Pedro Paramo - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Rights Reserved. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd . In the first pages of Juan Rulfo's oracular Pedro Páramo (), Juan Preciado meets. It_Starts_With_Food__Discover_the_Whole30_-_Hartwig,tvnovellas.info It Starts Pedro Páramo se arrellanó en un pesebre y esperó: —¿Por qué no te sientas?.
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I came to Comala because I had been told that my father, a man named Pedro Paramo lived there. It was my mother who told me. And I had promised her that. PEDRO PARAMO. By Juan Rulfo. I came to Comala because I was told that my father, a man called Pedro Paramo, was living there. It was what my mother had. I came to Comala because I had been told that my father, a man named Pedro Paramo lived there. And I had promised her that after she died I would go see him. Little by little I began to build a world around a hope centered on the man called Pedro Paramo, the man who had been my.
We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. Hegel's sweeping judgment, made over a cen tury and a half ago, that? As early as the eighth century B. Hesiod Works and Days, , told of the passing of the age of Homeric glory, Zeus's relegation of the true heroes to their own territory at the ends of the earth, and the disap pearance of the virtues and spirit of the warrior caste among a population enjoying the life and the accommodations of civiliza tion. Eliot's more recent and more pessimistic view, pur poseful heroism?
A woman stood there. She said, "Come in. So I stayed in Comala. The man with the burros had gone on his way. Before leaving, he'd said: "I still have a way to go, yonder where you see that band of hills. My house is there. If you want to come, you will be welcome.
For now, if you want to stay here, then stay. You got nothing to lose by taking a look around, you may find someone who's still among the living. That was why I had come. Tell her I sent you. But he was too far for me to hear his last name. I am Eduviges Dyada. Come in. Everything was ready, she said, motioning for me to follow her through a long series of dark, seemingly empty, rooms. But no. As soon as my eyes grew used to the darkness and the thin thread of light following us, I saw shadows looming on either side, and sensed that we were walking down a narrow passageway opened between bulky shapes.
As people went away, they chose my house to store their belongings, but not one of them has ever come back to claim them. The room I kept for you is here at the back. I keep it cleaned out in case anyone comes. So you're her son? But how did you know? Today, in fact. That you would be coming today.
My mother? Your mother. But Eduviges left me no time for thinking. The room had no doors, except for the one we had entered. She lighted the candle, and I could see the room was completely empty. You must be tired from your journey, and weariness makes a good mattress. I'll fix you up a bed first thing in the morning. You can't expect me to have things ready on the spur of the moment. A person needs some warning, and I didn't get word from your mother until just now.
Now I understand.
And when did she die? She must've thought I'd forsaken her.
We made each other a promise we'd die together. That we would go hand in hand, to lend each other courage on our last journey - in case we had need for something, or ran into trouble. We were the best of friends. Didn't she ever talk about me? Of course, we were just girls then. She was barely married. But we loved each other very much. Your mother was so pretty, so, well, sweet, that it made a person happy to love her. You wanted to love her. So, she got a head start on me, eh? Well, you can be sure I'll catch up with her.
No one knows better than I do how far heaven is, but I also know all the shortcuts. The secret is to die, God willing, when you want to, and not when He proposes. Or else to force Him to take you before your time.
Forgive me for going on like this, talking to you as if we were old friends, but I do it because you're like my own son.
Yes, I said it a thousand times: 'Dolores's boy should have been my son. All I want to say now is that I'll catch up with your mother along one of the roads to eternity. But by now I wasn't thinking at all. I felt I was in a faraway world and let myself be pulled along by the current.
My body, which felt weaker and weaker, surrendered completely; it had slipped its ties and anyone who wanted could have wrung me out like a rag. A bite. Anything there is. I'll come later. The storm had passed. After he arrives Preciado discovers that, although the inhabitants of the town are dead, their spirits live, and their main occupation is recalling the past.
The minimal action of Pedro P? The story's presentation is This content downloaded from The book's contents are mostly fragments of conversations and descrip tions overheard by Juan Preciado, who is sometimes the text's im perfect narrator. The components are left to be pieced together by the reader. In Pedro P? Allusions to the epic, and to its values of purposefulness, progression and visionary hope, make the fic tional reality and outlook of the novel- despair, stasis and nihilism-more powerful and more absolute by implied com parison.
Rulfo does not simply tarnish or diminish the epic com ponents, or invert epic values.
This method is-at least in part parody, a tradition, apparently, since Homer created his now lost Margites, and used widely since by Pope Dunciad , in the pica resque, by Fielding, and by many others. Rulfo's negation of the epic is more sweeping and more final. He introduces into his work familiar topoi of epic literature? Then, having awakened in his readers some of the expectations of purposefulness, struggle, eventual triumph and vin dication which are central to the epic, he shows that in C?
Pedro P? Rulfo's text negates the power of epic inspira tion and denies Comala's potential for overcoming its fragmenta tion and its lack of direction. TC, 7,3 no reality save its own. Instead of the affirmation of life and human potential which the heroic epic celebrates, Pedro P? The characters are all dead, but in their tombs they are condemned to recall, again and again, their unispired and unproductive lives on earth.
Rulfo's vision is highly original, but there are many elements of his work which recall Homer's Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid, the Renaissance heroic epics like Camoes' Os Lusiadas and Ercilla's La Araucana and most of all Dante's Commedia.
For our purposes we need not consider Dante's work as an epic in the classical sense, but we must recognize that it draws heavily on the epic tradition and uses epic elements within a medieval Christian framework. The hero proves himself in the face of the terrifying circumstances of Hell and the awesome presences in Heaven.
Like more traditional epics, the Commedia is based on morality, on rewarding heroism and bravery, on keeping to the straight path of righteousness. Dante shares with epic authors the faith that mankind is capable of progess, for which man himself is responsible. Ill Pedro P? Juan Preciado undertakes a difficult journey to the ghost town of C?
He wants to achieve self-confidence and self-sufficiency, but he is no match for the strange forces which besiege him and which he cannot comprehend; he is paralyzed by fear. He longs to understand and dominate his own situation, but he receives no direction, help or ecouragement from the shadowy figures he finds around him. Finally, he decides that he wants to This content downloaded from Thus Preciado's aspirations recall those of the epic heroes, but his limitations are those of Kafka's characters.
Juan Preciado's individual failures are emblematic of the collective failure of all the Comalans: Their lack of direction and purpose; their inability to mount a struggle against their cacique, Pedro P? Chronometry is meaningless in C?
Thus Rulfo invalidates the epic tenet of meaning achieved through time, a sense of progression of events leading to definite and conclusive ends, in corporating the possibility of progress. The only notion of this sort might be that of the reader who is tempted to put together the pieces of the narrative and to build up a chronology and causal linkage-one which is ultimately negated by the overall strategy of the text, with its foreseen repetition until the number of cycles be comes lost in infinity, and the significance of events, whatever their original meanings or value, is lost beyond recovery.
Juan Preciado, and through him the reader, finds that Co mala's lifelessness is a product of the town's own, singular history, which he must try to puzzle out from his laconic, truncated conver sations with a few inhabitants. Understanding is made all the more difficult since exterior forces and events rarely have repercus sions here, and are of little importance in the lives of the townspeo ple.
Characters contrast their own predicament to the kind of life which they know exists outside their valley:? Y nosotros aqu? Des vivi? PP, p. The immobility which they recognize and tacitly ac cept forms a strong contrast to the determination, energy and dar ing of epic heroes like Aeneas, Odysseus, Vasco da Gama and even Dante's Ulysses, who exhorts his men to sail beyond the known limits of the earth, telling them they are not brutes, but were made?
InfernoXXVl, , qualities singularly lacking among the Comalans. Like many epics Camoes' Os Lusiadas and Ercilla's La Araucana, for instance , Rulfo's work is a tale of conquest-albeit local conquest-of establishing an empire, of the imposition of an order, of the This content downloaded from TC, 7,3 homogenization of a people under a single leader, and the establishment of a ruling house, a short-lived dynasty.
The Co malans' destiny is inextricably linked to that of their chief, Pedro P? He is the rock on which the town is built: The pater patrias as well as the biological father of many of the inhabitants.
When he acts to seize power, the entire town suffers; when he gives up on life, the town decays and dies. Preciado's journey to the underworld follows a pattern familiar in epic literature. Like Odysseus, Aeneas, Dante, and other epic heroes, he descends into a hellish atmosphere, converses with the spirits there, and asks them for information about themselves and others they have known.
The disjointed and in conclusive text we receive constitutes the Comalan epos. It en dures not because it portrays exemplary behavior or is of any guiding importance, but because of the events' persistence in local memory-the characters' inability to release the past.
Since it stands as a historical example, the heroic epic is necessarily concerned with morality, with definition and represen tation of proper behavior in difficult circumstances, and with the processes of overcoming human error and frailty.
Partly because it recalls such models from history, the epic merits repetition to posterity. The text itself is part of an infinite series of mnemonic repetitions of past events-repetitions so vivid for some characters Susana San Juan, for instance , that they are actually relived.
Yet the Comalans have no method of explaining or incor porating individual or collective experience. Their partial and fragmentary reconstructions of the past through individual memory in no way constitute a system of collection, evaluation and interpretation which could be called an intelligible, synthetic history.
History here is but a grouping of local events, linked mainly by their common instigator, Pedro P? Only two nation al, Mexican movements are even mentioned in the text-a passing reference to the Cristeros revolt that provides a means of dating Pedro Paramo's death, and a brief, heterodox reflection of the na tion's most important political event of the twentieth century, its Revolution.
Although it is often discussed among the novels of the Mexican Revolution, Pedro P? For Rulfo, unlike other novelists who deal with the revolution, does not investigate or question its nature, its processes, its real effects, or the personages who made it; by neglecting the Revolution he shows it is of no consequence to the world he creates.
Carlos Blanco Aguinaga has said that most of Rulfo's characters do not exist in historical terms; 19 for them, there is no division between pre- and pro-Revolutionary periods, just as there is little difference between life and death.
As suggested earlier, Preciado's journey in many ways parallels Dante's into Hell, but C? As Dante's sinners know nothing of the punishments in circles other than their own, so the residents of C? Donis' unnamed sister lives in concubinage with her brother, and describes herself as a sea of mud, recalling Dante's? Inferno VII, All function imper fectly: Dante's condemned, with mud in their throats, can only approximate complete speech-? Inferno VII, , while Rulfo's pair of unforgiven sinners can recollect, but can only approximate cogitation or judgment.
TC, 7,3 epic motif of the visit to the underworld. In Homer's, Virgil's, Dante's and Ercilla's works, among others, the hero descends into the underworld in order that truth? Preciado also seeks such information, but this is impossible to obtain in C?
Similarly, the epic's representation of the underworld as a place antithetical to the cir cumstances and limitations of quotidian life is destroyed here, for C?
Thus there exists no possibility for the sense of relief and accomplishment upon depar ting which characterizes Dante's moving from the City of Dis out into the open skies of Purgatory, Aeneas' leaving the river Styx for the shores of the Tiber, or Ercilla's departing Fit? The hero's role is here reduced from transcendence to entrapment. Unlike the epic heroes who visit the underworld to observe, question, listen, and then pass on with new understanding, Juan Preciado remains in C?
He is trapped in the underworld in which he sought revelation. The Comalans' immutable suffering links them to the under world figures found by Aeneas and, of course, by Dante.
The Comalans are condemned for a major sin of omission? They most resemble Dante's sinners who lived? Inferno III, 36 , the pusillanimous who disregarded opportunity and missed their callings in life. Like the Comalans, these sinners are fully dead. Virgil explains to Dante that? Inferno III, 46 , since they never really lived? Inferno III, In life these souls never fulfilled their potential, and now neither Heaven nor Hell will receive them. The Comalans suffer a more horrible and unnatural punishment; they are condemned to continue sinning repeatedly, and apparently eter nally, through memory.
Thus the possibilities of redemption and justification central to all epic literature are denied here, and the This content downloaded from Salvation is impossible.
Pedro, Peter, the rock of the church, is also Lucifer; C? IV The epic story, particularly of the oral tradition, is known to its audience; it is part of the collective memory and received culture of a given people. The ritual act of retelling the epic reaffirms its importance and its truth. Rulfo's story, too, represents a repetition-the townpeople's retelling of their individual histories, their only activity-but there is no agreement on the validity of the information conveyed.
The Comalans' ideas conflict and their in terpretations clash, and no single mind filters, interprets, and organizes the presentation of events.
Tillyard speaks of the epic writer's own heroic effort, of his? Incident and anecdote are minimized in im portance because the reader learns in the book's first section that Pedro P? The resolution of the?
His vague impressions, haltingly ex pressed, are not wrong: the lack of noise and voices, the houses in vaded by weeds, the empty echo of his footfall all make him think the town is dead. As our interpreter of the Comalan world, with his limited powers of understanding and representation, Juan Preciado counterposes himself to the omniscient, or nearly omniscient, nar This content downloaded from TC, 7,3 rators of the great epic literature. Even first person narrators, like Dante and Ercilla, possess a scope of knowledge, an accumulation of details, and an understanding of the epic project which imparts a sense of omniscience, whether this is truly the case or not.
Preciado, on the other hand, knows little more about this strange world of C? Preciado's narration occupies barely one-fifth of the whole narrative; the rest is simply conversation or monologue overheard by him, or is information presented imper sonally.
Preciado tries to organize his material, beginning from the outset of his adventure,? Aristotelian components of a plot. Nor can we say that the story is? This, then, is a story without limits, and any boundaries set on it are not dictated by the resolution of the community's problems, or by the artistic conception of the narrator, but are those of an editor or the author himself , who simply ends the text at a convenient point.
In the epic, the past is used to illuminate the present: by its convention the Aeneid exists to explain the struggle to found Rome. Rejecting the Homeric example of beginning in the middle of the story, and the linear construction of certain Renaissance epics e.
Ercilla's La Araucana , Rulfo's work be gins post terminum, after the action has taken place, and exists only in fragmentary recollection of a people which has all but died out. The confusion of chronology and sequence renders mean ingless Pedro Paramo's use of the standard epical of foreshadow ing. In the epic this artifice, by which uncertain future cir cumstances are clarified, is used both to help the epic hero better understand his mission, and to convince the reader of the veracity of the text itself.
By predicting what is later to come true come true in the epic story, or in history-that is, the reader's or listener's received extra-literary knowledge , the epic confirms itself and the validity of its information. In other instances its effect is undercut because the infor mation content of the foreshadowing is never fully revealed, or it is not revealed until after the incident which it adumbrates has been recounted.
The revelations have little meaning for characters or readers; rather, they emphasize the story's lack of traditional ar tistic shaping, its haphazard presentation. On its surface, Preciado's quest seems to follow epic patterns: he must leave his home, journey to unknown territory, seek out strangers and discover their secrets in order to learn about himself, his background and his people. But the predominant idea in Pedro P?
When Preciado says? Preciado speaks out of fear; he wants to move back to the world of living, but it is too late. Although he is far more ambitious than they, Pedro Paramo is as unheroic as the other Comalans. Instead of leading his subjects, Pedro P? He kills Comalans ac tively, in retribution for his father's murder, and passively?? As motives are confused, results lose their meaning. Pedro's father Lucas dies by mistake; his killers were seeking another man.
Later, Pedro P? In retaliation he kills off the entire town. That is, in a reversal of the epic's affirmation of human life, Pedro P? In another ironic distortion of purposeful heroism, Pedro P?
The archetypal myth of the son's rising up against the father to usurp power and to restore vigorous leadership is totally lost. Pedro Paramo's end and the text's are one and the This content downloaded from TC, 7,3 same. The cornerstone of C?