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N. Gregory Mankiw Brief principles of macroeconomics pdf and three accompany Michael Parkin's Macroeconomics, Tenth Edition. The complete set of. ECONOMICS TENTH EDITION MICHAEL PARKIN University of Western Ontario Professor Parkin's research on macroeconomics, monetary economics, and. Macroeconomics, Michael Parkin, 10th Edition,Solution-odd Numbers - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. This document .

The relationship is a set of curves, one for each different temperature. To draw a graph of the relationship between the price and the number of rides, keep the temperature at 50F and plot the data in that column against the price. The curve that you draw is the relationship between price and num- ber of rides when the temperature is 50F. Now repeat the exercise but keep the temperature at 70F. Then repeat the exercise but keep the temperature at 90F. The relationship is a set of curves, one for each different price.

With CD players cheaper than they were, some people will download CD players. The demand for CDs will increase, and the demand for audiotapes will decrease.

The price of an audiotape will rise, and the quantity sold will increase. An increase in consumers income will increase the demand for audiotapes. As a result, the price of an audio- tape will rise and the quantity bought will increase.

The price of an audiotape will rise, and the quantity sold will decrease. If the workers who make audiotapes get a pay raise, the cost of making an audiotape increases and the supply of audiotapes decreases. The price will rise, and people will download fewer audiotapes. The quantity sold will decrease, but the price might rise, fall, or stay the same. If the price of a Walkman rises, fewer Walkmans will be bought and so the demand for audiotapes will decrease.

If the wages paid to workers who make audiotapes rise, the supply of audiotapes decreases. The quantity of audiotapes sold will decrease, and the price of an audiotape will rise. Taking the two events together, the quantity sold will decrease, but the price might rise, fall, or stay the same.

If the price of a car rises, the quantity of cars bought decrease. So the demand for gasoline decreases. If all speed limits on highways are abolished, people will drive faster and use more gasoline. The demand for gasoline increases.

If robot production plants lower the cost of producing a car, the supply of cars will increase. With no change in the demand for cars, the price of a car will fall and more cars will be bought.

If the price of crude oil rises, the cost of produc- ing gasoline will rise. So the supply of gasoline decreases. So the sup- ply of gasoline decreases. The quanti- ty demanded of gasoline decreases. The sup- ply of gasoline does not change, so the price of gasoline falls and there is a movement down the supply curve of gasoline. The quantity supplied of gasoline decreases.

The supply of gasoline does not change, so the price of gasoline rises and there is a move- ment up along the supply curve. The quantity supplied of gasoline increases.

The supply of gasoline does not change, so the price of gasoline rises and the quantity of gasoline supplied increases. The demand curve is the curve that slopes down toward to the right. The supply curve is the curve that slopes up toward to the right. Market equilibrium is determined at the intersection of the demand curve and supply curve. The equilibrium price is 50 cents a pack, and the equilib- rium quantity is million packs a week. The price of a pack adjusts until the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.

At 50 cents a pack, the quantity demanded is million packs a week and the quantity supplied is million packs a week. At 70 cents a pack, there will be a surplus of gum and the price will fall. At 70 cents a pack, the quantity demanded is 80 million packs a week and the quantity supplied is million packs a week. There is a surplus of 80 million packs a week. The price will fall until market equilibrium is restored50 cents a pack. The supply curve has shifted leftward.

As the number of gum-producing factories decreases, the supply of gum decreases. There is a new supply schedule, and the supply curve shifts leftward.

There has been a movement along the demand curve. The supply of gum decreases, and the supply curve shifts leftward. Demand does not change, so the price rises along the demand curve. The equilibrium price is 60 cents, and the equilibrium quantity is million packs a week. Supply decreases by 40 millions packs a week.

That is, the quantity supplied at each price decreases by 40 million packs. The quantity supplied at 50 cents is now 80 mil- lion packs, and there is a shortage of gum. The price rises to 60 cents a pack, at which the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded million packs a week.

The new price is 70 cents a pack, and the quantity is million packs a week. The demand for gum increases, and the demand curve shifts rightward. The quantity demanded at each price increases by 40 million packs. The result of the fire is a price of 60 cents a pack. At this price, there is now a shortage of gum. The price of gum will rise until the shortage is eliminated.

To answer problems that involve more than one country, use the International Comparisons dataset and not the indi- vidual country datasets. After plotting the graph, students can print it, and then use the printed graph to answer the questions.

The growth rate of real GDP in was highest in Canada. The unemployment rate in was highest in Canada.

The inflation rate in was lowest in the United Kingdom. The government budget deficit in was largest in the United States. Indias economic growth rate was positive in every year from to Its economic growth rate was fastest in Pakistans economic growth rate was not negative during this period. Its economic growth rate was slowest in From to , when Indias economic growth rate increased, Pakistans decreased.

But from to , both economic growth rates increased. In , they were the same. Germany had one recession in the third and fourth quar- ters of A recession is a period during which real GDP decreases for at least two successive quarters. Real GDP decreased in the third and fourth quarters of Germany experienced a business cycle peak in the fourth quarter of A business cycle peak is the upper turn- ing point.

A peak occurs when real GDP stops growing and starts to decrease. Germany experienced a business cycle trough in the fourth quarter of A business cycle trough is the lower turning point of a business cycle where a recession ends and an expansion begins. Germany experienced an expansion during the third and fourth quarters of and from the first quarter of through the second quarter of An expansion is a period during which real GDP increases.

In , Canada, Japan, and Germany had current account surpluses, while the United States had a current account deficit. Japan had the largest current account surplus. There is no clear relationship, either positive or negative, between inflation and unemployment. No, there is no evidence from the data that low unem- ployment brings an increase in the inflation rate.

Low levels of both seem to be consistent with the data. Aggregate expen- diture is the sum of consumption expenditure, invest- ment, government downloads, and net exports. In the figure, B is consumption expenditure, D is investment, C is government downloads, and E is net exports. Government budget deficit equals government downloads minus net taxes.

C is government downloads, and A is net taxes. Household saving equals aggregate income minus con- sumption expenditure minus net taxes. To make a scatter diagram, plot the inflation rate on the x-axis and the interest rate on the y-axis.

The graph will be a set of dots. The pattern made by the dots tells us that as the inflation rate increases, the interest rate usually increases. To make a graph that shows the relationship between x and y, plot x on the x-axis and y on the y-axis. The rela- tionship is positive because x and y move in the same direction: As x increases, y increases.

The slope increases as x increases. Slope is equal to the change in y divided by the change in x as we move along the curve. When x increases from1 to 2 a change of 1 , y increases from 1 to 4 a change of 3 , so the slope is 3.

But when x increases from 4 to 5 a change of 1 , y increases from 16 to 25 a change of 9 , so the slope is 9. The taller the building, the bigger is the cost of building it. The higher the unemployment rate, the higher is the crime rate. The longer the flight, the larger is the amount of fuel used. The slope equals 8. The slope of the curve at the point where x is 4 is equal to the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point.

Plot the points of the relationship and then draw a nice smooth curve through those points. Now draw the tan- gent line at the point where x is 4 and y is Now calcu- late the slope of this tangent line.

To do this, you must find another point on the tangent. The tangent line will cut the x-axis at 2, so another point is x equals 2 and y equals 0.

The rise is 16 and the run is 2, so the slope is 8. The slope is 7. The slope of the relationship across the arc when x increases from 3 to 4 is equal to the slope of the straight line joining the points on the curve at x equals 3 and x equals 4. In the graph, draw this straight line. When x increases from 3 to 4, y increases from 9 to The rise is 7 16 minus 9 and the run is 1 4 minus 3 , so the slope across the arc is 7.

The curve is a straight line, so its slope is the same at all points on the curve. Slope equals the change in the vari- able on the y-axis divided by the change in the variable on the x-axis. To calculate the slope, you must select two points on the line. One point is at 10 on the y-axis and 0 on the x-axis, and another is at 8 on the x-axis and 0 on the y-axis. The change in y from 10 to 0 is associated with the change in x from 0 to 8.

To calculate the slope at a point on a curved line, draw the tangent to the line at the point. Then find a second point on the tangent and calculate the slope of the tangent. The tangent at point a cuts the y-axis at The slope of the tangent equals the change in y divided by the change in x.

The tangent at point b cuts the x-axis at 8. The change in y equals 1. The slope across an arc AB equals the change in y, which is 4. The slope across the arc AB equals 4. The relationship is a set of curves, one for each different temperature. The relationship is a set of curves, one for each different price.

The relationship is a set of curves, one for each different number of rides. To draw a graph of the relationship between the tempera- ture and price, keep the number of rides at 32 and plot the data along the diagonal in the table. The curve is the relationship between temperature and price at which 32 rides are taken.

Now repeat the exercise and keep the number of rides at Repeat the exercise again and keep the number of rides at 18 and then at When Wendell increases the time he plays tennis from 4 hours to 6 hours, his grade in economics falls from 75 percent to 70 percent. His opportunity cost of 2 hours of tennis is 5 percentage points. So his opportunity cost of 1 hour of tennis is 2. When Wendell increases the time he plays tennis from 6 hours to 8 hours, his grade in economics falls from 70 percent to 60 percent.

His opportunity cost of 2 hours of tennis is 10 percentage points. So his opportunity cost of 1 hour of tennis is 5 percentage points. When Wendell increases the time he plays tennis from 4 hours to 6 hours, his opportunity cost is 5 percentage points. But when he increases the time he plays tennis from 6 hours to 8 hours, his opportunity cost is 10 per- centage points.

When Wendell increases the time he plays tennis from 4 hours to 6 hours, his opportunity cost of the additional 2 hours of tennis is 5 percentage points.

So his opportunity cost of an additional 1 hour is 2. So plot this opportunity cost at 5 hours on the graph the midpoint between 4 and 6 hours. When he increases the time he plays tennis from 6 hours to 8 hours, his opportu- nity cost of the additional 2 hours of tennis is 10 percent- age points. So his opportunity cost of the additional 1hour of tennis is 5 percentage points.

So plot this opportunity cost at 7 hours on the graph the midpoint between 6 and 8 hours. When he increases the time he plays tennis from 8 hours to 10 hours, his opportunity cost of the additional 2 hours of tennis is 20 percentage points. So his opportuni- ty cost of the additional 1hour of tennis is 10 percentage points.

So plot this opportunity cost at 9 hours on the graph the midpoint between 8 and 10 hours. Join up the points plotted.

Wendell uses his time efficiently if he plays tennis for 7 hours a week—marginal benefit from tennis equals its marginal cost. When Wendell plays 7 hours of tennis, his grade in economics from his PPF is 65 percent. If Wendell studied for enough hours to get a higher grade, he would have fewer hours to play tennis. Then plot the quantities in each row of the table and join up the points.

The opportunity cost of the first pounds of food is 50 gallons of sunscreen. To find the opportunity cost of the first pounds of food, increase the quantity of food from 0 pounds to pounds. Similarly, the opportu- nity costs of producing the second pounds and the third pounds of food are 50 gallons of sunscreen.

The opportunity cost of 1 gallon of sunscreen is 2 pounds of food. The opportunity cost of producing the first 50 gallons of sunscreen is pounds of food. To calculate this opportunity cost, increase the quantity of sunscreen from 0 gallons to 50 gallons. Similarly, the opportunity cost of producing the second 50 gallons and the third 50 gallons of sunscreen are pounds of food. The marginal benefit curve slopes downward. To draw the marginal benefit from sunscreen, plot the quantity of sunscreen on the x-axis and the willingness to pay for sunscreen that is, the number of pounds of food that they are willing to give up to get a gallon of sun- screen on the y-axis.

The efficient quantity is 75 gallons a month. The efficient quantity to produce is such that the margin- al benefit from the last gallon equals the opportunity cost of producing it.

The opportunity cost of a gallon of sun- screen is 2 pounds of food. The marginal benefit of the 75th gallon of sunscreen is 2 pounds of food. And the marginal cost of the 75th gallon of sunscreen is 2 pounds of food. When Busyland increases the food it produces by 50 pounds a month, it produces gallons of sunscreen less. The opportunity cost of 1 pound of food is 2 gallons of sunscreen. Similarly, when Busyland increases the sun- screen it produces by gallons a month, it produces 50 pounds of food less.

The opportunity cost of 1 gallon of sunscreen is 0. Sunland sells food and downloads sunscreen. Sunland sells the good in which it has a comparative advan- tage and downloads the other good from Busyland. The gains from trade for each country are 50 pounds of food and 50 gallons of sunscreen. With specialization and trade, together they can produce pounds of food and gallons of sunscreen.

So each will get pounds of food and gallons of sun- screen—an additional 50 pounds of food and 50 gallons of sunscreen. The price of an audiotape will rise, and the quantity of audiotapes sold will increase. CDs and audiotapes are substitutes. If the price of a CD rises, people will download more audiotapes and fewer CDs. The demand for audiotapes will increase. The price of an audiotape will rise, and more audiotapes will be sold. The price of an audiotape will fall, and fewer audiotapes will be sold.

Walkmans and audiotapes are complements. If the price of a Walkman rises, fewer Walkmans will be bought. The demand for audiotapes will decrease. The price of an audiotape will fall, and people will download fewer audiotapes.

The price of an audiotape will fall and fewer audiotapes will be sold. The increase in the supply of CD players will lower the price of a CD player. With CD players cheaper than they were, some people will download CD players.

The demand for CDs will increase, and the demand for audiotapes will decrease. The price of an audiotape will rise, and the quantity sold will increase.

As a result, the price of an audio- tape will rise and the quantity bought will increase. The price of an audiotape will rise, and the quantity sold will decrease. If the workers who make audiotapes get a pay raise, the cost of making an audiotape increases and the supply of audiotapes decreases. The price will rise, and people will download fewer audiotapes. The quantity sold will decrease, but the price might rise, fall, or stay the same.

If the price of a Walkman rises, fewer Walkmans will be bought and so the demand for audiotapes will decrease. If the wages paid to workers who make audiotapes rise, the supply of audiotapes decreases. The quantity of audiotapes sold will decrease, and the price of an audiotape will rise.

Taking the two events together, the quantity sold will decrease, but the price might rise, fall, or stay the same. If the price of a car rises, the quantity of cars bought decrease. So the demand for gasoline decreases. If all speed limits on highways are abolished, people will drive faster and use more gasoline. The demand for gasoline increases. If robot production plants lower the cost of producing a car, the supply of cars will increase. With no change in the demand for cars, the price of a car will fall and more cars will be bought.

If the price of crude oil rises, the cost of produc- ing gasoline will rise. So the supply of gasoline decreases. So the sup- ply of gasoline decreases. The quanti- ty demanded of gasoline decreases. The sup- ply of gasoline does not change, so the price of gasoline falls and there is a movement down the supply curve of gasoline.

The quantity supplied of gasoline decreases. The supply of gasoline does not change, so the price of gasoline rises and there is a move- ment up along the supply curve. The quantity supplied of gasoline increases. The supply of gasoline does not change, so the price of gasoline rises and the quantity of gasoline supplied increases. The demand curve is the curve that slopes down toward to the right. The supply curve is the curve that slopes up toward to the right.

Market equilibrium is determined at the intersection of the demand curve and supply curve. The equilibrium price is 50 cents a pack, and the equilib- rium quantity is million packs a week. The price of a pack adjusts until the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.

At 50 cents a pack, the quantity demanded is million packs a week and the quantity supplied is million packs a week.

At 70 cents a pack, there will be a surplus of gum and the price will fall. At 70 cents a pack, the quantity demanded is 80 million packs a week and the quantity supplied is million packs a week. There is a surplus of 80 million packs a week. The price will fall until market equilibrium is restored—50 cents a pack. The supply curve has shifted leftward. As the number of gum-producing factories decreases, the supply of gum decreases.

There is a new supply schedule, and the supply curve shifts leftward. There has been a movement along the demand curve. The supply of gum decreases, and the supply curve shifts leftward. Demand does not change, so the price rises along the demand curve. The equilibrium price is 60 cents, and the equilibrium quantity is million packs a week. Supply decreases by 40 millions packs a week. That is, the quantity supplied at each price decreases by 40 million packs.

The quantity supplied at 50 cents is now 80 mil- lion packs, and there is a shortage of gum. The price rises to 60 cents a pack, at which the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded million packs a week. The new price is 70 cents a pack, and the quantity is million packs a week. The demand for gum increases, and the demand curve shifts rightward.

The quantity demanded at each price increases by 40 million packs. The result of the fire is a price of 60 cents a pack. At this price, there is now a shortage of gum. The price of gum will rise until the shortage is eliminated. To answer problems that involve more than one country, use the International Comparisons dataset and not the indi- vidual country datasets.

After plotting the graph, students can print it, and then use the printed graph to answer the questions.

The growth rate of real GDP in was highest in Canada. The unemployment rate in was highest in Canada. The inflation rate in was lowest in the United Kingdom.

The government budget deficit in was largest in the United States. Its economic growth rate was fastest in Its economic growth rate was slowest in But from to , both economic growth rates increased. In , they were the same. Germany had one recession in the third and fourth quar- ters of A recession is a period during which real GDP decreases for at least two successive quarters. Real GDP decreased in the third and fourth quarters of Germany experienced a business cycle peak in the fourth quarter of A business cycle peak is the upper turn- ing point.

A peak occurs when real GDP stops growing and starts to decrease. Germany experienced a business cycle trough in the fourth quarter of A business cycle trough is the lower turning point of a business cycle where a recession ends and an expansion begins.

Germany experienced an expansion during the third and fourth quarters of and from the first quarter of through the second quarter of An expansion is a period during which real GDP increases. In , Canada, Japan, and Germany had current account surpluses, while the United States had a current account deficit. Japan had the largest current account surplus. There is no clear relationship, either positive or negative, between inflation and unemployment.

No, there is no evidence from the data that low unem- ployment brings an increase in the inflation rate. Low levels of both seem to be consistent with the data. Aggregate expen- diture is the sum of consumption expenditure, invest- ment, government downloads, and net exports.

In the figure, B is consumption expenditure, D is investment, C is government downloads, and E is net exports. Government budget deficit equals government downloads minus net taxes. C is government downloads, and A is net taxes. Household saving equals aggregate income minus con- sumption expenditure minus net taxes. In the figure, B is consumption expenditure and A is net taxes.

Government saving equals net taxes minus government downloads. In the figure, A is net taxes and C is government expenditure. National saving equals the sum of household saving and government saving. Borrowing from the rest of the world equals minus net exports. We are in surplus, so foreigners are in deficit and they must borrow from us to pay for their deficit. Final capital stock equals initial capital stock plus net investment.

Net investment equals gross investment minus depreciation. GDP equals the sum of consumption expenditure plus investment plus government downloads plus exports minus imports. Expenditure approach. Income approach cannot be used because there are no data on interest, rent, depreciation, and indirect taxes and subsidies. Investment is financed by private saving plus government saving plus borrowing from the rest of the world.

Government saving equals the budget surplus, which equals net taxes minus government downloads. Very often people of great post try to control everything forgetting about their main task and main goals. Only when you feel that you are heard and understood by others, that they appreciate you and follow you, so then you may feel happy.

If you will be alone and work for no one being at the great place, so this work will does not have any results, except of negative. You should feel support and comprehension, understanding and gratitude. You must see that all you do is right and not in vain. Have you ever noticed that politics are really successful only when they are appreciated by people?

And it is not only about voting, but during it, of course, as well. If people value their power, other ones will appreciate it too. Of course, such leaders will feel themselves happy: they may be sure that approximately all their deeds are right and helpful. It is simple, by the way: an effect of situation: if you are loved by someone, especially, by many people, very often others pay a lot of attention to you.

Well, perhaps, you may disagree and say that sometimes even bad politics and leaders in general may be happy but indifferent to their people or workers.

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