International Journal of Research in IT & Management (IMPACT FACTOR – ) This study aimed studying the importance of kitchen designing in restaurants. A restaurant's style, including that of its kitchen space can not only provide much needed comfort, but can Journal of Retail & Leisure Property. Journal of Retail & Leisure Property kitchen design open kitchens consumers hospitality industry dining experiences. Cite article. How to cite.
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PDF | + minutes read | One of the most studied areas for increasing interior design performance is kitchen. When scientific studies conducted on kitchen design Journal of Engineering Design, 21 (2–3), PDF | A cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the impact of kitchen layout on employees' productivity. Key words: Kitchen Layout, Productivity, Kitchen Staff, Company Kitchens IJRDO - Journal of Applied Management Science. Kitchen Design. In residential homes, meals are prepared and shared in the kitchen, which also serves prior to beginning the design process because there are significant space, storage, . Journal of affective disorders, 50(2), 2.
For example, the opportunity to see kitchen staff working may contribute to a feeling of reassurance by seeing how the foods are being prepared, especially in terms of hygiene practices. Questionnaire distribution in a college town in the Southern United States allowed for the collection of usable responses. The findings indicate that consumers were more in agreement that in an open kitchen staff's appearance will be neater, that food will be prepared more carefully and that the kitchen will also be cleaner. While, in general, the levels of agreement means are modest, clear differences between men and women were identified in all items studied pertaining to open versus closed kitchens as they refer to the dining experience; differences were also noticed among several age groups. School of Marketing Tourism and Leisure.
The letter that explained the purpose of the study also contained the IRB approval seal to conduct the study. The distribution efforts allowed for the collection of responses; however, one respondent indicated never patronising restaurants and was therefore omitted from the data analysis process.
Thus, in all, responses were considered usable, a Clearly, the number of responses achieved is by no means representative of Southern or United States consumers. However, this number was considered sufficient to gather preliminary information regarding the threads being explored.
Internal reliability for areas in the questionnaire using scales anchored at the end points only. Section B b — Regarding views on open kitchen design illustrated in Tables 5 and 6.
Type of restaurant chosen when eating out. Restaurant kitchen style is closed eg, I cannot see how the food is prepared. Kitchen staff cooks, wash-ups will appear neater eg, grooming in an OPEN kitchen. Food production employees are likely to be more positive to guests in an OPEN kitchen.
Food production employees will be more engaging with guests in an OPEN kitchen. Food production employees will be more engaging with each other in an OPEN kitchen. On the other hand, in some respects, the overall findings in this section are in accordance with what Chow et al forthcoming found in their study.
In this study, although the feeling of complete safety is missing, respondents, nevertheless, considered an open kitchen as being cleaner than a closed kitchen. Overall, in all items included in Table 5 , women appeared as the more concerned of the two groups, or at least their level of agreement was higher. Arguably, more research is needed to confirm — or disconfirm — that this finding suggests the potential for more revenues from female patrons.
However, the fact that one group demonstrated more awareness concerning open versus closed kitchens could have direct as well as indirect implications in some eating out scenarios. For example, some studies conducted among winery that are open to the public identified that, although women appeared to be less involved in wine consumption, downloads than men Alonso, , in other studies Dodd, women appeared to be the more educated visitors, and also earning high incomes.
Alonso therefore argued that women's impact should not be overlooked, particularly because of their role as an accompaniment, that is, in joining their partners in visiting wineries. Thus, although women's involvement with a particular produce may be lower than that of men, they, nevertheless, may contribute to downloads for example, foods, or even some wine styles.
In this study, being the group with clearly higher levels of agreement concerning open kitchens, women's impact could be in some ways of potentially similar significance, particularly in influencing their male counterparts in choosing a dining establishment.
However, in general, the younger age groups were more in agreement and therefore had more positive views about open restaurant kitchen style. One reason for the less positive responses among the more mature respondent groups is that they are either less exposed to open kitchen environments, or that past negative experiences for example, lack of cleanliness have conditioned their behaviour towards restaurant kitchen styles.
The food and service elements, while very critical within the context of eating out experiences Clark and Wood, , are referred to in some studies as complements rather than as the main pillars of such experiences see, for example, Finkelstein, ; Auty, In fact, aspects other than food and service, including the restaurant's design and style have been acknowledged as contributing factors in drawing patrons and in enhancing their restaurant visit.
Studies in the retail sector Sharma and Stafford, ; Babin et al, , for example, have acknowledged the importance of lighting, colour and music, as some of the intangible aspects that can have positive impacts on consumers. These intangible aspects form part of the atmospherics Kotler, ; Baker et al, , a concept that emphasises the surrounding, environmental, intangible elements that arguably play a supporting role within consuming experiences, influencing consumer's attitudes.
With regard to the restaurant sector, studies mention the importance of restaurant design and style see, for example, Stipanuk, to suggest ways in which these components can add value to the establishment. Undoubtedly, there is merit for restaurateurs in pursuing strategies and concepts atmospherics that may extend from the traditional food and service quality requirements.
In short, there is much merit in using knowledge to validate and execute such strategies. However, to date, there is a dearth of knowledge in a number of restaurant style-related areas. For example, very little has been reported from an academic perspective concerning open versus closed restaurant kitchen styles.
In fact, very few studies have explored this dimension, with Chow et al forthcoming being among the few studying the views of small restaurant operators. The findings demonstrate that, although overall the level of agreement among respondents is modest, gender and age group differences were noticed.
Regarding genders, female participants were more in agreement with aspects related to cleanliness and overall hygiene standards as these concerned open versus closed kitchen style.
Similarly, it was noticed that the younger age groups agreed more with regard to several of the same items than did respondents of the more mature age groups. Clearly, the findings do not conclude that restaurateurs should be implementing open kitchen design related strategies to satisfy or address the needs of one of these consumer groups. However, the differences that were noticed according to gender and age groups may have implications for the restaurant sector in some ways. For instance, it is argued that women's impact could be very significant, particularly as previous studies have noticed.
Moreover, in some scenarios, it has been found that women have the resources to make substantial expenditures see, for example, Dodd, , whereas in other studies, women's impact accompanying their partners husbands and so on , is referred to as potentially very important Alonso, Along similar lines, the younger age groups could also have a strong and positive impact within eating out scenarios. Many of these younger consumers already have the resources education, income to afford eating out, whereas others will soon follow.
In addition, younger consumers also accompany family members and other potentially important consumer groups and can make suggestions, recommendations, or simply are the ones designated to choose an eating out venue. Therefore, the findings identifying consumer groups that do pay more attention to open kitchen design than others could be of use to the restaurant sector in several practical ways.
This study is clearly not free from limitations; in fact, several have been previously recognised. First, the number of respondents is clearly very small to make generalisations of the findings with regard to Southern or United States consumers. Second, the geographic context of the study, that is, choosing only a Southern college town, is very restricted; hence, once again, the findings may be too restricted to the geographic context and therefore may not be generalisable.
Third, the prevalence of female respondents also constitutes a limitation: Lastly, the modest means that were obtained in the descriptive as well as the statistical analyses are also reasons for suggesting caution when interpreting the study's findings. Future studies addressing the points above could significantly contribute towards the body of knowledge of consumer and restaurateur research.
For example, for many consumers, food and service personnel hygiene, cleanliness and related aspects are based on first sight and appearance, and much of a restaurant's appearance starts with its physical design. Furthermore, for those consumers who pay attention to open kitchen design as a source of cleanliness, transparency, responsiveness, positiveness towards guests and even entertainment, the proper execution of the open kitchen element could contribute towards increased or repeat consumer patronage, positive feedback word of mouth , and ultimately translate into revenues for restaurateurs.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. An exploratory study. Original Article First Online: Overall, the study attempts to identify the extent to which consumers may agree with statements that include the following: Open kitchens are cleaner than closed kitchens.
Food will be prepared more carefully in open kitchens. Kitchen staff will appear neater in an open kitchen. Consumers feel much safer when they eat food that is prepared in an open kitchen. To gather consumer data that address the threads investigated in the present study, a decision was made to use questionnaires and distribute these in events that would congregate many potential respondents at one time.
Such decision was made on the basis of 1 speed to collect data in several university-sponsored events sports events. As illustrated in Table 1 , one section of the questionnaire was at the lower limit 0.
Thus, this first section was only considered in descriptive terms see Table 3 but not for further analyses. Table 1 Internal reliability for areas in the questionnaire using scales anchored at the end points only.
As illustrated in Table 2 , women constituted the predominant respondent group With regard to the age mix of the respondent population, it was noticed that participants aged 50 years and above constituted just over half The large majority of respondents indicated being habitual restaurant patrons, with Finally, two groups, those patronising franchised full-service restaurants and those patronising independent full-service establishments became predominant among four possible categories, with Thus, clearly, most respondents in this study favour full-service over fast-food establishments.
Table 2 Basic respondent-related information. What became clear in this section was that respondents rather disagreed with small windows being influential in their dining experience, for instance, in providing a more private setting.
The aspect of grooming, cleanliness and care in preparing the food stood out over all other items. One of the reasons for such lack of agreement might be that only few restaurants with open kitchen style exist in the university town where the study was conducted.
However, respondents were not asked whether they had or had not visited restaurants with open kitchen before; therefore, their previous exposure to these restaurant environments could not be established.
Although the overall mean scores were rather modest, many respondents seemed to view open kitchen style as conducive to more positive attitudes and overall responsiveness kitchen staff. Table 4 Views on open kitchen design — how respondents felt about the items below. When comparisons were made between men and women and the same items shown in Table 4 , differences were noticed, with women indicating higher levels of agreement in all those same items than their male counterparts Table 5.
Table 5 Views on open kitchen design — Gender comparisons. Some differences were also noticed when the same items concerning open kitchen design and the age of the respondents were compared Table 6. Although differences did not occur in all items, in general, it was noticed that as compared with other age groups, the younger the respondents, the higher was their level of agreement. Table 6 Views on open kitchen design — age group comparisons.
Despite these limitations, the findings provide a preliminary source of information that may assist the restaurant sector in future segmentation and similar efforts. The findings could also be a tool that assists future consumer- and restaurateur-related studies on open versus closed kitchen style. Studies could build on this first foray into a rather unexplored dimension, focussing on a a much wider audience, that is, a much larger number of respondents,.
Aksoydan, E. Findings from a study of university academic staff. Journal of Food Safety CrossRef Google Scholar. Alonso, A. Unpublished PhD thesis. Google Scholar. Auty, S. The Service Industries Journal 12 3: Babin, B. The intervening effect of price fairness and perceived affect. Journal of Business Research Bahn, D. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 13 3: Baker, J.
The consumer perspectives, in the services challenge: Integrating for competitive advantage. Czepiel, C. Congram and J. In some hospitality environments, the importance and impact of dining room decor on a business's bottom line have been discussed see, for example, Lambert and Marsh, In many instances, the aesthetic value of a service environment has been found to be very beneficial to the overall success of many businesses.
Researchers have also concluded that there is an integral correlation between the physical environment and overall satisfaction of the customer Baker et al, ; Henriksen et al, Put simply, the physical servicescape should cater simultaneously to the needs of the employees as well as the customers. Similarly, recent reports underline the attractiveness — and therefore significance — that the building of an open kitchen concept has for restaurants and other hospitality operations Parmley, ; Weisstuch, Thus, whether fad or long-term business strategy, open kitchens seem to awaken much interest among certain consumer segments or at least many restaurateurs believe that such development is taking place.
As Chow et al suggest, the growing popularity of television food programs, with chefs preparing meals almost constantly followed by filming crews may be contributing factors for some consumer segments to perceive open kitchen styles as entertaining, interesting and fun to watch. Recent news and reports demonstrate that many small hospitality businesses have adopted the open kitchen design concept Bruni, ; Ferren, ; Virbila, This development is the more significant, as in the United States most eating and drinking businesses are small in size.
In fact, 91 per cent have fewer than 50 employees and 70 per cent are single-unit operations National Restaurant Association, Thus, knowledge of consumer images on open kitchen design could be of much benefit to small business operators. However, despite its apparent popularity, research conducted on the open restaurant kitchen concept is very limited.
This particular setting university environment was chosen for a number of reasons. First, the opportunity and convenience of being able to collect data among large number of attendees to university sport events college basketball was believed to allow for a fast and high response rate. Second, the affluence to these sport events for example, National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball home games of different group of individuals from all age groups and both genders also provided a factor of convenience in collecting responses.
Third, that the study was to be conducted by a group of researchers of the same university where the questionnaire distribution took place was believed to be an additional motivation for some potential respondents. For example, old graduates or citizens of the same community in which the university is located might feel empathetic and willing to support the study. Before the basketball games, the potential respondents were approached, briefly introduced to the project's goals and invited to participate in completing the questionnaire provided and enclosed in an envelope.
Each envelope was pre-paid postage stamp on the envelope , and included the researcher's contact details and could be sealed upon completion and returned to the provided address.
Doing so prevented the potential identification of any respondents, while allowing respondents to complete the questionnaire and mail it at their convenience. As the study's purpose was to collect information from individuals who patronised restaurants, this response was removed from the data analysis. The total number of usable responses was therefore , an overall While clearly the number of responses obtained is by no means representative of the state where the data were collected or of the southern region, it was considered sufficient for the exploratory nature of the study.
The comments that respondents provided regarding their images of open restaurant kitchens were first entered in Microsoft Excel spread sheets, then grouped into different themes using content analysis and transferred into Microsoft Word.
Comments were labelled by the respondents, that is, Respondent 1's comment is labelled R1, Respondent 2's comment R2, and so forth.
However, it was noticed that just over half of respondents were 50 years old and above and that those between the ages of 30 and 39 constituted the smallest group 8. All but one respondent indicated eating out, with over 90 per cent doing so at least once a week, suggesting that the large majority of respondents is regularly exposed to restaurant environments. Table 1.