POLITIK SEKSUAL MAJALAH HAI. The Sexual Revolution dalam tvnovellas.info, diakses 14 Februari. Jakarta, Indonesia: Gramedia Majalah. Hai is a teenage magazine with articles on music, films, hobbies and recreational pursuits. Some of the content is. Abstract: This article analyses how Hai magazine, one of the most .. ‗majalah remaja' or translated as ‗teen magazine'. .. tvnovellas.info 3.
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Supernatural 4x22 twitvid downloader. Potter's house footscray bulldogs. Qubool hai title track download speed. Download lavaman soca calendar. Majalah Hai. Uploaded by firdaus. majalah. Copyright: © All Rights Reserved. Download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate. POLITIK SEKSUAL MAJALAH HAI. Search · Current · Archives · Announcements · CONTACT · Home > Vol 3, No 3 () > Sokowati · Download this PDF file.
In consequence Indie Band in fact elongation of word of Independent Band. Conception nge-band like this done or conducted many by bandses of indie which the was personnel mean of still have young age and impetouses him play at music. Intention of this research is to know comparison of pervasion at magazine HAI edition of February , concerning band of indie and major lable. This research by normatif, more to free Theory mass media, because this theory represent media in this case Magazine Hi is mass media news more or less there element so that deliver advertisement or not, this matter concerning continuity of publication of itself magazine. Research method in this research is by using content analysis method, with quantitative descriptive research type. As for the intake of research obyek of is magazine HAI edition month of Febuari which consist of four edition that is Sunday of I the Februari, 13 - 19 Februari, Februari and last is 27 Februari until 5 March
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Be the first to like this. This section consists of some definitions of codeswitching from some linguists, where and when it may happen in a society, some types classifications and reasons for it, and also the relation of it with teaching and learning activities.
The Nature of Code-Switching According to Wardhaugh the term code refers to any dialect or language used by a speaker to build communication with others.
He asserts that a person may use more than one code in her or his speech instead of just employing a single code. People may switch or mix the codes or languages that they use. And a term code-switching is used to name this conversational strategy. They have various definitions of it and employ different ways to explain it. In order to obtain in-depth comprehension of code-switching, this study presents a number of definitions from a number of linguists.
Valdes-Fallis as cited by Duran in Toward a Better Understanding of Code-Switching and Interlanguage in Bilinguality: Implications for Bilingual Instruction explains that code-switching may happen if two languages used simultaneously or interchangeable.
In addition, Peter Stockwell states that Code-switching is often the specific mechanism through which the borrowing of words and constructions happens.
From these two arguments, it can be understood that code-switching involves two languages used simultaneously by a speaker. As a result, there is a kind of alteration in the language utterances involving language elements of those two languages by the process of borrowing and constructing or combining. A speaker may borrow certain language elements from another language and combine them with the language elements of her or his native language.
The language elements here can be a word, phrase, clause or even complete sentence. But of course code-switching pursues a number of requirements such as the speaker s language competence of the two languages in order to construct together the language elements of both languages appropriately. The construction needs match combination of the grammatical rules of the languages involved in the code-switching. It is explained by Chana as cited by Duran in Toward a Better Understanding of CodeSwitching and Interlanguage in Bilinguality: Implications for Bilingual Instruction that code-switching is the juxtaposition within the passage of 26 9 someone s speech which involves items of two different languages.
The items are tied together according to the rules of both languages so the speaker is obliged to put much respect on both language rules. Since code-switching belongs to sociolinguistics, social context is also important to be put in the discussion. The setting that enables code-switching to happen may be described. Wardhaugh elaborates where codeswitching may happen. First, code-switching may happen in a multilingual country. It is a country which employs more than one language as media of communication among the citizens.
Singapore, for instance, has five languages which are English, the Mandarin variety of Chinese, Tamil, Malay, and Hokkien, another variety of Chinese. The educational activity in formal school is held in formal Singapore English and Mandarin. Meanwhile, people tend to bargain something with either Hokkien or informal Singapore English in a traditional market. Second, code-switching may also occur where there are multilingual people meet each other in a foreign setting.
For example, Indonesian students who live in the United State have a tendency to use not only English language all the time but they may also speak in their native language or dialect in certain occasions. When they discuss academic work they may use English language, but when they want to share daily activities in their spare time, they may choose Indonesian language.
The Types of Code-Switching Every linguist has her or his own theory or point of view to classify the types of code-switching.
Code-switching is a broad and complex language 27 10 phenomenon since it involves two distinctive languages in a single context of occurrence. There are so many factors that affect code-switching to happen. The different classification of the types of code-switching is considered normal and acceptable. According to The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, there are seven types of code-switching. The classification among those seven types is mainly according to the length of the juxtaposed elements which are borrowed from foreign language.
The first one is called diglossia. There are two distinctive varieties of code that exist in diglossic communities. They are high H and low L variety. The first one is the prestige variety which is used in formal discourse, and the other, which is lack of prestige, is used in less formal discourse. People may use L variety when they speak to their family at home but choose H variety, the more formal variety, when they do job presentation in the office.
The switching in diglossia occurs in discourse level and involves the switching from H to L variety or just on the contrary. Discourse is a unit of language elements which is longer than a sentence. The second type is situational code-switching.
The language change depends on the occasion faced by a speaker since certain occasion may encourage the speaker to exchange the language which is used. The change happens for the whole part of one s speech in one context. For example, an English teacher may talk in English for the whole part of the explanatory speech of a past perfect tense to the second-grade students of Junior High School. Unfortunately, the students have not understood the teacher s explanation of when to use this tense.
It is 28 11 helpful and possible if the teacher re-explains her or his English explanatory speech in Indonesian so the students can fairly comprehend it. Despite the framework of the context of occurrence which should be within one context, this example of situational code-switching also gives salient description that situational code-switching happens without any change of the topic. The third one is metaphoric code-switching.
The role of relationship between the speakers in a conversation may change. The change of the language or dialect that they use may also change in line with it. Unlike the previous one, this type of code-switching asserts a change of the topic under discussion.
When someone meets her or his neighbour doing a duty as a bank teller the person may greet her or his neighbour with their daily language, the less formal one, such as a local dialect. But the person, then, appropriately and politely chooses the more formal language to assert her or his main purpose to come to the bank, that she or he wants to draw some money.
Here, the person changes the role of relationship from personal to official. The different relationship between the speakers which is built by changing the code that they use asserts the existence of metaphoric codeswitching. The fourth type of code-switching is called conversational codeswitching. It can also be called style shifting or code mixing. It allows the speaker to juxtapose various length of foreign language elements within her or his speech.
The juxtaposed foreign language element in this type can be a phrase, clause, or full sentence. When the juxtaposed element is a single word, the process involves singleword code-switching. This fifth type can also be called borrowing. It welcomes 29 12 the speaker to borrow a single word from another language or dialect and place it within her or his native language utterances. Here is one example of this type of code-switching which involves Indonesian and English language: Ceritanya dari film itu mengambil setting di Portugal.
From the example, it can be seen that the speaker replaces an Indonesian word lokasi with an English word setting. The last type of code-switching introduced in The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics is integrated loanwords. The juxtaposition in this type happens in a morpheme level. Morpheme is a minimal functional element of a word. Here, someone may integrate a word from a foreign language with affixes of her or his native language to form a certain language expression.
Here is an example of this type of code-switching which involves English and Indonesia language. Ronald adalah pemain gitar yang ber-skill tinggi. From the sentence above, the speaker combines an Indonesian prefix berwith an English word skill.
The next classification of code-switching is presented by Ronald Wardhaugh. He discusses three kinds of language switching that may exist in society. The first type of code-switching is situational code-switching. Wardhaugh explains that situational code-switching happens when the language which is used by a speaker changes according to the situation which is faced by the speaker. She or he may speak one language in one situation and another language in the different one.
It can be seen when a teacher starts a kind of 30 13 formal lecture in a standard variety and then tries to encourage the following discussion in a local dialect so that the students will not get tired.
Second, there is metaphorical code-switching. One thing that enables people to identify metaphorical code-switching is that it has an affective dimension; formal to informal, official to personal, serious to humorous, etc. This type of code-switching can be seen when two leaders of local companies transact business together. Even though the standard language is generally used, sometimes they also speak in a local dialect for special effect, e.
The last type is conversational code-mixing. The difference between code-switching and code-mixing can be seen through the context of the occurrence in which code-mixing occurs within a single utterance of someone s speech as what Wardhaugh says that Code-mixing occurs when conversances use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance.
Here are some examples of conversational code-mixing that Wardhaugh gives between Spanish and English language: a. No van a bring it up in the meeting. They are not going to bring it up in the meeting. Todos los Mexicanos were riled up. All the Mexicans were riled up. The Reasons for Code-Switching This study elaborates various reasons for code-switching from two linguists; D. Crystal and Ronald Wardhaugh. First, there is a possibility that a speaker may not be able to express her or himself in one language so she or he switches to another language to compensate for the deficiency.
Someone s language competence, even in her or his native language, may be limited. For a multilingual person who is able to speak more than one language, switching the language that she or he uses may be the best answer for the deficiency problem. Second, code-switching is used because someone wants to express solidarity with a particular social group of speakers.
She or he may use a language which is used to show her or his sympathy or express what they fell toward others. Almost every ethnic group has a vernacular language or dialect, and switching the language toward the language of a particular ethnic group can be one way to express solidarity toward the group.
Third, someone applies code-switching as a sort of variation in the level of formality of her or his speech.
A speaker has to be able to decide the opportunity when to use each of them appropriately. Someone may accidentally change the degree of the formality of the language by code-switching. It is needed to give special effect of the relationship such as to build intimate relationship.
Meanwhile, Wardhaugh provides three reasons for codeswitching. The first reason is to express solidarity with the listeners. Language can be used as a bridge of solidarity. People may choose a language from a certain 32 15 country or ethnic group to show their solidarity toward the people from that country or ethnic group besides to build the more intimate atmosphere or relationship. The second reason is because of the choice of topic.
In a conversation, people often switch the topic under discussion. A particular language might be appropriate to discuss a certain topic. The change of the topic might be also accompanied by language switching so the variety of the language can be appropriate with the new topic. The last reason for code-switching given by Wardhaugh is that someone uses code-switching because she or he perceives social and cultural distance.
It is related to the level of formality of the language. Someone may choose an informal variety if she or he talks to her or his friend, on the other hand, a formal-standard variety will be the best choice if she or he talks to her or his teachers since there is social distance.
Code-Switching and Language Learning Cook as cited by Skiba in Code Switching as a Countenance of Language Interference agrees that code-switching can be used to help the process of language learning.
He describes the Institute of Linguistics' examinations in Languages for International Communication test as one which uses code switching. At beginners level, students may use the second language to obtain some information from materials such as a travel brochure or a phone message to answer comprehension questions in the first language.
At advanced stages, the students may be required to research a topic and provide a report in the first language.
Theoretical Framework In order to conduct a systematic study, I organize this theoretical framework to explain the procedures organized to accomplish this study. There are five steps presented in this theoretical framework. Conducting preliminary observation of code-switching in HAI teenage magazine By conducting preliminary observation of the code-switching in HAI teenage magazine, I can obtain an overview of the language phenomenon being studied.
The results of this process can be very useful for further processes since the preliminary observation may give me basic description of code-switching in the magazine. So, this step is also important in this study. Conducting a confirmation of code-switching to the editorial staff of HAI teenage magazine Conducting a confirmation of the existence of code-switching in HAI teenage magazine to the editorial staff of the magazine is also needed. The information that I receive from them, as the informants of this study, hopefully can give me salient comprehension of the existence of code-switching in the magazine.
Collecting the code-switching cases which exist in HAI teenage magazine By listing the code-switching cases on an observation form, I may gain much help in the process of analyzing the data. It can also give the readers a clear description of code-switching cases in HAI teenage magazine.
Analyzing the types of code-switching in HAI teenage magazine 34 17 The analysis of the types of code-switching is conducted after all of the utterances that contain code-switching in the magazine have been listed on the observation form. I employ some categories of the type of code-switching stated by linguists to classify the types of code-switching in HAI teenage magazine. Identifying the possible reasons for code-switching in HAI teenage magazine The identification of the possible reasons involves three important aspects; a number of reasons for code-switching stated by linguists, some information collected from the informants of this study, and my interpretations of the phenomenon.
The first two aspects are used as the basis for my interpretations in identifying the data. The result of this process may come up with some possible reasons for code-switching in HAI teenage magazine. The discussion included research method, source of data, research instrument, data gathering techniques, data analysis techniques, and research procedures.
Research Method A certain methodology was needed as guidance to conduct and organize steps or procedures of this study.
Since this study was conducted to comprehend a language phenomenon that existed in society, in this case code-switching, qualitative research was considered as the most appropriate term to name the method of this study because Leedy and Ormrod argued that qualitative research focuses on understanding social phenomena in their natural setting. Code-switching in HAI teenage magazine was considered as a social phenomenon in language use because the writers of the articles employed codeswitching prominently.
Through this study I was going to analyze and comprehend this kind of social phenomenon that existed in HAI teenage magazine. The objective of finding some possible reasons for code-switching in HAI teenage magazine was to interpret the meaning of the existence of codeswitching in the magazine since it was essential, in qualitative research, to figure 18 36 19 out interpretations of the phenomenon which were constructed in the particular setting.
The identification of the possible reasons could represent my interpretations of code-switching. Merriam discussed further about this: The key to understand qualitative research lies with the idea that meaning is socially constructed by individuals in interaction with their world. There are multiple constructions and interpretations of reality that are flux and change over time. And qualitative research tries to understand what those interpretations are at a particular point in time and in a particular context.
Holliday 12 stated that qualitative research also tries to understand the complexities of a culture of the social world where we live and how we can go about thinking, acting and making meaning of it. He defined culture according to the belief of Beales, G. Spindler and L. Spindler 8 that Culture therefore refers to the cohesive behaviour within any social grouping from a neightbourhood to a work group. From this definition of culture, it could be concluded that the process of employing code-switching done by the writers of the articles in HAI teenage magazine was a kind of culture since they employed code-switching prominently almost in every page of the magazine.
In addition, it became cohesive behaviour which was implemented by most of the writers of the articles of HAI teenage magazine. Since this research was an in-depth study of code-switching which presented further analysis and an description of this existing phenomenon, it was considered as descriptive research.
Bungin explained that descriptive study involved an in-depth exploration of the object being studied. That was why it was appropriate and necessary to not only identify the types of code-switching but also analyze the possible reasons for code-switching in HAI 37 20 teenage magazine. The analysis of the types of code-switching might come to the understanding of its complexities and through the identification of the possible reasons I would like to interpret the meaning of applying code-switching in the magazine.
The choice of using the first person point of view was appropriate in this qualitative research to describe the inclusiveness of the researcher toward the object of the study.
It was also needed to enable the readers to see my interpretations saliently. In other words, she tries not to disguise opinion as fact by using impersonal so-called objective language. Source of Data HAI teenage magazine was considered as the main source of data since this study concerned in code-switching that existed in HAI teenage magazine only. There was a sort of combination between Indonesian and English language to produce certain utterances which was then considered as code-switching.
I employed two editions of HAI teenage magazine to be analyzed and chose the magazines randomly without paying much attention on the edition number or publish due date.
I decided to choose two editions of HAI teenage magazine as the objects of my research to answer the research questions since it had already been able to describe the existence of code-switching in HAI teenage magazine.
Informants were needed to obtain a vivid description of code-switching in the magazine. Research Instrument Kountur explained that instruments of a research played an important role in data collection and analysis.
Since this study was qualitative research, the researcher was considered as the research instrument of this study. It was supported by Merriam 5 who explained that A second characteristic of all forms of qualitative research is that the researcher is the primary instrument for data collections and data analysis.
Since understanding is the goal of this research, the human instrument, which is able to be immediately responsive and adaptive, would seem to be the ideal means of collecting and analyzing data. Data Gathering Techniques In order to obtain qualified data to support my research, I employed two methods offered by Bungis They were participant observer and online data search method.
Participant observer was a method used by researchers to obtain data of a research by observation and sensory perception. It required the use of human senses like eyes, ears, or skin to obtain data. I used this method to get the data of code-switching cases in HAI teenage magazine.
The implementation of this method was conducted in three steps. First, the observation form was designed to list the code-switching cases 39 22 which were found in HAI teenage magazine. They were accompanied by the page numbers in the magazine. The data of code-switching presented on the observation would be easier to be analyzed. Second, the identification of the code-switching cases was conducted.
Since English language elements, as the juxtaposed elements of the codeswitching in HAI teenage magazine, were italicized, I gained much help to identify the code-switching cases in the target magazines. The process of the identification of the code-switching cases was done by reading and analyzing carefully the target magazine.
Finally, all of the code-switching cases found in HAI teenage magazine were listed on the observation form. Online data search was a method to get data from the internet. I conducted this method to obtain information from the editorial staff of HAI teenage magazine as the informants of this study. I sent them an to clarify whether or not they had any purpose of using code-switching in the magazine.
The answer from the informants might help me to identify possible reasons of code-switching in the magazine. Data Analysis Techniques Data analysis was very important this qualitative study, so appropriate method in analyzing the data was necessary. In order to gain qualified findings, I followed the organized steps in organizing and analyzing the data of qualitative research which were constructed by Creswell as cited by Leedy and 40 23 Ormrod