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RESEARCH PAPERS FOR DUMMIES PDF

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As a university student, you will undoubtedly have to write research papers. When writing a paper you may be able to choose your own topic, you may be. Sometimes the most difficult part of writing a research paper is just getting it started find a list of six steps that will aid you in the research paper writing process. You can also find a pdf version of the handbook at tvnovellas.info Quicklinks/Writing Student Support Services/Writing Research Papers- Handbook.


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Before starting a research paper, arrange the information and notes you've gathered. Pick one of the basic structures for organizing your research paper and . tvnovellas.info: Research Papers For Dummies (): Geraldine Woods: Books. tion, the expository writing done for research papers is based on standard formats in pdf files (electronic images) that can be ordered and deliv- ered to you.

Our values, therefore, influence our behavior, priorities, and relationships, as well as the moral guidance we give to our children. They might include forgiveness, honesty, liberty, love, respect for life, and self-control. Your answer will reflect your view of honesty and your commitment to this moral value. They are moral or ethical principles that we view as good and important. Despite their importance, however, moral values are in decline. In , researchers in the United States interviewed hundreds of young adults about their views on moral values. That love is neither sexual nor purely sentimental; it is governed by principle.

This is the statement also found in the Declaration of Independence itself and is, in my opinion, the thing that makes America the best nation in the world and a nation that other countries model themselves after.

No one human being should ever have the right to control the future of another human being or make decisions for another human being. This means that every person should at least have a chance to make a good life for themselves. This key ideal is the most important because without the right to life, the right to freedom, and the right to live a happy life — the other ideals are not possible.

The government exists only for the purpose of protecting the rights of the people, another reason why the unalienable rights ideal is the most important in The Declaration of Independence. The Texas Diabetes Institute TDI is a world-class center that helps those currently living with diabetes or are at risk for diabetes.

It's that time of year when the New York Times shares the most remarkable college essays from this year's graduating seniors. The colleges where these featured students plan to enroll are a "Who's Who" of elite higher education.

I am never surprised by where the students from this annual article end up. I know firsthand that it takes a very special essay to get admitted to these institutions. In fact, if the main college essay isn't remarkable, a student simply won't get admitted to an elite college no matter how high their grades and test scores are.

When students ask me how to write a remarkable college essay, I tell them the topic is just as important as how well written it is. The topic has the potential to reveal more about the student than anything else in their application. When I was an Ivy League admissions officer, I didn't always remember the student's name or which high school they attended.

But I almost always remembered the topic of their main college essay. Good or bad, it framed how I viewed and evaluated the student. One of the essays in the article is written by a young woman who wrote about helping the elderly with their taxes. I immediately labeled her the "tax girl.

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The topic of a student's essay has the potential to have a transformative effect in allowing a complete stranger, like an admissions officer, to connect with a student they have usually never met. Oftentimes, students pick a topic familiar to them or something they are outwardly proud of, albeit an accomplishment, overcoming an obvious obstacle, an activity or experience.

But all of these "topics" will most likely show up in some form or another in the application already. I tell students to write about something not so obvious. Because it gives a glimpse into their lives which few, if any, people see. And admissions officers want the thrill of uncovering something new and unexpected about the student. Remember that some admissions officers are reading thousands of essays a year. You want them to remember you for all the right reasons.

Another featured essay was by a young man who wrote about the adversity and strength of his family in the US and Kenya. So much of a student's application is the epitome of perfection: grades, advanced classes, high test scores, and an extracurricular activities list to envy.

It's possible his college counselor or a teacher might have known the depths of his family's story, but the student chose to reveal something far from perfect about his life.

Don't get me wrong, the essay shouldn't be overly sad or overly judgmental about the student's lot in life. No admissions officer wants to feel depressed after reading a student's essay just like few of us want to watch a movie that ends on a sad note. It's the student who is able to see the imperfection in their lives or someone else's and understand the underlying lessons that help them grow.

The young man who appreciates his parents' choice in making the arduous journey to the US, is more than ready to take bold steps in his own future. While many students tell me they haven't experienced great hardship or adversity, I guarantee you that everyone has experienced or at least observed the beauty of imperfection. Imperfection can show up in unlikely places, and it's often cloaked in societal expectations.

When the student is able to defy those expectations or even those stereotypes, magic ensues. The New York Times article featured essays with unexpected heroes and heroines, like the female cattle farmer or the Asian son with a stay-at-home father. These two young people defy gender stereotypes and even cultural ones.

It's nearly impossible not to be impressed when a young person is willing to share this side of who they are. One of the other essays featured was about a young woman who had to work as a cleaning lady with her grandmother to help support her family. While this is highly unusual for a youngster, the focus of the student's essay was more about the meaning of a quilt her grandmother made.

This is a wonderful example of picking a topic about something far from expensive or monumental. It's more about the student appreciating the small things in her life which hold much deeper meaning to who she is and how she was raised.

I had a range of emotions as I read all five essays in the article. I found myself choked up in one breath and grinning ear-to-ear in the next. That's one of the only common traits of a remarkable essay. As high school juniors finish the school year, I encourage them to think deeply before picking their essay topic.

I want them to pick something that they don't wear on their sleeve, literally or figuratively. I want them to uncover something about themselves this summer and be willing to share it. Sara Harberson is the founder of Sara Harberson. Diabetic Heart Attack Symptoms - research-paper-on-diabetes. This is a research paper topic outline on Diabetes. The research describes potential factors that may contribute to the need for more medical and health research into the problem.

Our writers at Paper Masters want to help you succeed in your medical health career. Therefore, we give you tips on how to write a research paper on diabetes. Your research paper will want to include the following information to fully cover the disease of diabetes.

Diabetes, at its simplest explanation, is a condition in which the body cannot metabolize food properly. Normally, food is processed when the body converts it to sugar and it enters the bloodstream. The pancreas produces insulin which is needed for the sugar to enter cell tissue where is then converted to energy. People with diabetes are either unable to produce insulin or cannot use it properly insulin resistance.

Your review of diabetes will want to explain many important issues of the illness, such as the following: Type 1 diabetes is the form where the pancreas does not produce insulin.

People with type 2 diabetes may need to take diabetes pills or insulin. It was formerly called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes. People with this form must obtain a synthetic form of insulin.

In some cases it can be managed with exercise and a meal plan. They either receive it from a shot or from an insulin pump. This form was previously named non insulin-dependent diabetes mettitus or maturity-onset diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes usually are not overweight. This acute illness often starts suddenly and results in frequent urination, increased thirst and appetite, rapid weight loss, and fatigue.

Type 2 diabetes is chronic in that it starts slowly. It is often diagnosed after age 40 and sufferers are usually overweight. Symptoms may be blurred vision, slow healing for cuts, numbness in extremities, recurring infections in the mouth or bladder or on the skin.

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Symptoms of type 1 are also experienced by people with type 2. The process noted above will be explained in more detail. Most of what we eat is either forms of carbohydrates or proteins. The pancreas is then signaled by beta cells to secrete insulin.

The process of digestion breaks them down into glucose and amino acids, respectively. This chemical is at its highest level ten minutes after eating. Insulin allows glucose and amino acids to enter muscle, liver and other cells. The brain and nervous system are not insulin-dependent. The liver stops producing glucose when insulin levels are high but instead stores it until insulin levels drop.

Blood glucose cannot enter cells and is instead dumped into urine. Four hours after a meal both blood glucose and insulin levels are low. The liver and muscles are damaged when they are not supplied with sugar Diet plays a role in both the prevention and management of the disease. A ten-year study has recently shown that strict control of blood sugar levels for diabetes patients can reduce long-term complications, and slow the onset and progression of the illness.

The American Diabetes Association recommends the use of a specific food pyramid that addresses the dietary needs of diabetics. Similar to the standard food pyramid, the largest group is grains, beans and starches. Diabetics need to eat servings from each group, except the fat, sweets, and alcohol group, every day. Diabetics are encouraged to make small changes over time. Everyone, including diabetics, should eat whole grains, beans and starchy vegetables such as peas, corn, potatoes and winter squash.

Vegetables are full of vitamins and minerals and give fiber. Fruit is confusing for diabetics because it is full of glucose. However, fruit is a carbohydrate, similar to bread. The juice in fruit may have a different effect on an empty stomach or depending on what medication the diabetic is taking.

People with the illness should examine how fruits affect their bodies. They are important for vitamins and minerals but probably should be taken in moderation.

Protein should be taken in greater quantities than the general public. Diabetics should eat between ten and 20 percent of their calories as protein. Table sugar does not affect a diabetic any more than other carbohydrates such as potatoes or pasta. However, sugar does not contain necessary vitamins and minerals. In summary, diet can be used to manage the disease, but extreme measures do not need to occur.

A healthy diet with a little more protein is sufficient. Scientists believe that a cure for diabetes is possible. These cures, however, cannot be conducted through diet alone. Possibilities include transplanted beta cells or development of specialized cells from stem-cell research.

Researchers in Australia explored the idea of genetically engineering liver cells to imitate the function of normal beta cells in the pancreas. The human insulin gene would be implanted in the genome of liver cells. Those cells could then synthesize, process and store insulin. Research paper writing services in pune We can write movie reviews just for you as well as render movie review help whenever you need. Our review writing service is waiting for your order! Pulp Fiction is a term used to describe a big amount of creative writing available to the US public in the early nineteen-hundreds.

If you wonder how to write a movie review, it is an excellent way to introduce the work. A famous film by scandalous Quentin Tarantino has two meanings: the cinematographic masterpiece released in the middle of 90s and the one described in the opening sentence of my article.

The main purpose of this piece is to explain how to write a film review. Is there anything else you want to learn about doing academic homework of different types and achieving the best results? Get professional academic assistance provided by the top-preferred creative experts from the trusted company.

Students who wish to understand how to write a film review for college should mind a general essay outline. Remember: no matter what type of academic assignment you face, the final paper should have a logical flow and high-quality content. These guys, professional composition gurus, are ready to handle the problem with developing an outline within the set time frame!

How to write a movie review in chronological order? Many students like working on movie reviews even if they hate writing assignments in general. It is easy: choose the film you love to share your impressions with your teacher and classmates if you know every episode of the selected motion picture.

Being an expert in the certain movie or genre is not enough; here are some valuable tips to consider if you wish to remember how to write a film review. List several good examples to support each idea retrieved from the movie or share in the form of your personal opinion e. If the action scenes are poor, try to find specific professional terminology they use in Hollywood to sound like an expert to your reading audience.

It is better to contact experts, your teacher, or people with richer life experience to collect evidence necessary to support your opinion. Have you seen something like the analyzed movie before?

If it is a remake, compare the original version with relaunch to make your review complete and more interesting. In this case, a student should watch both original movie and the relaunch. If you hesitate about creating a good outline, inserting quotations, or drafting the essay, you should keep in mind a time-tested, reliable method.

It gives you a chance to read a new book and then tell your teacher and friends what you thought about it. Here are some of the things you need to include in your book report: What happened in the book?

Was there a problem the characters were trying to solve? Describe what happened in the beginning, the middle and the end of the book. Talk about how the book made you feel — happy, sad, excited.

When you're finished writing the report, read it over carefully to make sure everything is spelled correctly. You can ask a grown up to help look for spelling mistakes too.

The student could do this for a screenplay or a produced movie. I know that being a reader improved my writing enormously, since. Writing a movie review can be a fun exercise that can also let other people know your opinion of the movie. If have friends or family with children it can also be a way of letting them know whether the movie is suitable for them.

To write a movie review you need something to write with like a computer or pen and paper and a way to distribute it once you have finished it such as a website or blog. You can write a review for a movie you recently watched in a theatre or on DVD and it does not matter whether it is a new or old movie, though reviews for newer movies often attract more attention.

Before writing your review you should write down your intial reaction to the movie. This can cover everything from the performances to the story and visual effects. This way you have your ideas on paper in case there is a significant amount of time between when you watch the movie and when you write the review.

Outlining the review will help you decide what order the information will be presented in. First, include a brief synopsis of the movie, hitting key points without giving any spoilers. Second, write about the actor's performances in the play and what stuck out to you. Third, write about the plot, specifically its strengths and weaknesses and whether it was well-paced or not.

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Fourth, write about the content of the movie including topics such as violence and swearing as well as whether it was family-friendly or not.

Finally, write a conclusion with your overall thoughts of the movie including whether or not you would recommend it to anyone. Write about the performances by the actors, specifically talking about the main characters. Include what stood out to you, both good and bad, devoting a brief description to each actor. Another option is to list each actor then allot a sentence to discussing their contribution to the movie.

A length of sentences is adequate, though it can be longer depending on the number of actors discussed. Talk about what worked and what didn't, as well as whether it held up as a feature length movie or not. This should act as a follow up to the movie synopsis that started the review. However, do not spend too much time on this section.

Write about the type of content the film contained. Discuss whether there was a lot of violence, nudity or swearing without giving exact numbers or details. You can say more with a more concise comment than with a full paragraph. Also state whether the movie is family-friendly or not, as parents may read a movie review before deciding whether it is appropriate for their child. The length of this section depends on the amount of content you want to talk about, though it is best to keep it to one sentence paragraph.

Give your opinion on the movie, citing examples from previous sections in the review. End the review by stating whether or not you would recommend it to anyone. How to write an accident report in word count for personal statement November 19, December 17, the lego movie review writing a case study analysis paper When I wrote for my college newspaper, one of the assignments I enjoyed most was writing film reviews.

Fortunately, I came to my senses and realized that evaluating films and plays and the like and, yes, books is more complicated, yet more satisfying, that that. I was writing the equivalent of book reports: movie reports. Here are some tips — not necessarily in the order in which they would be applied in your writing — for crafting movie reviews which are more or less applicable for reviewing other types of composition, or even products like software or gadgets : 1.

If circumstances permit, view the film more than once.

Express your opinion of the film, but support your criticism. If you are offended or disappointed or embarrassed, provide a valid reason, even if you think it is obvious. Pick one of the basic structures for organizing your research paper and start writing with a strong introduction. Before you turn in the final draft of your paper, go through a grammar checklist — and be sure to cite your sources. Use these rules for citing your sources:.

Provide a citation for all direct quotations from printed, electronic, or human sources. Cite the source when you use a train of logic or an organizational pattern created by someone else.

Use these tricks for taking notes and organizing your research:. Keep a master list of all sources, including title, author, date, publishing information, and page numbers. Give each source a code number, and label each note with the code and page number. If you write the exact words you found in the source, enclose the words in quotation marks. Rather the example of the evil into which a state has fallen because of its lawlessness should serve as a warning. Moreover, the bad example which one free person affords another as a is not an infringement of his rights.

But it would be quite different if a state, by internal rebellion, should fall into two parts, each of which pretended to be a separate state making claim to the whole.

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To lend assistance to one of these cannot be considered an interference in the constitution of the other state for it is then in a state of anarchy But so long as the internal dissension has not come to this critical point, such interference by foreign powers would infringe on the rights of an independent people struggling with its internal disease; hence it would itself be an offense and would render the autonomy of all states insecure. For some confidence in the character of the enemy must remain even in the midst of war, as otherwise no peace could be concluded and the hostilities would degenerate into a war of extermination bellum.

War, however, is only the sad recourse in the state of nature where there is no tribunal which could judge with the force of law by which each state asserts its right by violence and in which neither party can be adjudged unjust for that would presuppose a juridical decision ; in lieu of such a decision, the issue of the conflict as if given by a so-called "judgment of God" decides on which side justice lies.

But between states no punitive war bellum is conceivable, because there is no relation between them of master and servant. It follows that a war of extermination, in which the destruction of both parties and of all justice can result, would permit perpetual peace only in the vast burial ground of the human race. Therefore, such a war and the use of all means leading to it must be absolutely forbidden. But that the means cited do inevitably lead to it is clear from the fact that these infernal arts, vile in themselves, when once used would not long be confined to the sphere of war.

In this, one employs the infamy of others which can never be entirely eradicated only to encourage its persistence even into the state of peace, to the undoing of the very spirit of peace.

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Although the laws stated are objectively, i. For the prohibition concerns only the manner of acquisition which is no longer permitted, but not the possession, which, though not bearing a requisite title of right, has nevertheless been held lawful in all states by the public opinion of the time the time of the putative acquisition.

This does not always mean open hostilities, but at least an unceasing threat of war. A state of peace, therefore, must be established, for in order to be secured against hostility it is not sufficient that hostilities simply be not committed; and, unless this security is pledged to each by his neighbor a thing that can occur only in a civil state , each may treat his neighbor, from whom he demands this security, as an enemy.

The republican constitution, therefore, is, with respect to law, the one which is the original basis of every form of civil constitution. The only question now is: Is it also the one which can lead to perpetual peace? The republican constitution, besides the purity of its origin having sprung from the pure source of the concept of law , also gives a favorable prospect for the desired consequence, i.

The reason is this: if the consent of the citizens is required in order to decide that war should be declared and in this constitution it cannot but be the case , nothing is more natural than that they would be very cautious in commencing such a poor game, decreeing for themselves all the calamities of war. Among the latter would be: having to fight, having to pay the costs of war from their own resources, having painfully to repair the devastation war leaves behind, and, to fill up the measure of evils, load themselves with a heavy national debt that would embitter peace itself and that can never be liquidated on account of constant wars in the future.

But, on the other hand, in a constitution which is not republican, and under which the subjects are not citizens, a declaration of war is the easiest thing in the world to decide upon, because war does not require of the ruler, who is the proprietor and not a member of the state, the least sacrifice of the pleasures of his table, the chase, his country houses, his court functions, and the like.

He may, therefore, resolve on war as on a pleasure party for the most trivial reasons, and with perfect indifference leave the justification which decency requires to the diplomatic corps can be divided either according to the persons who possess the sovereign power or according to the mode of administration exercised over the people by the chief, whoever he may be.

The first is properly called the form of sovereignty and there are only three possible forms of it: autocracy, in which one, aristocracy, in which some associated together, or democracy, in which all those who constitute society, possess sovereign power.

They may be characterized, respectively, as the power of a monarch, of the nobility, or of the people. The second division is that by the form of government and is based on the way in which the state makes use of its power; this way is based on the constitution, which is the act of the general will through which the many persons become one nation.

In this respect government is either republican or despotic. Republicanism is the political principle of the separation of the executive power the administration from the legislative; despotism is that of the autonomous execution by the state of laws which it has itself decreed. Thus in a despotism the public will is administered by the ruler as his own will. Of the three forms of the state, that of democracy is, properly speaking, necessarily a despotism, because it establishes an executive power in which "all" decide for or even against one who does not agree; that is, "all," who are not quite all, decide, and this is a contradiction of the general will with itself and with freedom.

Every form of government which is not representative is, properly speaking, without form. The legislator can unite in one and the same person his function as legislative and as executor of his will just as little as the universal of the major premise in a syllogism can also be the of the particular under the universal in the minor. And even though the other two constitutions are always defective to the extent that they do leave room for this mode of administration, it is at least possible for them to assume a mode of government conforming to the spirit of a representative system as when Frederick II at least said he was merely the first servant of the state.

Therefore, we can say: the smaller the personnel of the government the smaller the number of rulers , the greater is their representation and the more nearly the constitution approaches to the possibility of republicanism; thus the constitution may be expected by gradual reform finally to raise itself to republicanism.

For these reasons it is more difficult for an aristocracy than for a monarchy to achieve the one completely juridical constitution, and it is impossible for a democracy to do so except by violent revolution. The mode of governments, 6 however, is incomparably more important to the people than the form of sovereignty, although much depends on the greater or lesser suitability of the latter to the end of [good] government. To conform to the concept of law, however, government must have a representative form, and in this system only a republican mode of government is possible; without it, government is despotic and arbitrary, whatever the constitution may be.

None of the ancient so-called "republics" knew this system, and they all finally and inevitably degenerated into despotism under the sovereignty of one, which is the most bearable of all forms of despotism. Each of , may and should for the sake of its own security demand that the others enter with it into a constitution similar to the civil constitution, for under such a constitution each can be secure in his right.

This would be a league of nations, but it would not have to be a state consisting of nations. That would be contradictory, since a state implies the relation of a superior legislating to an inferior obeying , i. This contradicts the presupposition, for here we have to weigh the rights of nations against each other so far as they are distinct states and not amalgamated into one. When we see the attachment of savages to their lawless freedom, preferring ceaseless combat to subjection to a lawful constraint which they might establish, and thus preferring senseless freedom to rational freedom, we regard it with deep contempt as barbarity, rudeness, and a brutish degradation of humanity.

Accordingly, one would think that civilized people each united in a state would hasten all the more to escape, the sooner the better, from such a depraved condition.

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But, instead, each state places its majesty for it is absurd to speak of the majesty of the people in being subject to no external juridical restraint, and the splendor of its sovereign consists in the fact that many thousands stand at his command to sacrifice themselves for something that does not concern them and without his needing to place himself in the least danger. When we consider the perverseness of human nature which is nakedly revealed in the uncontrolled relations between nations this perverseness being veiled in the state of civil law by the constraint exercised by government , we may well be astonished that the word "law" has not yet been banished from war politics as pedantic, and that no state has yet been bold enough to advocate this point of view.

Up to the present, Hugo Grotius, , and many other irritating comforters have been cited in justification of war, though their code, philosophically or diplomatically formulated, has not and cannot have the least legal force, because states as such do not stand under a common external power.

There is no instance on record that a state has ever been moved to desist from its purpose because of arguments backed up by the testimony of such great men. But the homage which each state pays at least in words to the concept of law proves that there is slumbering in man an even greater moral disposition to become master of the evil principle in himself which he cannot disclaim and to hope for the same from others.

Otherwise the word "law" would never be pronounced by states which wish to war upon one another; it would be used only ironically, as a Gallic prince interpreted it when he said, "It is the prerogative which nature has given the stronger that the weaker should obey him. But by war and its favorable issue, in victory, right is not decided, and though by a treaty of peace this particular war is brought to an end, the state of war, of always finding a new pretext to hostilities, is not terminated.

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Nor can this be declared wrong, considering the fact that in this state each is the judge of his own case. Notwithstanding, the obligation which men in a lawless condition have under the natural law, and which requires them to abandon the state of nature, does not quite apply to states under the law of nations, for as states they already have an internal juridical constitution and have thus outgrown compulsion from others to submit to a more extended lawful constitution according to their ideas of right.

This is true in spite of the fact that reason, from its throne of supreme moral legislating authority, absolutely condemns war as a legal recourse and makes a state of peace a direct duty, even though peace cannot be established or secured except by a compact among nations.

For these reasons there must be a league of a particular kind, which can be called a league of peace by the fact that the latter terminates only one war, while the former seeks to make an end of all wars forever. This league does not tend to any dominion over the power of the state but only to the maintenance and security of the freedom of the state itself and of other states in league with it, without there being any need for them to submit to civil laws and their compulsion, as men in a state of nature must submit.

The practicability objective reality of this idea of federation, which should gradually spread to all states and thus lead to perpetual peace, can be proved. For if fortune directs that a powerful and enlightened people can make itself a republic, which by its nature must be inclined to perpetual peace, this gives a fulcrum to the federation with other states so that they may adhere to it and thus secure freedom under the idea of the law of nations.

By more and more such associations, the federation may be gradually extended. We may readily conceive that a people should say, "There ought to be no war among us, for we want to make ourselves into a state; that is, we want to establish a supreme legislative, executive, and judiciary power which will reconcile our differences peaceably.

The concept of a law of nations as a right to make war does not really mean anything, because it is then a law of deciding what is right by unilateral maxims through force and not by universally valid public laws which restrict the freedom of each one. The only conceivable meaning of such a law of nations might be that it serves men right who are so inclined that they should destroy each other and thus find perpetual peace in the vast grave that swallows both the atrocities and their perpetrators.

For states in their relation to each other, there cannot be any reasonable way out of the lawless condition which entails only war except that they, like individual men, should give up their savage lawless freedom, adjust themselves to the constraints of public law, and thus establish a continuously growing state consisting of various nations , which will ultimately include all the nations of the world.

But under the idea of the law of nations they do not wish this, and reject in practice what is correct in theory. If all is not to be lost, there can be, then, in place of the positive idea of a world republic, only the negative surrogate of an alliance which averts war, endures, spreads, and holds back the stream of those hostile passions which fear the law, though such an alliance is in constant peril of their breaking loose again.

Hospitality means the right of a stranger not to be treated as an enemy when he arrives in the land of another.

One may refuse to receive him when this can be done without causing his destruction; but, so long as he peacefully occupies his place, one may not treat him with hostility. It is not the right to be a permanent visitor that one may demand. A special beneficent agreement would be needed in order to give an outsider a right to become a fellow inhabitant for a certain length of time.

It is only a right of temporary sojourn, a right to associate, which all men have. They have it by virtue of their common possession of the surface of the earth, where, as a globe, they cannot infinitely disperse and hence must finally tolerate the presence of each other. Originally, no one had more right than another to a particular part of the earth.

Uninhabitable parts of the earth--the sea and the deserts--divide this community of all men, but the ship and the camel the desert ship enable them to approach each other across these regions and to establish communication by using the common right to the face of the earth, which belongs to human beings generally. The inhospitality of the inhabitants of coasts for instance, of the Barbary Coast in robbing ships in neighboring seas or enslaving stranded travelers, or the inhospitality of the inhabitants of the deserts for instance, the Bedouin Arabs who view contact with nomadic tribes as conferring the right to plunder them, is thus opposed to natural law, even though it extends the right of hospitality, i.

In this way distant parts of the world can come into peaceable relations with each other, and these are finally publicly established by law. Thus the human race can gradually be brought closer and closer to a constitution establishing world citizenship. But to this perfection compare the inhospitable actions of the civilized and especially of the commercial states of our part of the world.

The injustice which they show to lands and peoples they visit which is equivalent to conquering them is carried by them to terrifying lengths. America, the lands inhabited by the Negro, the Spice Islands, the Cape, etc. In East India Hindustan , under the pretense of establishing economic undertakings, they brought in foreign soldiers and used them to oppress the natives, excited widespread wars among the various states, spread famine, rebellion, perfidy, and the whole litany of evils which afflict mankind.

China and Japan Nippon , who have had experience with such guests, have wisely refused them entry, the former permitting their approach to their shores but not their entry, while the latter permit this approach to only one European people, the Dutch, but treat them like prisoners, not allowing them any communication with the inhabitants.

The worst of this or, to speak with the moralist, the best is that all these outrages profit them nothing, since all these commercial ventures stand on the verge of collapse, and the Sugar Islands, that place of the most refined and cruel slavery, produces no real revenue except indirectly, only serving a not very praiseworthy purpose of furnishing sailors for war fleets and thus for the conduct of war in Europe.

This service is rendered to powers which make a great show of their piety, and, while they drink injustice like water, they regard themselves as the elect in point of orthodoxy. Since the narrower or wider community of the peoples of the earth has developed so far that a violation of rights in one place is felt throughout the world, the idea of a law of world citizenship is no high-flown or exaggerated notion.

It is a supplement to the unwritten code of the civil and international law, indispensable for the maintenance of the public human rights and hence also of perpetual peace. One cannot flatter oneself into believing one can approach this peace except under the condition outlined here. A hereditary kingdom is not a state which can be inherited by another state, but the right to govern it can be inherited by another physical person. The state thereby acquires a ruler, but he, as a ruler i.

It has not without cause hitherto been doubted whether besides the commands of pure reason. For laws as such contain a principle of objective practical necessity, while permission implies a principle of the practical contingency of certain actions. Hence a law of permission would imply constraint to an action to do that to which no one can be constrained.

If the object of the law has the same meaning in both cases, this is a contradiction. But in permissive law, which is in question here, the prohibition refers only to the future mode of acquisition of a right e.

This possession, though only putative, may be held to be just putative in the transition from the state of nature to a civil state, by virtue of a permissive law included under natural law, even though it is [strictly] illegal. But, as soon as it is recognized as illegal in the state of nature, a similar mode of acquisition in the subsequent civil state after this transition has occurred is forbidden, and this right to continuing possession would not hold if such a presumptive acquisition had taken place in the civil state.

For in this case it would be an infringement which would have to cease as soon as its illegality was discovered.

Literature Reviews

I have wished only to call the attention of the teachers of natural law to the concept of a permissive, which systematic reason affords, particularly since in civil statute law use is often made of it. But in the ordinary use of it, there is this difference: prohibitive law stands alone, while permission is not introduced into it as a limiting condition as it should be but counted among the exceptions to it.

Then it is said, "This or that is forbidden, except Nos. These exceptions are added to the law only as an afterthought required by our groping around among cases as they arise, and not by any principle. Otherwise the conditions would have had to be introduced into the formula of the prohibition, and in this way it would itself have become a permissive law. It is, therefore, unfortunate that the subtle question proposed by the wise and acute Count von was never answered and soon consigned to oblivion, because it insisted on the point here discussed.