's foot, At that point where the valley terminated, Which had with consternation pierced my heart, Upward I looked, and I beheld its shoulders, Vested already with that planet's rays Which leadeth others right by every road. Then was the fear a little quieted That in my heart's lake had endured throughout The night, which I had passed so piteously. And even as he, who, with distressful breath, Forth issued from the sea upon the shore, Turns to the water perilous and gazes; So did my soul, that still was fleeing onward, Turn itself back to re-behold the pass Which never yet a living person left.
He seemed as if against me he were coming With head uplifted, and with ravenous hunger, So that it seemed the air was afraid of him; And a she-wolf, that with all hungerings Seemed to be laden in her meagreness, And many folk has caused to live forlorn! She brought upon me so much heaviness, With the affright that from her aspect came, That I the hope relinquished of the height. And as he is who willingly acquires, And the time comes that causes him to lose, Who weeps in all his thoughts and is despondent, E'en such made me that beast withouten peace, Which, coming on against me by degrees Thrust me back thither where the sun is silent.
While I was rushing downward to the lowland, Before mine eyes did one present himself, Who seemed from long-continued silence hoarse. When I beheld him in the desert vast, "Have pity on me," unto him I cried, "Whiche'er thou art, or shade or real man! But thou, why goest thou back to such annoyance?
Why climb'st thou not the Mount Delectable, Which is the source and cause of every joy? Thou art my master, and my author thou, Thou art alone the one from whom I took The beautiful style that has done honour to me.
Behold the beast, for which I have turned back; Do thou protect me from her, famous Sage, For she doth make my veins and pulses tremble. Many the animals with whom she weds, And more they shall be still, until the Greyhound Comes, who shall make her perish in her pain.
He shall not feed on either earth or pelf, But upon wisdom, and on love and virtue; 'Twixt Feltro and Feltro shall his nation be; Of that low Italy shall he be the saviour, On whose account the maid Camilla died, Euryalus, Turnus, Nisus, of their wounds; Through every city shall he hunt her down, Until he shall have driven her back to Hell, There from whence envy first did let her loose. Therefore I think and judge it for thy best Thou follow me, and I will be thy guide, And lead thee hence through the eternal place, Where thou shalt hear the desperate lamentations, Shalt see the ancient spirits disconsolate, Who cry out each one for the second death; And thou shalt see those who contented are Within the fire, because they hope to come, Whene'er it may be, to the blessed people; To whom, then, if thou wishest to ascend, A soul shall be for that than I more worthy; With her at my departure I will leave thee; Because that Emperor, who reigns above, In that I was rebellious to his law, Wills that through me none come into his city.
The Mountain is on an island, the only land in the Southern Hemisphere , created by the displacement of rock which resulted when Satan's fall created Hell  which Dante portrays as existing underneath Jerusalem . The mountain has seven terraces, corresponding to the seven deadly sins or "seven roots of sinfulness. It is also drawn primarily from Christian theology, rather than from classical sources.
Love, a theme throughout the Divine Comedy, is particularly important for the framing of sin on the Mountain of Purgatory. While the love that flows from God is pure, it can become sinful as it flows through humanity.
Humans can sin by using love towards improper or malicious ends Wrath , Envy , Pride , or using it to proper ends but with love that is either not strong enough Sloth or love that is too strong Lust , Gluttony , Greed. Below the seven purges of the soul is the Ante-Purgatory, containing the Excommunicated from the church and the Late repentant who died, often violently, before receiving rites. Thus the total comes to nine, with the addition of the Garden of Eden at the summit, equaling ten.
Christian souls arrive escorted by an angel, singing In exitu Israel de Aegypto. In his Letter to Cangrande , Dante explains that this reference to Israel leaving Egypt refers both to the redemption of Christ and to "the conversion of the soul from the sorrow and misery of sin to the state of grace. The Purgatorio is notable for demonstrating the medieval knowledge of a spherical Earth.
During the poem, Dante discusses the different stars visible in the southern hemisphere , the altered position of the sun, and the various timezones of the Earth. At this stage it is, Dante says, sunset at Jerusalem, midnight on the River Ganges , and sunrise in Purgatory.
In Dantes eyes, it is avarice rather than lust that is the devils glittering loss leader. The avaricious and the squanderers , earthbound souls that they are, push heavy weights like Sisyphusburdened with cares that are never reconciled. Dante thinks of their avarice, like the moral cowardice of the neutrals, as intrinsically depersonalizing as lust and even gluttony are not , and hence he names no names. A Noticeable Break Dante makes use of the circle of avarice, however, to detoxify another traditional figure, the figure of Fortune.
In the Middle Ages, where you found yourself in the hierarchy was ordinarily where you were bornand where you remained. Thus the medieval fascination with Fortuneones fate was simply beyond ones control. And because most fates were limiting and frustrating, Fortune was supplicatedand feared.
Dante believed that the heavens were moved, sphere by planetary sphere, by angelic intelligences.
The pagan gods and goddesses Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and the rest were not illusions and were, to Dante, not demonic. They were misapprehended angels whose charge it was to govern their spheres in service of divine providence.
And the angelic governor of Earth, the tutleary intelligence, to use the technical term, was none other than Fortune, whose 23 Clipart. Dante moves from the circle of avarice to the river Styx, which, in a departure from the traditional pattern, seems devoted not to sloth, which is the next of the deadly sins, but rather to the mode of anger that is a loss of control rather than a settled conviction. And he devotes particular attention to those whose anger is directed not toward others, but in some sense toward themselves, the people who, in a contemporary context, are in a permanent bad mood, and who feel that somehow the world has been arranged to cause them the most trouble possible.
At the conclusion of canto 7, there seems to be a break in the composition at this point, it has been argued, came Dantes exile. Some would support this, and perhaps more would not, but all would agree that after this point Dante seems to have reconceptualized what he was about. What does Dante mean by characterizing those in Hell as having lost the good of intellect?
How does Dante alter the traditional doctrine of Limbo for his own thematic purposes? What particular grounds does Dante have for sympathy with Francesca?
Inferno After canto 7, Dante appears to depart from the relatively simple scheme, based upon the seven deadly sins, that he followed in the preceding cantos. Dante describes his voyage across the Styx, where he is accused as a guilty soul, or an anima fella 8. On the way across, he encountersand denouncesan angry shade named Filippo Argenti, who was, according to Boccaccio, more contemptuous, foul-tempered, and touchy than any other citizen of Florence. Then he and Virgil arrive outside the City of Dis, where the presiding fallen angels refuse to let them pass.
Filippo Argenti and the River Styx by Gustave Dor Virgil, for all his eloquence, is unable to persuade them, and Dante finds himself filled with doubtdoes Virgil in fact know the way? Will they ever escape? This is where Dante departs from the pattern he has employed thus far. What we would expect to find here is a circle devoted to sloth.
Or, indeed, to anger, because traditionally sloth appears between avarice and anger. What we find instead is heresy.
Heresy Dante seems to think of heresy as characterized by two propositions: first, that there is no God, and second, that there is no afterlife. What is most noteworthy about the situation, though, is that Virgil is unable to help Dante here. Indeed, as they stand outside the walls, the Furies threaten that should Medusa appear, Dante will be turned to stone and will be confined to Hell forever. Virgil turns him away and covers Dantes eyes with his own hands, but Virgil can do no more to protect him.
What Dante here suggests, I think, is that reason in and of itself is unable to prove the existence either of God or of the afterlife. Medusa, in this context, would represent despairin effect the refusal of graceand perhaps the suicide that might well be the result of despair.
Virgils only recourse is to turn Dante the other way, to advise him to stop thinking about such questions. The only way past the walls of Dis is grace, which Dante represents by the appearance of an angel, who effortlessly opens the way within.
The first person he meets in the realm of heresywhere the sinners are punished with fireis the great Ghibelline leader Farinata degli Uberti, Florentine victor with the Sienese at the battle of Montaperti in The Ghibellines, as partisans of the empire and often enemies of the papacy, were often characterized as irreligious by their Guelf rivals, and in some cases, the charge was true.
It was evidently true of Farinata. But even so, Dante respects him. And he revealingly characterizes Farinata as a magnanimo, Dante says that he holds himself as if he had great scorn of Hell People resort to torture for two reasons. The first is to extort information from the unwilling.
The second is not just pain and humiliation; it is the public destruction of personality. It seeks not just to destroy the body, but to destroy the soul.
With Farinata, it most conspicuously doesnt work.
He quite literally rises above the flames. His personality is intact. That is how we know that he is a magnanimo and a worshipper, like Francesca, of a relatively noble false god.
For Farinatas god was Florence and his vision of the political good. After the victory of Montaperti, most of Farinatas allies wanted to destroy Florence herself. As he proudly tells Dante, he alone refusedand carried the day. And that is why Dante so honors him. The Violent In the next canto, Dante pauses to make clear the conceptual structure that the division at the City of Dis implies. Above Dis lie the incontinent, those who gave way to their desires.
Below are, first, the violent, and next, those who practice treachery or fraud, who make use of intellect as a weapon. Dantes conception of violence, however, is wider-ranging than our own. Their guardians are centaurshalf-human and half-horse, betokening the inhumanity, the bestiality, of violence. Next are those who are violent against themselves: suicides, and surprisingly, those who dissipate the family goods.
The suicides have become trees Dante here reconfigures an incident from the Aeneid. Virgil instructs him to break off a branch, and from the wound speaks a soul identified as Piero delle Vigne, falsely accused of treason, who killed himself, supposedly by beating out his brains against the prison walls as he awaited execution. As in speaking with Francesca, Dante is overcome with pity.
In the same realm, he encounters the spendthriftstorn to pieces by infernal hounds.
Their grisly fate is testimony to Dantes high regard for family, for in deliberately squandering their families resources, they undermine not just themselves, but those whose welfare depends upon them. The third round devoted to the violent houses those who were violent against God. Violence against God, like heresy, finds its symbolic answer in fire.