Literary Terms and Criticism has long been established as the best-selling guide to the study of English literature. It offers a comprehensive introduction to. Your ebook will be fulfilled by Vitalsource. install Vitalsource Bookshelf software on your PC or reading device to access and download your e-book. Practical criticism underlies everything students of English literature do. Technical Terms With Martin Coyle he edits the Key Concepts series for Palgrave Macmillan. 7, John Peck,Martin Coyle: Literary Terms and Criticism Description download ebook, book review, ebook pdf, paperback,Literary Terms and.
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tvnovellas.info: Literary Terms and Criticism (How to Study Literature) ( ): John Peck, Martin Coyle: Books. Literary Terms and Criticism: A Students' Guide. Authors; (view affiliations). John Peck; Martin Coyle. Textbook. Download book PDF English, American and Commonwealth literature: a brief survey Name Palgrave, London; eBook Packages Palgrave Literature & Performing Arts Collection; Print ISBN Literary Terms and Criticism. Authors; (view affiliations). John Peck; Martin Coyle. Textbook. Part of the How to Study Literature book series. Download book PDF.
He has published extensively on biographical, bibliographical and book history topics from the period — He has published a number of scholarly editions, notably two volumes in the Clarendon edition of The Miscellaneous Works of John Bunyan, and is co-author with P. He has published articles on E. Forster and on post-colonial British culture. Owens and P. He has written five books, including Dickens and Religion Allen and Unwin, , and edited five others, including the best-selling Literature in the Modern World Oxford University Press,
Several of the great Romantic poets had died in the previous decade; those who survived produced no important work after The way was open for fresh poetic talent to make its mark, and the evidence of such talent appeared almost at once.
Fifteen years later it was a fully grown literary genre. Black, Aimed at general writers and journalists, this is an extremely helpful handbook for anyone undertaking research; available in paperback. Richard D. Altick and John J. A comprehensive, up-to-date and attractively written book, aimed primarily at North American students. The first half outlines some of the main areas of scholarly endeavour—biographical study; determination of authorship; establishment of texts; tracing of sources, influence and reputation; the placing of works in appropriate and illuminating historical context.
The second half covers practical matters—how to find materials and use libraries; methods of notetaking; how to write up research effectively. You can then reread individual sections as you need them.
No attempt is made to cover the whole subject: what follows is a crash course aimed at getting the Internet to work for you as quickly and painlessly as possible. Should you wish to learn more, you can find references below to books and electronic sources that will take you further. Note: this introduction assumes that you have the minimum system required. This is normally a PC or a Mac or any other computer that can run a modern Internet browser such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer , a modem that connects your computer via a telephone line to a network, and an account with an Internet Service Provider ISP who, for a monthly rental fee, will give you a connection to the Internet.
This is an astonishing capability, and one that was unavailable only a few years ago. Things happen fast in the world of information technology, and most of what happens is to our advantage. Nevertheless, the buildings one can visit are already sufficiently numerous to make the whole enterprise very rewarding. Having said that, there will be pieces of information that you expect to get from the Internet but discover that you cannot—or not immediately.
There will be library catalogues that you will hope to search, and yet will apparently not be able to access. A student searches the Library of Congress catalogue, finds the reference he or she has been looking for unsuccessfully for ages, and immediately —for that person—the Internet becomes a panacea for all ills, a completely trustworthy system that will always deliver the goods. Those who use IT most successfully have a more measured view: in many ways the Internet for a scholar is rather like any other research resource writ large.
If you adopt the same flexible, tolerant and resilient attitude to the Internet as you do to any other imperfect scholarly resource, then you will find that it is just as rewarding possibly more so as any of the other information sources that researchers use.
It will therefore be as rewarding and as irritating as any other human institution. They are there to help you do the job of scholarship more efficiently and more thoroughly.
It is too easy to get so excited by what computers can do that you spend too much time playing around with them. It is seductive—but a mistake. Information from the Internet is no more reliable than information from other sources. In some circumstances it can be less reliable. The very copying of a text from a printed to an electronic medium may introduce new errors. As much of the Internet is set up by numerate but not very literate enthusiasts, you will find that spelling, punctuation and grammar are not always of a high standard.
The Internet Much, perhaps too much, has been written about the Internet. If you want to know something of its history and its organization, please consult the works listed below. In essence, and put crudely, the Internet is the result of linking up hundreds of thousands of computers world-wide. In practice it means that, via your computer and a modem, you can make contact with a huge range of research resources from around the world.
There are two problems facing anyone writing even the simplest description of the Internet: first, no one is in overall control of it and, second, it is changing literally from day to day. More and more computer systems are being added to it each day so we can never be certain how many computers are linked, or how many additional services have become available. These few pages can be nothing more than an approximate and partial guide to a few of the sources on the Internet that we feel might be useful.
It is quite likely during your use of the Internet for your research work that you will discover useful sources that we know nothing about, or that have come online since this description was written. It is very difficult to recommend books about the Internet because they tend to go out of date as soon as they have been published. You might be well advised to check guides to the Internet which are on the Internet itself. Most are frequently updated, so the dates should only be taken as a guide.
Although most books on the Internet are currently published in the USA, almost all of them are readily available in the UK. Levine and C. You will find that many of the broadsheet newspapers now have pages or even sections devoted to IT and the Internet.
Internet browsers If you read any of the books listed above, you will stumble across a host of ways in which, in the past, users might have contacted other computers over the Internet—Telnet, File Transfer Protocol FTP , Gopher, World Wide Web www , etc.
In the last few years a new sort of software called an Internet browser has been developed which provides the user with a friendly, consistent front-end. At the time of writing the two best-known browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. The browser will know what sort of connection to make and will make it without your needing to know anything about it.
However, you will be aware of the different sorts of connection because the screen will look slightly different according to the type of connection made see Figures 3. Because the Internet has been developing over a number of years, it includes a range of ways of displaying the information to you. The simplest you are likely to meet is the Telnet-based screen.
This is the standard screen you will use when making a connection with many university library catalogues. In a Telnet screen you are usually offered a menu of choices which are numbered or lettered , and you choose an option by typing its number or letter and then pressing the key marked Return. Using Telnet screens 1 When using a Telnet screen, it is important to remember to read the information on the introductory screens.
For instance, before you click on the Uniform Resource Locator that will connect you to the library you have chosen, make sure you know whether a password is required; if it is, the screen will tell you what to type. Also the library catalogue may require you to tell it what sort of screen display you have got if you are not told, the safe answer is usually VT You can then click the Back button on your browser to go back to the list of libraries.
This should clear the screen and allow you to choose Exit from the File menu. Gopher screens A slightly more sophisticated presentation can be found in Gopher-based screens.
If you want to know the origin of this rather whimsical term, please refer to one of the works on the Internet listed above. Gopher screens consist of text and symbols; significant words or phrases are highlighted in your screen they may well appear in blue to make them stand out. You will notice that when the mouse-cursor or pointer is placed over these words, it changes from an arrow to a pointing finger symbol.
If you click on your mouse button when the mouse pointer is over such a hot word, it will activate that link and take you to the new source. This not only has text and hot words, but also includes colour images and—if you have the right software and hardware—links to audio and video. WWW pages also have the ability to offer you forms that you can fill in this is very useful when you are searching a catalogue or database for a particular word and buttons you can click on.
In fact, a WWW screen is remarkably similar to the screen of a modern personal computer of the sort that you run when you are word-processing, etc. More and more sources on the Internet are moving towards WWW screens, so these are rapidly becoming the norm.
However, for some time yet you may also have to be familiar with Telnet and Gopher screens. Any institution, interest group or company you wish to contact is likely to have a home page.
Each page on the Web has its own URL. Suppose you want to go directly to a particular page. Clicking on a hot word is another way of going off to a new address.
This is because lurking under each hot word is a URL. The URL of the current page you are on is shown on your browser screen in the line labelled Address, Location or Netsite. A very quick guide to using Internet browsers Given that different browsers work in different ways, we can talk here only in general terms. However, what follows should be enough to equip you to do basic but worthwhile searches for academic material on the Internet without getting too confused or completely lost.
However, where you start from is entirely a matter of personal choice. This will take you back to the page you were on before the current page. You can click on the Back key repeatedly until you get to where you want to be or, at least, to a place that you recognize.
Then just click on the page you want to go to. If you know what you are looking for, there is a short cut: you can search the whole page for a particular, significant word. Usually in the Edit menu there will be listed a Find or Find in page option; click on this and then type the word you want to find, and then click on Find Next. You should be able to add bookmarks by going either to a menu or a button labelled Bookmarks, or to a menu item labelled Favourites—depending on which browser you are using.
Once you have added a bookmark, all you need to do—to get back to the chosen page—is go to the listed bookmarks and click on the one you want. Printing: in most cases you can do this by going to the File menu and selecting Print. Then select from the Edit menu Copy. Then open up a word-processing file and, while you are in it, go to the Edit menu and choose Paste.
This should dump the text from your Web page into the word-processor and you can then print or save the file as you choose.
Saving to disk: you can usually save a Web page to either a hard or a floppy disk. Go to the File menu and select Save As. If you then want to see these files properly, you have to call them up within your browser. You can usually launch your browser without going online but, if you do so, you then have to tell it what file to read. You do this by going to the File menu and selecting Open and then searching for wherever you saved your file.
Some words of warning: if you copy something, beware of copyright implications.
Only use the material for your own personal study and, if you do incorporate any substantial amount of Internet-derived material into a dissertation or article, do make sure that you check with the originator of that material first. To avoid any accusations of plagiarism, make sure that you acknowledge in a footnote the origin of any material you use from the Internet. There are Web sites that will tell you how to reference an Internet site.
Because it is so technically easy to copy material, you are advised to make a note of its source at the time that you copy it, even if you are not certain that you will use it in your final dissertation or publication. You can easily record the source by highlighting the address under Location, copying it, and pasting it into your document.
Graphics take up much more memory than text, so they take longer to download. If you need those graphics, then you will simply have to wait. Mornings, therefore, can be a good time to work on the Internet if you are in the UK. However, even if your call to an Internet Service Provider is a local one and it is very likely to be , weekday mornings will be more expensive. Weekends are much cheaper, so it might be a good idea to save up your long searches for a Saturday or Sunday morning.
The only trouble with this is that certain pages or catalogues, for instance, may not be available owing to maintenance or up-grading. To an extent, sorting out the best and most efficient time to search is a very individual matter, so the best advice is: experiment. Do make sure that when you download data from the Internet you really will find it useful: there are data junkies out there who download megabytes of material in the fond belief that just collecting information is somehow virtuous and beneficial.
What is on the Web for a literary researcher? The simplest answer is: too much to describe here. Another answer might be: it all depends on what you are researching. Subjects such as gender studies and postcolonial literatures are so popular that it is almost impossible to keep up with the number of sites offering information on—or opinions about—them.
More arcane or newer subjects, such as bibliography or book history, have fewer sites; but, even so, they are pretty well served.
What follows is a very select range of types of Internet site that you might be interested in exploring. They are based on the selection we have made available to Open University MA students on their home page.
One point more before we begin our brief survey. One of the great strengths of the Internet is that there are many ways of getting to the same information.
Sites are linked in a multitude of ways so, if you miss one link, you are likely to find a score of alternative ways of getting through to the information you want.
For instance, the British Library has a splendid exhibition concerning the manuscript of the Old English poem Beowulf. When we come to describing some of the most useful resources on the Web, you will find that, although we list a resource under one heading, it will frequently be accessible through other home pages listed under other headings.
Under each heading, one or two examples are given to illustrate the resources available. Under this heading you will find not only the catalogues of the British Library and the Library of Congress, but also a list of almost all the university libraries in the UK.
If you are within travelling distance of two or three universities, use this list to search their libraries and to find out which has the most useful collection of books for your research topic. Also here is the rather unpromising sounding AHDS the Arts and Humanities Data Service which is, in fact, a marvellously rich source of electronic data produced as a byproduct of teaching and research in the humanities. There is also a link to the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts which allows a student to search the National Register of Archives extremely useful if you are trying to track down the diaries, letters and other personal documents of writers.
This provides a wealth of information on each and every country including fascinating data on literacy rates and size of the telephone system—very revealing information if your work is in any way related to the history or theory of communications.
There are a number of national and international projects aimed at increasing the number of electronic texts in a systematic way, and there are many private individuals who, as a byproduct of their own research or just out of sheer love of an author, put up a text or two. Most of these texts can be downloaded onto the hard disk of your own computer. These are programs which allow you to identify keywords, create concordances, map out word frequencies in a given text, etc.
You can, of course, use an ordinary word-processing program to search for individual words using the Find option in the Edit menu but the process is laborious and limited. The text-analysis programs usually cost money, but most will allow you to download a trial version for free.
A word of warning about copyright: any official e-text project will ensure that it understands the copyright position of each text before it makes that text available. An individual text may be out of copyright, or the copyright owner may have given permission, or there may be restrictions on how you can use the text exclusively for your own private study, for instance. Sometimes a description of the copyright status of a particular text will be attached to it. Private individuals putting up texts on the Internet may not be so scrupulous, or may simply be ignorant of copyright law.
It is up to you, if you use one of these texts, to be cautious about copyright. Some are wholly free, some give limited free access; most will allow you to search at least some of their back files for useful articles. Some learned journals are now on the Web and some are published only, or mainly, on the Web.
There are also some services which will allow you to search thousands of scholarly journals and then order offprints of relevant articles via the Web. A note of advice and caution: it is very useful to have a widely recognized credit card if you want to buy things for example, offprints or books via the Web.
If they do not many smaller book-dealers do not , then you can decrease your chances of being hacked by sending your credit card details in two parts in two separate email messages. Although perhaps not the first resource you might go to if you were doing some form of literature-related research, many museums nevertheless have some highly relevant materials—particularly for those interested in the physical aspects of literature in particular, bibliography and book history.
Nevertheless print continues to survive and, in certain circumstances, to flourish. Part of this adaptability is displayed by the way in which the book industry, in the form of publishers and booksellers, has taken to the Web. Even more impressive for the researcher in literature is the way in which second-hand and antiquarian bookdealers have taken to the Web.
Many of these engines will search for any string of characters, so searches for keywords in titles, specific publishers, places of publication or publication dates are as possible as searches for named authors. If you wish to buy anything on your credit card from bookdealers on the Web, please refer to the advice given in 5 above. In this rather miscellaneous category you will find useful information about international standards governing the presentation of electronic documentation and advice from such scholarly organizations as the Modern Humanities Research Association MHRA on how to refer in a scholarly thesis to electronic sources.
A particularly strong feature of this page is that it provides links to full electronic text versions of most of the novels, and to some other contemporary writings that help to provide a context for the study. However, if you need to go further, or need to try more complicated searches, the following points might help. However, when you are dealing with very large catalogues or other sorts of database, you are likely to need to narrow down your criteria otherwise you will be overwhelmed by the quantity of only vaguely relevant or totally irrelevant material.
This is where search strategies come into their own. The best way to explain how these operators work is to take an example and go through AND, OR, NOT, showing how the use of each changes the results of your search. Figure 3. Search engines These sound rather industrial, but search engines have proved extremely useful to students trying to cope with the huge but amorphous research resource represented by the ever-growing Internet.
What search engines attempt to do is create large indexes of subjects covered by the Internet. These indexes can be searched, usually by means of a form in which you type your search strategy and by a Search or Submit button on which you then click your mouse pointer to begin the search. The results of the search are normally a set of URLs which you can then explore. As search engines classify information in different ways, it is usually worth using two or three of them in order to maximize the number of useful references you have at your disposal—as long as you keep in mind the fact that too many references can be a curse rather than a blessing in terms of workload and time.
You will find a number of very useful search engines if you click on a button in your browser which will be labelled Search, Net Search or something similar.
The best advice is to try a number of such engines by searching on a subject you know a reasonable amount about. In this way you will be able to judge the quality and usefulness of the information that a particular search engine returns to you. Accessing electronic information not freely available on the Internet So far we have concentrated on how to use the Internet to get hold of useful scholarly information.
Some of these databases can be accessed online but only on a payment to a system provider. However, if they are not freely available on the Internet, it is more common nowadays for databases to be published on cd-roms.
On the whole these are more likely to be bought by university libraries than private individuals, as most of them are very expensive. The libraries will then make these cd-roms available to their readers directly on PCs in the library or via a local network. Following the film's release, Cassavetes encouraged Scorsese to make the films that he wanted to make, rather than someone else's projects.
By now the signature Scorsese style was in place: macho posturing, bloody violence, Catholic guilt and redemption, gritty New York locale though the majority of Mean Streets was actually shot in Los Angeles , rapid-fire editing and a soundtrack with contemporary music. Although the film was innovative, its wired atmosphere, edgy documentary style, and gritty street-level direction owed a debt to directors Cassavetes, Samuel Fuller and early Jean-Luc Godard.
Although well regarded, the film remains an anomaly in the director's early career as it focuses on a central female character. Returning to Little Italy to explore his ethnic roots, Scorsese next came up with Italianamerican , a documentary featuring his parents Charles and Catherine Scorsese. The film established Scorsese as an accomplished filmmaker and also brought attention to cinematographer Michael Chapman , whose style tends towards high contrasts, strong colors, and complex camera movements.
The film co-starred Jodie Foster in a highly controversial role as an underage prostitute, and Harvey Keitel as her pimp, Matthew, called "Sport". Taxi Driver also marked the start of a series of collaborations between Scorsese and writer Paul Schrader , whose influences included the diary of would-be assassin Arthur Bremer and Pickpocket , a film by the French director Robert Bresson. He subsequently blamed his act on his obsession with Jodie Foster's Taxi Driver character in the film, De Niro's character, Travis Bickle , makes an assassination attempt on a senator.
The critical and financial success of Taxi Driver encouraged Scorsese to move ahead with his first big-budget project: the highly stylized musical New York, New York.
This tribute to Scorsese's home town and the classic Hollywood musical was a box-office failure.
The film is best remembered today for the title theme song, which was popularized by Frank Sinatra. Although possessing Scorsese's usual visual panache and stylistic bravura, many critics felt its enclosed studio-bound atmosphere left it leaden in comparison with his earlier work. Despite its weak reception, the film is positively regarded by some critics. Remarkably, his backward-looking tribute to the golden age of musicals and noirish romantic melodramas turned out to be one of his most freewheeling and personal films.
By this stage the director had also developed a serious cocaine addiction. However, he did find the creative drive to make the highly regarded The Last Waltz , documenting the final concert by The Band.
However, Scorsese's commitments to other projects delayed the release of the film until Other works in s Another Scorsese-directed documentary, titled American Boy , also appeared in , focusing on Steven Prince, the cocky gun salesman who appeared in Taxi Driver. A period of wild partying followed, damaging the director's already fragile health.
Scorsese also helped provide footage for the documentary Elvis on Tour.
Convinced that he would never make another movie, he poured his energies into making this violent biopic of middleweight boxing champion Jake LaMotta , calling it a kamikaze method of film-making. From this work onwards, Scorsese's films are always labeled as "A Martin Scorsese Picture" on promotional material. Raging Bull, filmed in high contrast black and white, is where Scorsese's style reached its zenith: Taxi Driver and New York, New York had used elements of expressionism to replicate psychological points of view, but here the style was taken to new extremes, employing extensive slow-motion, complex tracking shots, and extravagant distortion of perspective for example, the size of boxing rings would change from fight to fight.
Although the screenplay for Raging Bull was credited to Paul Schrader and Mardik Martin who earlier co-wrote Mean Streets , the finished script differed extensively from Schrader's original draft. The final draft was largely written by Scorsese and Robert De Niro. It is a satire on the world of media and celebrity, whose central character is a troubled loner who ironically becomes famous through a criminal act kidnapping.
Visually, it was far less kinetic than the style Scorsese had previously developed, often using a static camera and long takes.
It still bore many of Scorsese's trademarks, however. The King of Comedy failed at the box office, but has become increasingly well regarded by critics in the years since its release. German director Wim Wenders numbered it among his 15 favorite films. Filmed on an extremely low budget, on location, and at night in the SoHo neighborhood of Manhattan, the film is a black comedy about one increasingly misfortunate night for a mild New York word processor Griffin Dunne and featured cameos by such disparate actors as Teri Garr and Cheech and Chong.
Although adhering to Scorsese's established style, The Color of Money was the director's first official foray into mainstream film-making. The film finally won actor Paul Newman an Oscar and gave Scorsese the clout to finally secure backing for a project that had been a longtime goal for him: The Last Temptation of Christ. In , Scorsese began work on a long-cherished personal project, The Last Temptation of Christ , based on the novel written by Nikos Kazantzakis that retold the life of Christ in human rather than divine terms.
Barbara Hershey recalls introducing Scorsese to the book while they were filming Boxcar Bertha. In the version, these roles were played respectively by Willem Dafoe and David Bowie. However, following his mids flirtation with commercial Hollywood, Scorsese made a major return to personal filmmaking with the project, which was ultimately released in Even prior to its release, the film adapted by Taxi Driver and Raging Bull veteran Paul Schrader caused a massive furor, with worldwide protests against its perceived blasphemy effectively turning a low-budget independent film into a media sensation.
Looking past the controversy, The Last Temptation of Christ gained critical acclaim and remains an important work in Scorsese's canon: an explicit attempt to wrestle with the spirituality underpinning his films up until that point.
The director went on to receive his second nomination for a Best Director Academy Award again unsuccessfully, this time losing to Barry Levinson for Rain Man. Other works in s Scorsese made a brief cameo appearance in the film Anna Pavlova also known as A Woman for All Time , originally intended to be directed by one of his heroes, Michael Powell.
This led to a more significant role in Bertrand Tavernier 's jazz film Round Midnight.
He also made a brief venture into television, directing an episode of Steven Spielberg 's Amazing Stories. De Niro and Joe Pesci offered a virtuoso display of the director's bravura cinematic technique in the film and re-established, enhanced, and consolidated his reputation.